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Hand Tools

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Hand Tools Session 9 Industrial Tool Usage Two categories Hand tools Machine tools Importance of hand tools should not be overlooked Bench work includes operations of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hand Tools


1
Hand Tools
Session 9
2
Industrial Tool Usage
  • Two categories
  • Hand tools
  • Machine tools
  • Importance of hand tools should not be overlooked
  • Bench work includes operations of inspecting,
    fitting, and assembling

3
Two Classes of Hand Tools
  • Noncutting
  • Cutting

4
Two Classes of Hand Tools
  • Noncutting
  • Include vises, hammers, screwdrivers, wrenches,
    pliers, and etc.
  • Used basically for holding, forming, assembling,
    reassembling, destroying, or dismantling parts

5
Bench Vise
  • Also Called Machinists Vise
  • Used to hold small work securely for sawing,
    chipping, filing, polishing, drilling, reaming,
    and tapping
  • Size determined by width of jaws

6
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7
Bench Vise
Jaw caps made of brass, aluminum, or copper to
protect the work surface from being marred or
damaged
Solid or swivel base
8
Other Vises
9
Clamping Device
  • C-Clamp
  • Popular in Plant settings
  • 2 to 12
  • Allows clamping two or more items together or
    clamping one item to another

10
Clamping Device
  • Boiler Clamps
  • Heavy Duty
  • 6 to 24

11
Hard Faced Hammers
  • Ball Peen
  • Peen smaller, rounded end
  • Used in riveting or peening operations
  • Variety of sizes

12
Hard Faced Hammers
  • Sledge
  • Largest striking surface
  • Used in persuading or nudging objects
  • Variety of sizes head mass range 1 to 12 lb
  • Smaller sizes used for gentle persuasion
  • Larger sizes used for serious business

13
Hard Faced Hammers
  • Claw type
  • Smaller striking surface
  • Claw end can be used for prying nails and etc
  • Variety of sizes head mass range 10 oz to 22 oz
  • Smaller available with ergonomic handles

14
Soft-Faced Hammers
  • Faces made of plastic or rubber.
  • Plastic or rubber faced hammers are fastened to
    steel body and replaced when worn
  • Used in assembling or dismantling parts so
    finished surface of work not marred

15
Soft-Faced Hammers
  • Heads with replaceable faces made of plastic or
    rubber

16
Soft-Faced Hammers
  • Heads made of rawhide, aluminum, brass, copper,
    copper/bronze or lead
  • Entire head made of above material
  • Used in assembling or dismantling parts so
    finished surface of work not marred

17
Soft-Faced Hammers
  • Heads with replaceable section of leather.

18
Soft-Faced Hammers
  • Dead Blow hammers
  • Filled with lead or steel shot
  • Do not bounce back or rebound after striking
    object
  • Do not lose shape and last longer than lead
    hammers

19
Safety Precautions When Using a Hammer
  1. Be sure handle is solid and not cracked
  2. Be sure head is tight on handle and secured with
    proper wedge to keep handle expanded in head
  3. Never use with greasy handle or when your hands
    are greasy
  4. Never strike two hammer faces together

20
Screwdrivers
  • Two most common types
  • Standard or flat blade
  • Blades for smaller make of round stock
  • Blades for larger often square for leverage
  • Phillips
  • Different sizes and styles
  • Standard shank
  • Stubby shank
  • Offset

21
Regular Screwdrivers
  • Tip for use with slotted-type screw
  • Manufactured in various sizes
  • To suit various-sized slots in heads of fasteners

22
Phillips Screwdrivers
  • Tip for use with Phillips-type screws
  • Manufactured in sizes 1, 2, 3, 4
  • To suit various-sized recesses in heads of
    fasteners

23
Torx Screwdrivers
  • ? shaped tip for use with Torx-type recessed
    screw heads
  • Manufactured in assorted sizes
  • To suit various-sized recesses in heads of
    fasteners

24
Square Head Screwdrivers
  • Tip for use with Square-type screw heads
  • Manufactured in assorted sizes
  • To suit various-sized recesses in heads of
    fasteners

25
Star Head Screwdrivers
  • Star shaped tip for use with Star-type recessed
    screw heads
  • Manufactured in assorted sizes
  • To suit various-sized recesses in heads of
    fasteners

26
Allen Head Screwdrivers
  • Tip for use with Allen-type screw heads
  • Manufactured in assorted sizes

27
Care of a Screwdriver
  • Choose correct size of screwdriver for job
  • Too small, both screw recess and tip of
    screwdriver may become damaged
  • Do not use screwdriver as pry bar, chisel, or
    wedge
  • If tip or handle breaks or wears out, replace the
    screwdriver

28
Wrenches
  • Many types used in machine shop work
  • Each suited for specific purpose
  • Name derived from use, shape, or construction
  • Most available in both inch and metric measuring
    systems

