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PSYCHOLOGY

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Title: PSYCHOLOGY


1
PSYCHOLOGY
  • What is Psychology?
  • Psychology is a word deriving from Greek roots
  • Psyche soul or mind, Logos word
  • Psychology is the systematic study of behavior
    and experience

2
The Goals of Psychologists
  • Psychologists engage in the study of psychology
    in order to understand, explain, predict and
    control behavior
  • What are the major philosophical issues that are
    relevant to this study?
  • Why we do what we do (causes of behavior).
  • Relationship of brain activity and the mind
    (Mind-Brain Problem).
  • Role of heredity and environment.

3
The Major Philosophical Issues
  • Free will versus determinism are the causes of
    behavior knowable, and is behavior predictable?
  • Free will is the belief that behavior is caused
    by an individuals independent decision-making
  • What does independent mean?
  • Determinism is the assumption that everything
    that happens has a cause or determinant in the
    observable world.
  • We can isolate specific determinants of behavior.

4
Major Philosophical Issues
  • Which perspective holds that behavior is fully
    predictable?
  • A determinist assumes everything that happens has
    a cause that can be known
  • A believer in free will assumes that even with
    complete information regarding causes and
    conditions, predictions regarding human behavior
    can never be fully accurate
  • How many of you believe you have free will?

5
Major Philosophical Issues
  • The mind-brain problem - How is experience
    related to the organ system called the brain?
  • Thoughts versus Brain activity
  • Dualism is the belief that the mind is separate
    from the brain but somehow controls the brain and
    through it also the rest of the body
  • Monism is the view that conscious experience is
    generated by and therefore is inseparable from
    the brain

6
Major Philosophical Issues
  • The mind-brain problem
  • Data from brain imaging research such as PET
    (positron emission tomography) suggests that
    brain activity and mental activity are two
    aspects of the same thing
  • Yet the question is far from resolved

7
Major Philosophical Issues
  • The nature-nurture issue
  • How do differences in behavior relate to
    differences in heredity and environment?
  • Some scientists assume the larger proportion of
    differences in potential and behavior are due to
    the influence of genes
  • Others assume that most differences are a result
    of aspects of the environment such as culture,
    expectations, and resources
  • This issue arises in virtually every field of
    psychology, and knowledge gained through research
    seldom provides a simple answer

8
What Psychologists Do
  • Psychology is an academic, non-medical discipline
    that includes many branches and specialties
  • The educational requirements can vary, but
    generally involve study beyond the bachelors
    degree
  • A masters degree, or a Ph.D./Psy.D. (doctor of
    psychology) are common terminal degrees in the
    discipline

9
Figure 1.2 More than one-third of psychologists
work in academic settings. The remainder find
positions in a variety of settings (based on the
data of Chamberlain, 2000).
10
What Psychologists Do
  • There are many specialties in the broad science
    of psychology. Psychologists practice within
    their chosen specialty in 3 main areas
  • Teaching and research
  • Service providers to individuals
  • Service providers to organizations

11
What Psychologists Do
  • Teaching and research
  • Most teaching psychologists work in colleges and
    universities
  • Most psychologists who teach also engage in
    research and writing
  • Some psychologists are employed in full-time
    research positions

12
What Psychologists Do
  • Major categories of psychological research
    Biological psychology or neuroscience
  • A bio-psychologist tries to explain behavior in
    terms of biological factors, such as anatomy,
    electrical and chemical activities in the nervous
    system, and the effects of drugs, hormones,
    genetics and evolutionary pressures
  • Sample question How do drug abuse, brain damage,
    and exposures to environmental toxins change
    nervous system functioning (and by extension,
    behavior)?

13
What Psychologists Do
  • Major categories of psychological research
    Evolutionary psychology
  • An evolutionary psychologist tries to explain
    behavior in terms of natural selection pressures
    promoting behaviors that lead to success in
    reproduction and survival.
  • Sample questions What forces led to selection
    for human language abilities? What specific
    advantages in survival over other animals did
    language give early humans in the ancestral
    environment?

14
What Psychologists Do
  • Major categories of psychological research
    Learning and motivation
  • A psychologist who studies and does research in
    this area is interested in how behavior depends
    on outcomes of past behaviors and on current
    motivations
  • Sample question Do frequent or consistent
    rewards for desired behaviors produce better
    learning than less frequent or less predictable
    rewards?

15
What Psychologists Do
  • Major categories of psychological research
    Cognitive psychology
  • A cognitive psychologist studies the processes of
    thinking and acquiring knowledge.
  • Sample question What do experts in a field
    know or do that sets them apart from other people?

