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Essentials of Fire Fighting and Fire Department Operations,

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Title: Essentials of Fire Fighting and Fire Department Operations,


1
  • Essentials of Fire Fighting and Fire Department
    Operations,
  • 5th Edition

Chapter 23 Operations at Haz Mat
Incidents Firefighter I
2
Chapter 23 Lesson Goal
  • After completing this lesson, the student shall
    be able to summarize the basic operations at haz
    mat and terrorist incidents and perform emergency
    decontamination and defensive procedures
    following the policies and procedures set forth
    by the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ).

3
Specific Objectives
  • 1. Summarize incident priorities for all haz mat
    and terrorist incidents.
  • 2. Discuss the management structure at haz mat
    or terrorist incidents.
  • 3. Describe the problem-solving stages at haz
    mat and terrorist incidents.

(Continued)
4
Specific Objectives
  • 4. Explain how the strategic goal of isolation
    and scene control is achieved.
  • 5. Explain how the strategic goal of
    notification is achieved.

(Continued)
5
Specific Objectives
  • 6. Explain how the strategic goal of ensuring
    the safety of responders and the public is
    achieved.
  • 7. Summarize general guidelines for
    decontamination operations.
  • 8. Describe the three types of decontamination.

(Continued)
6
Specific Objectives
  • 9. Discuss implementing decontamination.
  • 10. Discuss rescue at haz mat incidents.
  • 11. Explain how the strategic goal of spill
    control and confinement is achieved.

(Continued)
7
Specific Objectives
  • 12. Discuss crime scene management and evidence
    preservation.
  • 13. Explain actions taken during the recovery
    and termination phase of a haz mat or terrorist
    incident.
  • 14. Perform emergency decontamination. (Skill
    Sheet 23-I-1)

(Continued)
8
Specific Objectives
  • 15. Perform defensive control functions
    Absorption. (Skill Sheet 23-I-2)
  • 16. Perform defensive control functions
    Diking. (Skill Sheet 23-I-3)
  • 17. Perform defensive control functions
    Damming. (Skill Sheet 23-I-4)

(Continued)
9
Specific Objectives
  • 18. Perform defensive control functions
    Diversion. (Skill Sheet 23-I-5)
  • 19. Perform defensive control functions
    Retention. (Skill Sheet 23-I-6)

(Continued)
10
Specific Objectives
  • 20. Perform defensive control functions
    Dilution. (Skill Sheet 23-I-7)
  • 21. Perform defensive control functions Vapor
    dispersion. (Skill Sheet 23-I-8)

11
Incident Priorities
  • Life safety
  • Incident stabilization
  • Protection of property

12
Management Structure
  • Firefighters will initiate/operate within their
    standard incident command system at haz mat
    incidents may be some differences from other
    incidents
  • Firefighters must operate in accordance with
    predetermined procedures

(Continued)
13
Management Structure
  • According to 29 CFR 1910.120, Hazardous Waste
    Operations and Emergency Response, all
    organizations that respond to haz mat incidents
    are required to have an emergency response plan

14
Four Elements of Problem-Solving, Decision-Making
Models
  • Information gathering, input, analysis stage
  • Processing and/or planning stage
  • Implementation or output stage
  • Review or evaluation stage

15
Analyzing the Situation
Courtesy of Tom Clawson, Technical Resources
Group, Inc.
  • Size-up
  • Incident levels

16
Planning Appropriate Response
  • Strategic goals and tactical objectives
  • Modes of operation
  • Incident action plans

17
Implementing the IAP
  • After strategic goals have been selected and IAP
    formulate, the IC can implement the plan
  • Strategic goals are met by achieving tactical
    objectives
  • Tactical objectives accomplished or conducted by
    performing specific tasks

18
Reviewing or Evaluating Progress
  • Final aspect of problem-solving process
  • If IAP is effective, IC should receive favorable
    progress and incident should begin to stabilize

(Continued)
19
Reviewing or Evaluating Progress
  • If mitigation efforts failing or situation
    getting worse, plan must be reevaluated and
    possibly revised
  • Plan must be reevaluated as new information
    becomes available/circumstances change

(Continued)
20
Reviewing or Evaluating Progress
  • If initial plan not working, must be changed by
    selecting new strategies or changing tactics used
    to achieve

21
Isolation and Scene Control
  • One of primary strategic goals at haz mat
    incidents one of most important means by which
    responders can ensure safety of themselves/others
  • Separating people from potential source of harm
    necessary to protect life safety of all

(Continued)
22
Isolation and Scene Control
  • Necessary to prevent spread of hazardous
    materials through cross contamination
  • Isolation involves physically securing/maintaining
    emergency scene by establishing isolation
    perimeters and denying entry to unauthorized
    persons