29
Open-End Wrenches
  • Single-ended or double-ended
  • Openings usually offset at 15º angle
  • Permits turning nut or bolt head in limited
    spaces by "flopping" wrench
  • Double-ended have different-size opening at each
    end

30
Box-End Wrenches
  • Completely surround nut and useful in close
    quarters where only small rotation of nut can be
    obtained at one time
  • Box end has 4, 6, or 12 precisely cut notches
    around inside face
  • Notches fit closely over points on outside of nut
  • Have different sizes at each end

31
Combination Wrenches
  • Box end at one end
  • Open end at other
  • May have socket attached as one end
  • Wide variety available

32
Line Wrenches
  • Also referred to as Flared nut wrenches
  • Six point construction
  • One section of wrench head removed to enable the
    head to encircle a flared nut with a line or tube
    running through it.

33
Spud Wrenches
  • Similar to box or open end wrenches
  • Only one end has a wrench head
  • Other end used as an alignment tool

34
Striking End Wrenches
  • Box or open end wrenches
  • Only one end has a wrench head
  • Other end used as an striking surface

35
Torque Wrenches
  • Specialized wrenches for tightening nuts and
    bolts to specifications
  • Beam Type
  • Dial Type
  • Digital Type
  • Clicker Type

36
Torque Wrenches
Beam Types
37
Torque Wrenches
Dial Type
38
Torque Wrenches
Digital Type
39
Torque Wrenches
Clicker Types
40
Torque Wrenches
3/8 Drive will measure 25-250 inchpounds
3/8 Drive will measure 10-75 footpounds
1/2 Drive will measure 20-150 footpounds
41
Torque Wrenches
Clicker Type
42
Sockets
  • Size of Drives
  • ¼ inch
  • Light duty
  • ? drive
  • General purpose
  • ½ inch drive
  • General Purpose
  • ¾ inch drive and above
  • Industrial Applications

43
Sockets
Six Point
Eight Point
Twelve Point
44
Sockets
  • Regular
  • General purpose
  • Impact
  • Heavy duty
  • Industrial

45
Socket Accessories
Universal Joints
Various Adapters
46
Sockets
Torx Head Internal
  • Specialty

Hex Head
Torx Head External
Flare Nut Crows Foot
47
Socket Drivers
  • Rachets

48
Sockets Adjuncts
  • Extensions

49
Socket Accessories
Speeder Bar
Breaker Bar
Breaker Bar
50
Adjustable Wrenches
  • May be adjusted to within certain range to fit
    several sizes of nuts or bolt heads
  • Useful for odd-size nuts or when proper size not
    available
  • Can slip when not properly adjusted to flats of
    nut

51
Pipe Wrenches
  • Made of Cast Iron, Aluminum, or Beryllium/Copper
  • Used to loosen or tighten pipe connections
  • 6 to 48

52
Allen Setscrew Wrenches
  • Commonly called hex keys
  • Hexagonal fits into recesses of socket head
    setscrews and capscrews

53
Allen Setscrew Wrenches
54
Pin Spanner Wrenches
  • Specialized wrenches supplied by machine tool
    manufacturer for use on specific machines
  • Supplied in various sizes

55
Pin Spanner Wrenches
  • Fixed-face spanners position in two fixed
    location holes on face of special nut or threaded
    fitting on machine

56
Pin Spanner Wrenches
  • Adjustable-face spanners adjust to various
    positions of two holes on face of special nut or
    threaded fitting on machine

57
Pin Spanner Wrenches
  • Hook-pin spanner used on circumference of round
    nut
  • Pin of spanner fits into hole in periphery of nut

58
Strap Wrenches
  • Specialized wrenches for use on pipe or large
    tubing
  • Supplied in various sizes

59
Chain Wrenches
  • Specialized wrenches for use on pipe or large
    tubing
  • Supplied in various sizes
  • Similar to the Strap wrenches

60
Hints on Using Wrenches
  • Always select wrench that fits nut or bolt
    properly
  • Dont use inch on metric or vice versa
  • Pull rather than push on wrench
  • Always be sure nut is fully seated in wrench jaw
  • Misalignment will cause slippage
  • Use wrench in same plane as nut or bolt head

61
Pliers
  • Useful for gripping and holding small parts for
    certain machining operations or when assembling
    parts
  • Many types and sizes
  • Names by shape, function or construction

62
Types of Pliers
  • Combination or slip-joint pliers
  • Adjustable to grip both large and small work
  • Grip work when small holes must be drilled or for
    bending or twisting light, thin materials

63
Types of Pliers
  • Side-cutting pliers
  • Used mainly for cutting, gripping, and bending of
    small diameter (1/8 in. or less) rods or wires

64
Types of Pliers
  • Channel-Locks
  • Available in variety of sizes
  • Useful for holding just about anything, loosening
    and tightening about anything, and about anything
    else you can think of.

