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Ergonomics Awareness

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Reviewed by K Obarr 10/2011 Reviewed by W Lagoe 10/2011 ... * (photo from www.osha.gov - poultry processing eTool) * (www.osha.gov Ergonomic Guidelines for ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ergonomics Awareness


1
  • Ergonomics Awareness

2
Objectives
  • In this course, we will discuss the following
  • Definition of ergonomics
  • Workplace problems, injuries, and losses due to
    ergonomic issues
  • Types, signs and symptoms, and risk factors of
    musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)
  • Common ergonomic stressors
  • Techniques to combat these stressors
  • NCDOL OSH Division perspective on ergonomics

3
Definitions
  • Ergonomics
  • Greek derivation
  • Ergo (work)
  • Nomos (law)
  • Interfacing man, machine and environment to
    optimize safety, productivity, and comfort
  • Fitting the task to the human

4
Workplace Problems and Losses
  • Increased discomfort, pain, injury, or illness
  • Workers compensation costs
  • Lost or restricted work time
  • Short- or long-term disability
  • Increased absenteeism
  • Greater turnover
  • Low morale
  • Decreased productivity and/or quality

5
Musculoskeletal System
  • Bones - Provide structure, support, and
    protection
  • Muscles - Expand and contract to move bones
  • Tendons - Connect muscle to bone
  • Ligaments - Connect bone to bone

6
Musculoskeletal System
  • Cartilage - Provides cushioning and lubrication
  • Bursa - Fluid-filled sac that lubricates and
    cushions between points of friction
  • Vertebrae bones that make up the spine
  • Discs shock absorbers for the spine

7
Other Important Components
  • Arteries and veins
  • Transport blood
  • Deliver oxygen
  • Remove waste
  • Nerves
  • Provide tactility, sensation
  • Provide feedback on pain and discomfort
  • Determine which muscles to used
  • Coordinate activities

8
Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs)
  • Damage or weakening of the musculoskeletal system
  • MSDs occur as an acute trauma or a cumulative
    trauma
  • Most common occupational problems include back
    strain and tendon disorders

9
Common Musculoskeletal Disorders
  • Tendinitis
  • Epicondylitis
  • De Quervains tendinitis
  • Bursitis
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Tenosynovitis
  • Thoracic outlet syndrome
  • Muscle strain

10
Types of Back Injuries
  • Ligament sprains
  • Muscle or tendon strains
  • Lumbar strain/sprain
  • Low back pain
  • Disc disorders

11
Signs and Symptoms of MSDs
  • Discomfort or pain
  • Numbness or tingling
  • Redness
  • Fullness, tightness, or swelling
  • Limited range of motion
  • Weakness (trouble holding objects)

Early reporting of symptoms and early treatment
may resolve problems without lost work time,
restricted activity, or surgery.
12
Conservative Treatment
  • Anti-inflammatory medication (Ibuprofen)
  • Rest affected body part
  • Ice
  • Heat
  • Work accommodations
  • Physical therapy

13
Ergonomic Stressors
  • Personal stressors
  • Force
  • Posture
  • Movement
  • Repetitive
  • Static
  • Environmental

14
Personal Stressors
  • Gender
  • Age
  • Smoking
  • Strength
  • Flexibility
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • Lack of fitness
  • Body size and shape
  • Alcoholism
  • Recreational activities
  • Insufficient sleep or recovery
  • Prior episode

15
Force
  • Forces
  • Lifting
  • Lowering
  • Pushing
  • Pulling
  • Contact force
  • Force is affected by
  • Object weight
  • Friction (pushing and pulling)
  • Tool shape and size

16
Posture
  • Neutral postures
  • Strongest mechanical advantage
  • Awkward postures
  • More prone to injury
  • Posture is affected by
  • Object shape and size
  • Object placement and location
  • Placement of workstation/equipment
  • Tool shape

17
Posture
  • Neutral postures
  • Standing with back straight
  • Sitting up straight
  • Arms to the side
  • Shoulders relaxed
  • Elbows in 90-degree bend
  • Wrists straight (handshake position)
  • Head facing straight forward

18
Posture
  • Proper lifting technique
  • Plan the lift and path
  • Check the weight of the load
  • Keep the load close to your body
  • Face the load, do not twist
  • Bend using your knees, not your back
  • Lift with your legs, not your back