23
Isolation Perimeter
  • Boundary established to prevent access by public
    and unauthorized persons
  • May be established before the type of
    incident/attack is positively identified

(Continued)
24
Isolation Perimeter
  • If incident is inside a building, isolation
    perimeter might be set at outside entrance,
    accomplished by posting personnel to deny entry

(Continued)
25
Isolation Perimeter
  • If incident is outside, perimeter might be set at
    surrounding intersections with response
    vehicles/law enforcement officers diverting
    traffic and pedestrians

(Continued)
26
Isolation Perimeter
  • Isolation perimeter can be expanded/reduced as
    needed used to control both access and egress
    from scene

(Continued)
27
Isolation Perimeter
  • Law enforcement officers are often used to
    establish and maintain isolation perimeters
  • Once hazard-control zones are established,
    isolation perimeter is generally considered to be
    boundary between public and cold (safe) zone

28
Hazard-Control Zones
29
Additional Zones
  • Additional areas may be required
  • Decontamination zone
  • Area of safe refuge
  • Staging area
  • Rehabilitation area
  • Triage/treatment area

30
Notification Process
  • Emergency response plans must ensure responders
    understand their role in notification processes
    and predetermined procedures

(Continued)
31
Notification Process
  • Notification may be as simple as dialing 9-1-1
    (in North America) to report an incident and get
    additional help dispatched

(Continued)
32
Notification Process
  • Strategic goal of notification may also include
    such items as incident-level identification and
    public emergency information/notification

(Continued)
33
Notification Process
  • Better to dispatch more resources than necessary
    in an initial response to ensure appropriate
    weight of attack to combat incident conditions

34
Other Agencies
  • Notification involves contacting law enforcement
    whenever a terrorist or criminal incident is
    suspected
  • Notify other agencies that an incident has
    occurred

(Continued)
35
Other Agencies
  • Procedures will differ between military and
    civilian agencies as well as from country to
    country
  • Always follow SOPs/OIs and emergency response
    plans for notification procedures

36
Process for Notification
  • Because some haz mat incidents and terrorist
    attacks have potential to overwhelm local
    responders, it is important to know how to
    request additional resources

(Continued)
37
Process for Notification
  • Process should be spelled out through local,
    district, regional, state, national emergency
    response plans

(Continued)
38
Process for Notification
  • In the U.S., notification process is spelled out
    in National Response Plan (NRP) all local,
    state, federal emergency response plans must
    comply with these provisions

(Continued)
39
Process for Notification
  • Local emergency response plan (LERP) should be
    first resource a responder in U.S. should turn to
    if they need to request outside assistance

40
Protection
  • Overall goal of ensuring safety of responders and
    public
  • Includes measures taken to protect property and
    environment
  • Accomplished through various tactics

41
Protection of Responders
  • First priority at any incident
  • Accountability systems
  • Buddy systems
  • Evacuation/escape procedures
  • Safety Officers

42
Protection of the Public
  • Includes isolating area and denying entry,
    conducting rescues, performing mass
    decontamination, providing emergency medical
    care/first aid
  • Evacuation
  • Sheltering in place
  • Protecting/defending in place

43
Decontamination Operations
  • Performed at haz mat incidents to remove
    hazardous materials from victims, PPE, tools,
    equipment, anything else that has been
    contaminated
  • Done to reduce contamination to a level that is
    no longer harmful

(Continued)
44
Decontamination Operations
  • Prevent harmful exposures and reduce or eliminate
    spread of contaminants outside hot zone
  • Provides victims with psychological reassurance

45
Determining Factors for Type of Decontamination
Operation
  • Size of incident
  • Type of hazardous materials involved
  • Weather
  • Personnel available
  • Variety of other factors

46
Decontamination Rules
  • Basic principles
  • Get it off
  • Keep it off
  • Contain it
  • Other decon rules

47
Emergency Decontamination
  • Removing contamination on individuals in
    potentially life-threatening situation with or
    without formal establishment of decontamination
    corridor

(Continued)
48
Emergency Decontamination
  • Can consist of anything from removing
    contaminated clothing to flushing a person with
    water

49
Emergency Decon Implementation
  • Goal
  • May be necessary for victims and rescuers
  • Victims may need immediate medical treatment
  • Several situations in which it may be needed

(Continued)
50
Emergency Decon Implementation
  • Quick fix
  • Removal of all contaminants may not occur
  • Can harm environment
  • Procedures may differ depending on
    circumstances/hazards present