65
Types of Pliers
  • Needle-nose pliers
  • Available in both straight- and bent-nose types
  • Useful for holding very small parts, positioning
    them in hard-to-get-at places and bending wire

66
Types of Pliers
  • Snap Ring pliers
  • External Type shown
  • Used to remove or install external snap rings

67
Types of Pliers
  • Snap Ring pliers
  • Internal Type shown
  • Used to remove or install internal snap rings.

68
Types of Pliers
  • Vise-grip pliers
  • Extremely high gripping power because of
    adjustable lever action
  • Many different styles
  • standard jaws, needle jaws and C-clamp jaws

69
Hints on Using Pliers
  1. Never use pliers instead of wrench
  2. Never attempt to cut large-diameter or
    heat-treated material with pliers
  3. Always keep pliers clean and lubricated

70
Two Classes of Hand Tools
  • Noncutting
  • Cutting

71
Two Classes of Hand Tools
  • Cutting
  • Include saws, grinders, files, and etc.
  • Used to separate, part, trim, or divide parts

72
Sawing, Filing and Scraping
  • Often necessary to perform certain metal-cutting
    operations at bench or on job
  • Common tools
  • Hacksaws
  • Files
  • Scrapers

73
Pistol-Grip Hand Hacksaw
  • Solid frame rigid and will accommodate blades of
    one specific length
  • Adjustable frame more common and will take blades
    from 10 to 12 in. long
  • Wing nut provides adjustment

74
Hacksaw Blades
  • High-Carbon Steel Blades
  • Short lasting
  • Blades relatively soft
  • Blade wears quickly
  • Inexpensive
  • High-Speed Molybdenum or Tungsten-alloy Steel
    Blades
  • Long lasting
  • Blades with hardened and tempered teeth

75
Hacksaw Blades
  • Two types
  • Solid blade (all-hard)
  • Hardened throughout and very brittle
  • Flexible blade
  • Teeth hardened, while back of blade soft and
    flexible
  • Stand more abuse than all-hard blade, but will
    not last long in general use
  • Used on channel iron, tubing, copper and aluminum

76
Blade Pitch
  • Number of teeth per inch
  • Manufactured in various pitches
  • 14, 18, 24, and 32
  • General use choice 18 in. tooth blade
  • Choose as coarse blade as possible
  • Provides plenty of chip clearance and to cut
    through work as quickly as possible
  • Should have at least two teeth in contact with
    work at all times
  • Prevent work from jamming and stripping teeth

77
Guide for Proper Blade Selection
78
Guide for Proper Blade Selection
.
79
Guide for Proper Blade Selection
80
Guide for Proper Blade Selection
81
Files
  • Hand cutting tool made of high-carbon steel
  • Series of teeth cut on body by parallel chisel
    cuts
  • Used to remove surplus metal and to produce
    finished surfaces
  • Manufactured in variety of types and shapes
  • Two classes single-cut and double-cut

82
Single-cut Files
  • Single row of parallel teethrunning diagonally
    across face
  • Used when smooth finish desired
  • Include mill, long-angle lathe, and saw files

83
Double-cut Files
  • Two intersecting rows of teeth
  • First row coarser and called overcut
  • Second row called upcut
  • Hundreds of cutting teeth
  • Provides for fast removal of metals and easy
    clearing of chips

84
Degrees of Coarseness
  • Both single- and double-cut files come in various
    degrees of coarseness
  • Rough
  • Coarse
  • Bastard
  • Second-cut
  • Smooth
  • Dead smooth

Most Common
85
Machinist Files
  • Types most commonly used in shop
  • Flat
  • Hand
  • Round
  • Half-round
  • Square
  • Pillar
  • Three-quarter
  • Warding
  • Knife

86
Cross-sectional Views of Shop Files
87
Care of Files
  • Do not store files where they rub together
  • Dont throw into drawer with other files
  • Never use file as pry of hammer
  • Do not knock file on vise or other metallic
    object to clean it
  • Use brush or file card
  • Apply pressure only on forward stroke

88
Care of Files
  • Do not press too hard on new file
  • Too much pressure also results in "pinning" which
    scratches work surface
  • Small particles get wedged between teeth of file
    and clog it up

89
Rotary Files
  • Teeth cut and form broken lines
  • Dissipate heat of friction
  • Useful for work on tough die steels, forgings,
    and scaly surfaces

90
Ground Burrs
  • Teeth uniform in tooth shape and size
  • Unbroken flutes
  • Flutes machine ground to master burr to ensure
    uniformity of tooth shape and size
  • May be made of high-speed steel or carbide
  • Carbide last up to 100 times longer
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