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Cloud Computing

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Cloud Computing Cloud and security * * General Security Challenges Security/data control is the most often cited issue with migration to the cloud Issues include ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cloud Computing


1
Cloud Computing
2
Definition
  • Cloud computing is a pay-per-use model for
    enabling available, convenient, on-demand network
    access to a shared pool of configurable computing
    resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage,
    applications, services) that can be rapidly
    provisioned and released with minimal management
    effort or service provider interaction. This
    cloud model promotes availability.

3
What is cloud computing?
  • I dont understand what we would do differently
    in the light of Cloud Computing other than change
    the wordings of some of our ads
  • Larry Ellision, Oracles CEO
  • I have not heard two people say the same thing
    about it cloud. There are multiple definitions
    out there of the cloud
  • Andy Isherwood, HPs Vice President of European
    Software Sales
  • Its stupidity. Its worse than stupidity its a
    marketing hype campaign.
  • Richard Stallman, Free Software Foundation founder

4
The Big Switch (N. Carr)
  • Thesis IT will follow the same evolution as
    electricity
  • Initially businesses had their own generators but
    this consolidated towards centralised providers
    of generation/distribution
  • Is the cloud the end of high-end PC? IT business
    network?
  • Why build your own network if you can use a cloud
    based network

5
Business attributes
  • Access resources from cloud of available
    computing resources
  • Is always available and scales automatically to
    meet demand
  • Is pay per use Based on resources consumed
  • Enables full customer self-service
  • Note Can be provided by 3rd party (e.g. Amazon)
    or on own network for v. large organisations
    (a.k.a private cloud)
  • Acquire resources on demand
  • Release resources when no longer needed
  • Turns capital investment/fixed cost into
    operating costs/variable costs
  • Reduced cost take advantage of economies of
    scale across users of cloud

6
Technology attributes
  • Access computing resources via Internet protocols
    from any computer
  • Reduced system administration overhead automated
    provisioning
  • Increased/matched reliability and security
  • Acquire resources on demand
  • Increased utilisation through sharing of
    resources through virtualisation or multi-tenancy
  • To minimise the cost to the provider, clouds rely
    on a large number of commodity processors.
    These are cheaper to purchase and consumer less
    power per unit of processing when compared to
    high power processors
  • No longer design deployment environment to meet
    maximum load

7
The NIST Cloud Definition Framework
Deployment Models
Service Models
Essential Characteristics
Massive Scale
Resilient Computing
Homogeneity
Geographic Distribution
Common Characteristics
Based upon original chart created by Alex Dowbor
- http//ornot.wordpress.com
8
The NIST Cloud Definition Framework
  • OS Virtualisation leads directly to resilient
    computing, rapid elasticity and advanced security
  • In case of VM based cloud, facilitates measured
    service as hypervisor tracks usage
  • Multi-tenancy provides rapid elasticity

On Demand Self-Service
Essential Characteristics
Broad Network Access
Rapid Elasticity
Resource Pooling
Measured Service
Massive Scale
Resilient Computing
Homogeneity
Geographic Distribution
Common Characteristics
Virtualization
Service Orientation
Low Cost Software
Advanced Security
Based upon original chart created by Alex Dowbor
- http//ornot.wordpress.com
9
The NIST Cloud Definition Framework
  • A number of other attributes rely on the scale of
    investment undertaken by cloud providers
  • Early cloud promoters (e.g. Amazon Google) had
    to build massive scale for their main businesses
  • Use of open source software and commodity
    hardware reduces overall cost to cloud provider

On Demand Self-Service
Essential Characteristics
Broad Network Access
Rapid Elasticity
Resource Pooling
Measured Service
Massive Scale
Resilient Computing
Homogeneity
Geographic Distribution
Common Characteristics
Virtualization
Service Orientation
Low Cost Software
Advanced Security
Based upon original chart created by Alex Dowbor
- http//ornot.wordpress.com
10
4 Cloud Deployment Models
  • Private cloud
  • Cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an
    organization. It may be managed by the
    organization or a third party and may exist on
    premise or off premise
  • Typically only large organisations
  • Public cloud
  • Cloud infrastructure is made available to the 3rd
    parties but is owned by an organization selling
    cloud services
  • Cloud services designed to be generic and
    suitable to all customers
  • E.g. Amazon, Google, Microsoft, BM etc