19
Movement
  • Repetitive motions
  • Frequent and rapid muscular contractions
  • Limited recovery time
  • Static postures
  • Holding one position for long periods of time
  • Reduces blood flow
  • Movement is affected by
  • Work pace
  • Task variety

20
Environmental Stressors
  • Vibration
  • Can damage small blood vessels and nerves
  • Temperature
  • Physiological effects
  • Heat
  • Cold

21
Controlling Stressors
  • Hierarchy of Controls
  • Engineering controls
  • Eliminate hazard
  • Physically change workstation
  • Add equipment and tools
  • Redesign products
  • Administrative controls
  • Procedures to limit exposures to hazards
  • Work rules and techniques
  • Personal protective equipment
  • Are back belts and wrist braces PPE?

22
Controlling Stressors
  • Principles to consider when designing controls
  • Reduce force
  • Minimize weight that the employee must lift
  • Reduce friction when pushing/pulling

23
Controlling Stressors
  • Improve posture
  • Reduce reach distances
  • Choose appropriate tools
  • Vary motion
  • Avoid long-term static postures
  • Add variety to tasks
  • Avoid repetitive motions
  • Consider job rotation

24
Examples of Controls
25
Workstation Design
Preferred work zones
26
Reposition the work height
Workstation Design
27
Workstation Design
Store heavier items within close reach
28
Workstation Design
Anti-fatigue mats
29
Workstation Design
Sit-stand-lean stool
30
Workstation Design
Computer workstation and adjustable chair
  • Top of monitor at or just below eye level
  • Head and neck balanced and in-line with torso
  • Shoulders relaxed
  • Elbows close to body and supported
  • Lower back supported
  • Wrists and hands in-line with forearms
  • Adequate room for keyboard and mouse
  • Feet flat on the floor

31
Manual Material Handling
Use lift tables
32
Manual Material Handling
Use bins with spring loaded bottoms
33
Manual Material Handling
Vacuum lift assist
34
Manual Material Handling
Two-person lift
35
Manual Material Handling
Use carts
36
Manual Material Handling
Keep wheels well maintained
37
Handtools
Use power tools
38
Handtools
Use tool balancers
39
Handtools
Use power grip rather than pinch
40
Handtools
Choose appropriate tool design
41
Handtools
Add sleeves to tools with narrow handles
42
Handtools
Choose handtools with longer handles
43
Specialized Devices
Bent-handled knives
44
Specialized Devices
Powered sit-to-stand device
45
Specialized Devices
Height-adjustable bathtubs
46
Administrative Controls
  • Job rotation
  • Work hardening

47
NCDOL OSH Division Perspective
  • No ergonomics standard since 2001
  • North Carolina employers can still be cited for
    ergonomic violations
  • Current citations are issued under the General
    Duty Clause
  • FOM Chapter XVII
  • Phase one
  • Phase two
  • Phase three

48
Voluntary Guidelines
  • Voluntary ergonomic guidelines
  • Nursing homes
  • Retail grocery stores
  • Poultry processing
  • Shipyards
  • Meat packing
  • Furniture industry (NCDOL)

49
Ergonomics Program Elements
  • Management commitment
  • Employee involvement
  • Training
  • Workplace analysis
  • Prevention and control measures
  • Medical management
  • Program evaluation

50
Industry-Specific eTools
  • Electrical contractors
  • Baggage handling
  • Beverage delivery
  • Computer workstations
  • Grocery warehousing
  • Healthcare
  • Poultry processing
  • Printing
  • Sewing

www.osha.gov
51
Additional Resources
  • NCDOL
  • http//www.nclabor.com/osha/etta/A_to_Z_Topics/erg
    onomics.htm
  • Federal OSHA
  • http//www.osha.gov/SLTC/ergonomics/
  • NIOSH
  • http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/ergonomics/

52
Objectives
  • In this course, we discussed the following
  • Definition of ergonomics
  • Workplace problems, injuries, and losses due to
    ergonomic issues
  • Types, signs and symptoms, and risk factors of
    musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)
  • Common ergonomic stressors
  • Techniques to combat these stressors
  • NCDOL OSH Division perspective on ergonomics

53
Thank You For Attending!
  • Final Questions?

1-800-NC-LABOR (1-800-625-2267) www.nclabor.com
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