16
What Psychologists Do
  • Major categories of psychological research
    Developmental psychology
  • A developmental psychologist studies the
    behavioral capacities typical of different ages
    and how behavior changes with age.
  • Sample questions What do people do or know as
    adults that they do not know as children? Why did
    this change occur? Was the change due to
    biological changes, increased experience, or a
    combination of these?

17
What Psychologists Do
  • Major categories of psychological research
    Social psychology
  • A social psychologist studies how an individual
    influences and is influenced by other people
  • Sample question To what degree do the demands
    and expectations of authority figures influence
    our behavior? How strong is the human tendency to
    conform? 

18
Concept Check
  • Which area of psychology research is concerned
    with whether or not punishment is an effective
    means of eliminating undesirable behaviors?
  • Learning and motivation
  • Which would ask if people will obey an authority
    figure even when that leader is demanding
    behavior that might be classified as immoral or
    wrong?
  • Social

19
Concept Check
  • Which psychologist wants to know when language
    learning occurs most rapidly in children?
  • Developmental psychologist
  • Which psychologist would do research to determine
    how memories are stored in the brain?
  • Biological psychologist (Cognitive
    Neuroscientist)
  • Which psychologist would do research to determine
    how retention and recall of information in a
    college-level psychology course can be enhanced?
  • Cognitive psychologist

20
What Psychologists Do
  • Service providers to individuals
  • There are many types of psychotherapists,
    professionals with training in psychology who
    specialize in helping people with psychological
    problem. Psychotherapists are trained in a
    variety of disciplines. 

21
Table 1.1 several types of Mental Health
Professionals
22
What Psychologists Do
  • Service providers to individuals
  • Clinical psychologists have advanced degrees in
    psychology, with a specialty in understanding and
    helping people with mental and emotional
    problems.
  • They receive training in intellectual and
    psychological testing used in the diagnosis and
    treatment. 

23
What Psychologists Do
  • Service providers to individuals
  • Psychiatrists are trained as medical doctors.
  • In addition to learning the principles of
    psychology, they are educated in how to use
    prescription drugs to treat psychological
    distress.
  • Clinical Psychologist can also receive extensive
    training in the use of prescription drugs to
    treat behavioral disorders and can earn
    perscription privileges.

24
What Psychologists Do
  • Service providers to individuals
  • Psychiatric nurses receive standard nursing
    education plus additional training in the care of
    emotionally troubled individuals.
  • They usually work in medical clinics and
    hospitals.

25
What Psychologists Do
  • Service providers to individuals
  • Psychiatric and clinical social workers combine
    training in traditional social work with
    specialized knowledge of how to treat emotionally
    disturbed people and advocate for their
    well-being within the larger community.

26
What Psychologists Do
  • Service providers to individuals
  • Psychoanalysts are psychotherapists who use
    mental health treatment strategies that are based
    on the theories and methods pioneered by Sigmund
    Freud.
  • Freud believed that an unconscious component of
    the human mind affects our functioning in
    day-to-day life.

27
What Psychologists Do
  • Service providers to individuals
  • Counseling psychologists have an advanced degree
    in psychology and help people with educational,
    vocational, marriage, health, and other important
    life decisions. They receive training in therapy
    and some types of psychological testing.

28
What Psychologists Do
  • Service providers to individuals
  • Forensic psychologists provide advice and
    consultation to those who work in the criminal
    justice system.

29
Concept Check
  • Which psychotherapist would help a middle-aged
    woman trying to transition from work as a
    homemaker to resuming her college education?
  • Counseling psychologist
  • Which psychotherapist would prescribe a mood
    stabilizing medication to a patient who shows
    signs of bipolar affective (emotional) disorder?
  • Psychiatrist

30
Concept Check
  • Which psychotherapist might provide ongoing
    counseling and support for residents of a halfway
    house for recovering addicts?
  • Clinical social worker
  • Which psychotherapist might be part of the staff
    of a hospital emergency room, and manage the
    intake of a patient admitted with acute suicidal
    thoughts and feelings?
  • Psychiatric nurse

31
Concept Check
  • Which psychotherapist might be employed in an
    inpatient facility for developmentally delayed
    children and adolescents, doing assessment and
    psychotherapy?
  • Clinical psychologist
  • Which psychotherapist would try to help a patient
    discover his or her hidden motivations for an
    apparently distressing and unacceptable behavior
    or thought?
  • Psychoanalyst

32
What Psychologists Do
  • Service providers to organizations
  • Industrial/Organizational psychologists study
    peoples behavior in the workplace using a
    combination of social, cognitive, and
    motivational psychology principles, and often
    employ psychological tests.
  • Sample question Workers in two departments at an
    aerospace engineering firm have started to
    withhold information from each other. This has
    been detrimental to morale and productivity. How
    can this behavior be stopped without terminating
    or reassigning any employees? How evvective are
    virtural meetings?