51
Mass Decontamination
  • Conducting rapid decontamination of multiple
    people at one time

(Continued)
52
Mass Decontamination
  • May be conducted with or without formal decon
    corridor usually involves removing clothing and
    flushing individuals with large quantities of
    water

53
Mass Decon Implementation
  • Mass decon is physical process of rapidly
    reducing/removing contaminants from multiple
    persons in potentially life-threatening
    situations, with or without formal establishment
    of decon corridor

(Continued)
54
Mass Decon Implementation
  • Initiated when number of victims/time constraints
    do not allow establishment of in-depth
    decontamination process
  • Availability of ideal solutions in sufficient
    quantities cannot always be insured

(Continued)
55
Mass Decon Implementation
  • Can be most readily/effectively established with
    simple water shower system
  • Recommended that all victims undergoing mass
    decon remove underclothing at least down to
    undergarments

(Continued)
56
Mass Decon Implementation
  • To prioritize, responders must consider factors
    related to medical triage/decontamination
  • Triage
  • Ambulatory victims
  • Nonambulatory victims

57
Technical Decontamination
  • Using chemical/physical methods to thoroughly
    remove contaminants from responders/their
    equipment
  • May also be used on incident victims in
    non-life-threatening situations

(Continued)
58
Technical Decontamination
  • Normally conducted within formal decon line
  • Type/scope determined by contaminants

59
Technical Decon Implementation
  • Absorption
  • Adsorption
  • Brushing and scraping
  • Chemical degradation
  • Dilution
  • Neutralization

(Continued)
60
Technical Decon Implementation
  • Sanitation, disinfection, sterilization
  • Solidification
  • Vacuuming
  • Washing
  • Evaporation
  • Isolation and disposal

61
Decon Implementation Considerations
  • Appropriate site must be selected
  • Number of stations/setup of corridor or line must
    be decided
  • Methods for collecting evidence must be
    determined
  • Termination procedures must be followed

62
Site Selection Factors
  • Accessibility
  • Terrain/surface material
  • Lighting/electrical supply
  • Drains/waterways
  • Water supply
  • Weather

63
Decon Corridor Layout
  • Establish decontamination corridor before
    performing any work in hot zone
  • First responders are often involved with setting
    up and working in decontamination corridor

(Continued)
64
Decon Corridor Layout
(Continued)
65
Decon Corridor Layout
  • Types of decontamination corridors vary as to
    numbers of sections or steps used in
    decontamination process
  • Emergency responders must understand process and
    be trained in setting up type of decontamination
    required by different materials

(Continued)
66
Decon Corridor Layout
  • Decontamination corridor may be identified with
    barrier tape, safety cones, other items that are
    visually recognizable
  • How firefighters are protected when working in
    the decontamination area depends on hazards of
    the material

67
Cold Weather Decon
  • Conducting wet decon operations in freezing
    weather can be difficult to execute safely
  • Run-off water can quickly turn to ice

(Continued)
68
Cold Weather Decon
  • If pre-warmed water is not available, susceptible
    individuals can suffer cold shock or hypothermia
  • If temperatures are 64 degrees or lower,
    consideration should be given to protecting
    victims from cold

69
Rescue at Haz Mat Incidents
  • Due to potential of extreme hazards at haz mat
    incidents and defensive nature of actions at
    Operations Level, rescue can be a difficult
    strategy to implement for firefighters,
    particularly in initial stages of a response

(Continued)
70
Rescue at Haz Mat Incidents
  • Search and rescue attempts must be made within
    framework of incident action plan with
    appropriate PPE, backup personnel, other safety
    considerations in place

(Continued)
71
Rescue at Haz Mat Incidents
  • In many emergency incidents, rescue of victims is
    ICs first priority, but it is important to
    balance vulnerability of firefighters against
    lives of victims

(Continued)
72
Rescue at Haz Mat Incidents
  • Hesitation to rush into a situation to assist
    casualties may directly conflict with fire
    fighting strategic priority of rescue first as
    well as with many firefighters natural desire to
    help victims as quickly as possible

(Continued)
73
Rescue at Haz Mat Incidents
  • Because of dangers presented by hazardous
    materials, responders who rush to the rescue may
    quickly require the need to be rescued themselves

74
Factors to Consider
  • IC makes decisions about rescue based on a
    variety of factors at incident
  • Several factors affect the ability of personnel
    to perform a rescue
  • Decisions about rescue may differ depending on
    country and jurisdiction

(Continued)
75
Factors to Consider
  • Responders must understand what actions are
    appropriate for them given their SOPs, training,
    available equipment and resources

(Continued)
76
Factors to Consider
  • Without coming in contact with the hazardous
    material, Operations Level firefighters may
    perform a limited number of tasks with
    appropriate PPE