11
4 Cloud Deployment Models
  • Community cloud
  • Cloud infrastructure is shared by several
    organizations and supports a specific community
    that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security
    requirements, policy, and compliance
    considerations)
  • May be managed by the organizations or a third
    party and may exist on premise or off premise
  • Hybrid cloud
  • composition of two or more clouds that remain
    unique and separate entities but are bound
    together by standardized or proprietary
    technology that enables data and application
    portability
  • Cloud bursting is the term used to describe the
    process where an organisation extend from a
    private to public cloud

12
Client access architecture
  • Client access via browser of Web Services
  • Independent of type of cloud computing

VM
Platform
App 1
App server
Or
Clients
Access via Browser Or web-service (SOAP or REST)
DB
OS
Network
Storage
13
Service model architecture
Software As A Service (SaaS)
Datastore as a service
Platform As A Service (PaaS)
Infrastructure As A Service (IaaS)
  • Four main service model architectures
  • Datastore as a service is not always included
    although currently the most popular use of cloud
  • Significant differences in the technical and
    commercial architectures

14
Service model architecture Datastorage as a
servce
Software As A Service (SaaS)
Datastore as a service
Platform As A Service (PaaS)
Infrastructure As A Service (IaaS)
  • Functional Data storage interfaces can be used
    by any of the other types or accessed directly
  • Examples of direct usage Amazons really simple
    storage
  • Commercial Charged on basis of amount of
    storage used

15
Characteristics of cloud datastore
  • Cloud based datastore is massively distributed
    and scalable
  • Utilises large number of commodity servers
    (a.k.a. nodes)
  • This implies that the chance of system failure
    across a large number of nodes is high
  • Therefore, cloud datastore must cope with node
    failure
  • Cloud datastores are typically non-relational
  • Distribution across a large number of nodes not a
    good fit to the relational model of databases.
    Relational databases support joins which are
    hard to implement in a massively distributed way
  • To address requirement for relational database
    capabilities
  • Either provide relational interfaces to
    non-relational infrastructure
  • Allow relational databases to run on a small
    number of nodes as part of the virtualisation

16
Characteristics of cloud datastore
  • Cloud datastores are optimised for large scale
    data search
  • E.g. Googles MapReduce (and hadoop an open
    source implementation) which divide the
    processing into multiple blocks (Map) and then
    process each block on one or more nodes (reduce)
  • Cloud datastores are also appropriate to business
    intelligence applications which require column
    based processing
  • E.g. Summing sales in a particular region
  • In contrast, relational databases are efficient
    for record/row level read/write

17
Service model architecture IaaS
Software As A Service (SaaS)
Datastore as a service
Platform As A Service (PaaS)
Infrastructure As A Service (IaaS)
  • Functional Virtual server instances available
    for provisioning
  • Examples Amazons EC2,
  • Commercial Charged on basis of number /scale of
    instances as well as usage profile

18
Example Amazon EC2
  • Amazon provides a range of general purpose
    support services accessible via VMs
  • Examples of these services include
  • Simple Queue Service Limited messaging system
    for communications between VMs
  • S3 Cloud storage service

19
Example Amazon EC2
  • Other examples of these services (cont)
  • SimpleDB Non-relational database
  • Elastic MapReduce large scale search and text
    processing infrastructure
  • Flexible payment service enabling website
    payments
  • Mechanical Turk outsourcing marketplace

20
Amazon EC2 options and pricing
  • Aws.amazon.com/ec2

21
Service model architecture PaaS
Software As A Service (SaaS)
Datastore as a service
Platform As A Service (PaaS)
Infrastructure As A Service (IaaS)
  • Functional Application development and
    deployment environment
  • Provides programming APIs as well as underlying
    infrastructure
  • Commercial Metering and billing based on
    application usage typically CPU
    consumption/datastore consumption

22
Example Google AppEngine
  • Platform uses multiple tenancy on the single
    infrastructure
  • Benefit of charging only on usage and not on
    number of instance (as with IaaS)
  • Provides general purpose support services
  • Includes infrastructure services such as database
  • Also includes application level interfaces such
    as video conferencing
  • Provides both server and client side APIs to
    develop Google AppEngine applications
  • Provides a platform which is proprietary

23
Example Microsoft Azure Services
  • Access to the Microsoft platform as a cloud based
    platform
  • Provides a platform which is proprietary

Source Microsoft Presentation, A Lap Around
Windows Azure, Manuvir Das
24
Service model architecture SaaS
Software As A Service (SaaS)
Datastore as a service
Platform As A Service (PaaS)
Infrastructure As A Service (IaaS)
  • Functional End user interaction with the
    Applications function
  • Allows for customisation of UI and workflows
  • Often uses mult-tenancy databases
  • Commercial typically billing based on number of
    users

25
Example Salesforce.com
  • Provides complete application accessible from the
    cloud
  • Infrastructure is hidden from the user
  • Software can be configured to support customer
    specific requirements
  • Supports customisation through configuration
    driven language
  • Scope for customisation is limited
  • Uses multi-tenancy architecture
  • Essential a platform for a specific class of
    application
  • Configuration results in a change to both UI and
    underlying database schema for that customer

26
Examples of configuration
  • UI actions (such as entering an email address)
    can have customised scripts associated with them
    which perform workflow or validation logic
  • Workflow defines the sequence of steps through
    the UI screens
  • Validation logic enforces rules about information
    entered based on customer specific standards or
    context specific restraints (i.e. What can be
    entered given the current workflow)
  • These may not effect the database schema
    definition and therefore can be deployed only to
    that customers UI

27
Examples of configuration
  • UI definitions (or associated workflows) may also
    require modifications/extensions to the database
    schema
  • Through multi-tenancy/multi-schema approach, the
    metadata defining the schemas specific to that
    customer is modified without impacting on the
    baseschema or the other customers deployed
    schemas

28
Different types of SaaS
  • Type 1 Ad-Hoc/Custom
  • Type 2 Configurable
  • Type 3 Configurable, Multi-Tenant-Efficient
  • Type 4 Scalable, Configurable,
    Multi-Tenant-Efficient

28
Source Microsoft MSDN Architecture Center
29
Different types of SaaS
  • Type 1 Ad-Hoc/Custom
  • Each customer (or tenant) has there own instance
    of the application which can be customised on an
    individual basis
  • Level 1 SaaS is equivalent to application hosting

29
30
Different types of SaaS
  • Type 2 Configurable
  • A single application base is customised for each
    customer/tenant
  • Customisation is deployed within each instance of
    the application
  • Deployment of upgrades across the instance will
    require roll-out to each instance

30
31
Different types of SaaS
  • Type 3 Configurable, Multi-Tenant-Efficient
  • A single application base and instance is
    customised for each customer/tenant
  • Customisation is deployed at run-time within each
    instance of the application
  • Single instance is more resource efficient than
    multiple instances
  • Deployment of upgrades made to a single instance

31
32
Different types of SaaS
  • Type 4 Scalable, Configurable,
    Multi-Tenant-Efficient
  • Uses a tenant load balancer to balance load
    between multiple instances
  • Similar to a hypervisor
  • Should provide superior scalability and
    efficiency
  • Requires deployment of upgrades to made to
    multiple instances

32
33
Conclusions Understanding the different service
model architectures
  • Different levels of abstraction
  • OS Amazon EC2
  • Application development framework Google
    AppEngine
  • Applicaton customisation Salesforce
  • Similar to languages
  • Higher level abstractions can be built on top of
    lower ones

Lower-level, More flexibility, More
management Scalability through configuration
Higher-level, Less flexibility, Less
management Automatically scalable
Salesforce.com
EC2
Azure
AppEngine
IAAS
PAAS
SAAS
34
Cloud and security
35
General Security Challenges
  • Security/data control is the most often cited
    issue with migration to the cloud
  • Issues include
  • Trusting vendors security model
  • Customer inability to respond to audit findings
    (dependent on service provider to modify service)
  • Obtaining support for investigations
  • Indirect administrator accountability
  • Proprietary implementations cant be examined
  • Loss of physical control

36
Cloud Security Challenges Part 1
  • Data dispersal and international privacy laws
  • EU Data Protection Directive and U.S. Safe Harbor
    program
  • Exposure of data to foreign government and data
    subpoenas
  • Data retention issues
  • Mostly addressed by cloud vendor providing
    geographic specific services
  • Clear data ownership
  • Quality of service guarantees
  • Reliability of cloud service providers service
    in the context of enterprise level quality of
    service commitments (typically with required
    recovery times in seconds or minutes)
  • Potential for massive outages

37
Cloud Security Challenges Part 2
  • Dependence on secure hypervisors (for IaaS) or
    Multi-tenancy (in both PaaS and SaaS)
  • Attraction to hackers (high value target)
  • Security of virtual OSs in the cloud
  • Encryption needs for cloud computing
  • Encrypting access to the cloud resource control
    interface
  • Encrypting administrative access to OS instances
  • Encrypting access to applications
  • Encrypting application data at rest
  • Lack of public SaaS version control
  • Changes to the service may occur with out
    explicit agreement from the customer unlike
    tightly controlled lifecycle management within an
    enterprise
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