77
Spill Control and Confinement
  • Strategic goal of spill control involves
    controlling product that has already been
    released from its container

(Continued)
78
Spill Control and Confinement
  • Spill control minimizes amount of contact product
    makes with people, property, environment by
    limiting or confining the dispersion and/or
    reducing the amount of harm caused by contact
    with the material

(Continued)
79
Spill Control and Confinement
  • Tactics and tasks relating to spill control are
    determined by material involved and type of
    dispersion generally defensive in nature

(Continued)
80
Spill Control and Confinement
  • Main priority of spill control is confinement and
    prevention of further contamination or contact
    with hazardous material

81
Spill Control and Confinement
  • Firefighters trained to the Operations Level may
    perform spill-control activities as long as they
    do not come in contact with the product or have
    appropriate training and PPE

(Continued)
82
Spill Control and Confinement
  • Spill control is a defensive operation with most
    important issue being safety of the firefighters
    performing these actions

(Continued)
83
Spill Control and Confinement
  • Spills may involve gases, liquids, solids, and
    the product involved may be released into the
    air, into water, onto a surface such as ground or
    a bench top

84
Spill Control and Confinement Tactics
  • Hazardous materials may be confined by building
    dams or dikes near source, catching material in
    another container, directing flow to a remote
    location for collection

(Continued)
85
Spill Control and Confinement Tactics
  • Before using equipment to confine spilled
    materials, ICs need to seek advice from technical
    sources to determine if spilled materials will
    adversely affect the equipment

(Continued)
86
Spill Control and Confinement Tactics
  • Confinement is not restricted to controlling
    liquids dusts, vapors, and gases can also be
    confined

87
Absorption
  • Physical and/or chemical event occurring during
    contact between materials that have an attraction
    for each other
  • Results in one material being retained in other

(Continued)
88
Absorption
  • Some materials typically used as absorbents are
    sawdust, clays, charcoal, polyolefin-type fibers
  • Absorbent is spread directly onto hazardous
    material or in location where material is
    expected to flow

(Continued)
89
Absorption
  • After use, absorbents must be treated and
    disposed of as hazardous materials themselves
    because they retain the properties of materials
    they absorb

90
Blanketing/Covering
  • Involves blanketing or covering surface of spill
    to prevent dispersion of materials such as
    powders or dusts
  • Blanketing or covering of solids can be done with
    tarps, plastic sheeting, salvage covers, other
    materials

(Continued)
91
Blanketing/Covering
  • Blanketing of liquids is essentially same as
    vapor suppression
  • Operations-Level responders may or may not be
    allowed to perform blanketing/covering actions

92
Dam, Dike, Diversion, Retention
  • Ways to confine a hazardous material
  • Actions are taken to control flow of liquid
    hazardous materials away from point of discharge

(Continued)
93
Dam, Dike, Diversion, Retention
  • Firefighters can use available earthen materials
    or materials carried on their response vehicles
    to construct curbs that direct or divert the flow
    away from gutters, drains, storm sewers,
    flood-control channels, outfalls

94
Dilution
  • Application of water to a water-soluble material
    to reduce hazard
  • Dilution of liquid materials rarely has practical
    applications at haz mat incidents in terms of
    spill control dilution is often used during
    decontamination operations

(Continued)
95
Dilution
  • Amount of water needed to reach an effective
    dilution increases overall volume and creates a
    runoff problem

96
Dissolution
  • Process of dissolving a gas in water
  • Tactic can only be used on such water-soluble
    gases as anhydrous ammonia or chlorine generally
    conducted by applying fog stream to a breach in
    container or onto spill

97
Vapor Dispersion
  • Action taken to direct or influence course of
    airborne hazardous materials
  • Pressurized streams of water from hoselines or
    unattended master streams may be used to help
    disperse vapors

(Continued)
98
Vapor Dispersion
  • Streams create turbulence, which increases rate
    of mixing with air and reduces concentration of
    hazardous material

99
Vapor Suppression
  • Action taken to reduce emission of vapors at a
    haz mat spill
  • Fire fighting foams are effective on spills of
    flammable and combustible liquids if foam
    concentrate is compatible with material

(Continued)
100
Vapor Suppression
  • Water-miscible (capable of being mixed) materials
    destroy regular fire fighting foams require an
    alcohol-resistant foam agent

(Continued)
101
Vapor Suppression
  • Required application rate for applying foam to
    control an unignited liquid spill is
    substantially less than that required to
    extinguish a spill fire

102
Ventilation
  • Involves controlling movement of air by natural
    or mechanical means
  • Used to remove and/or disperse harmful airborne
    particles, vapors, gases when spills occur inside
    structures

(Continued)
103
Ventilation
  • Same ventilation techniques used for smoke
    removal can be used for haz mat incidents

104
Leak Control and Containment
  • A leak involves the physical breach in a
    container through which product is escaping
  • Goal of leak control is to stop or limit escape
    or contain release either in original container
    or by transferring to a new one

(Continued)
105
Leak Control and Containment
  • Type of container involved, type of breach,
    properties of material determine tactics and
    tasks relating to leak control
  • Leak control and containment are generally
    considered offensive actions

(Continued)
106
Leak Control and Containment
  • Offensive actions not attempted by personnel
    trained below the Technician Level with two
    exceptions
  • Leak control dictates that personnel enter the
    hot zone, which puts them at great risk

107
Crime Scene Management and Evidence Preservation
  • Framework for a response to a terrorist or
    criminal incident is essentially same as that
    used for a response to any other hazardous
    materials incident

(Continued)
108
Crime Scene Management and Evidence Preservation
  • Because a crime is involved, law enforcement
    organizations must be notified and included in
    response
  • Notifying law enforcement ensures proper
    state/province and federal/national agencies
    respond to the incident

109
Recovery and Termination Phase
  • Occurs when IC determines all victims have been
    accounted for and all hazards have been
    controlled
  • Components of recovery/termination
  • Incident Termination Checklist
  • Decontamination/disposal issues

110
On-Scene Debriefing
  • Conducted in the form of a group discussion
    gathers information from all operating personnel
  • Obtain information from responders

(Continued)
111
On-Scene Debriefing
  • One very important step in this process Provide
    information to personnel concerning signs and
    symptoms of overexposure to the hazardous
    materials

112
Post-Incident Analysis/Critique
  • Provides responding agencies opportunity to
    evaluate, review, refine issues
  • Can be used to evaluate effectiveness of their
    response, identify problem areas, correct
    deficiencies

(Continued)
113
Post-Incident Analysis/Critique
  • Information can be used to modify and improve
    operations at future similar incidents
  • IC responsible for assigning someone to write a
    post-incident report and provide it to health and
    safety officer and chief of the agency

(Continued)
114
Post-Incident Analysis/Critique
  • Once all the necessary interviews have been made
    and documents gathered, a post-incident analysis
    should be scheduled for all agencies involved in
    incident

(Continued)
115
Post-Incident Analysis/Critique
  • Formal analysis of incident will be based on
    information gathered for post-incident analysis

116
Summary
  • For firefighters, hazardous materials incidents
    are similar in many ways to other emergencies to
    which they respond. The same universal priorities
    apply life safety, incident stabilization, and
    property conservation and an incident management
    system is needed.

(Continued)
117
Summary
  • However, there are also some major differences
    compared to structure fires, for example. In a
    structure fire, as long as firefighters are
    located outside of the collapse zone, they are
    relatively safe.

(Continued)
118
Summary
  • In a hazardous materials incident, personnel can
    be at risk a considerable distance from the point
    of release. One major difference between the
    property conservation priority at hazardous
    materials incidents is the increased need for
    environmental protection.

(Continued)
119
Summary
  • There are also differences in the size-up process
    compared to structure fires. Since many hazardous
    materials are highly toxic and can be spread over
    a wide area, the initial identification of the
    materials involved may have to be done from a
    considerable distance away.

(Continued)
120
Summary
  • Finally, because of the highly toxic nature of
    some hazardous materials, fire officers and their
    crews may be untrained and unequipped to mitigate
    a hazardous materials release. In these cases,
    they must establish and maintain a safe perimeter
    around the incident scene and call for hazardous
    materials specialists who are trained and
    equipped to handle such incidents.

(Continued)
121
Summary
  • In support of these specialists, firefighters
    must provide fire protection, and be capable of
    assisting with containment efforts such as
    damming and diking, and setting up and operating
    decontamination stations.

122
Review Questions
  • 1. What are the three incident priorities at all
    haz mat and terrorist incidents?
  • 2. What information should be gathered by first
    responders during the initial assessment of an
    incident?
  • 3. Describe incident levels

(Continued)
123
Review Questions
  • 4. What are hazard-control zones?
  • 5. What factors must be addressed in large-scale
    evacuations?
  • 6. Define the three types of contamination.

(Continued)
124
Review Questions
  • 7. What actions can Operations-Level
    firefighters perform during rescue operations?
  • 8. List defensive confinement and spill control
    actions.

125
Review Questions
  • 9. Who must be notified and included in the
    response to a terrorist or criminal incident?
  • 10. What information should be given to
    responders at an on-scene debriefing?
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