33
What Psychologists Do
  • Service providers to organizations
  • An ergonomist, or human factors specialist,
    attempts to facilitate the use of machinery and
    appliances so that the average user can operate
    them as efficiently and as safely as possible. 
  • Sample question How can the design of a clerical
    workstation in an office be improved to minimize
    the possibility of repetitive stress related
    injuries occurring to the employee who occupies
    it?

34
What Psychologists Do
  • Service providers to organizations
  • A school psychologist specializes in the
    psychological condition of the students, usually
    at the kindergarten through secondary school
    levels.
  • School psychologists draw upon a combination of
    developmental, learning and motivational
    principles, and often use educational and
    psychological tests to assist with educational
    planning for individual students.
  • Sample question Does a fourth grade student
    whose grades have been declining over the past
    two years have an identifiable learning
    disability, or is there an issue related to the
    students emotional well-being affecting his
    performance?

35
Concept Check
  • Which psychologist would consult in the design of
    an airplane cockpit to maximize crew efficiency
    and safety?
  • Ergonomist
  • Which psychologist would evaluate a student for
    possible placement in a schools program for
    gifted children?
  • School psychologist

36
Concept Check
  • Which psychologist would work with supervisors at
    a software development company to improve
    communication between departments and levels of
    management?
  • Industrial/Organizational psychologist

37
Majoring in Psychology
  • Should you major in psychology?
  • Although psychology is a popular major, very few
    jobs are listed specifically for people with
    bachelors degrees.
  • Jobs that would be appropriate for someone who
    earns a bachelors degree in psychology include
  • Personnel or human resources specialist
  • Halfway or transitional home staff or supervisor
  • Community or social services outreach worker

38
Majoring in Psychology
  • Should you major in psychology?
  • Psychology will be useful in careers that are
    not closely related to psychology, and in your
    life apart from work as well. Psychology can help
    you to
  • more effectively evaluate evidence presented to
    you in a variety of situations
  • improve your learning and retention  
  • be aware of the power of social influence and
    cultural context

39
Majoring in Psychology
  • Should you major in psychology?
  • It is also an excellent major for those who are
    contemplating further professional education in
    areas such as business, law, or divinity.

40
Majoring in Psychology
  • Should you major in psychology?
  • If you want to become a psychologist
  • You will probably need a doctorate (Ph.D./Psy.D.)
  • You will be in school for up to eight more years.
    It is hard to anticipate how the job market will
    change in the time it takes to complete your
    degree
  • You should have an interest in working in health
    care or educational settings or a willingness to
    work in a private practice or consulting role

41
Majoring in Psychology
  • Should you major in psychology?
  • Why take this class or consider majoring in the
    field?
  • Psychology offers exciting possibilities for
    improving the quality of life in many aspects and
    levels of human existence
  • Psychologists use information covered in this
    course to help people understand themselves and
    make better use of their skills and qualities
  • It is currently attracting talented persons from
    an increasingly diverse variety of backgrounds

42
Majoring in Psychology
  • Should you major in psychology?
  • Whether or not you choose to do more advanced
    work, we hope that you will find a long-lasting
    benefit from your investment of time and energy
    in this Introduction to Psychology course.

43
Psychology Then and Now
  • The early era and the roots of psychology
  • In all cultures, and for thousands of years,
    people have wondered about the nature of human
    thought, action and experience.
  • The great writers of every civilization are
    widely read because they provide us with
    compelling descriptions and make profound
    observations of human behavior.

44
Figure 1.5a Dates of some important events in
psychology and elsewhere. (Based partly on
Dewsbury, (2000a)
45
Figure 1.5b Dates of some important events in
psychology and elsewhere. (Based partly on
Dewsbury, (2000a)
46
Psychology Then and Now
  • The early era and the roots of psychology
  • The first psychological laboratory was
    established by William Wundt, Leipzig, Germany in
    1879
  • William Wundt was trained as a physician and did
    research on the workings of the senses.
  • Although other psychology experiments had been
    done, this was the first laboratory devoted
    exclusively to the activities of psychological
    research.

47
Psychology Then and Now
  • The early era and the roots of psychology
  • Wundts fundamental question was What are the
    components of experience, or mind?
  • He presented his subjects with a wide variety of
    stimuli, and asked them to look within
    themselves, to introspect. He tried to measure
    the changes in their experiences as the stimuli
    changes.

48
Psychology Then and Now
  • The early era and the roots of psychology
  • Wundt and his students did experiments in a wide
    range of areas related to psychology, and they
    wrote prolifically about their findings.
  • Most importantly, Wundt demonstrated that it was
    possible to perform meaningful experiments in the
    science of psychology.

49
Psychology Then and Now
  • The early era and the roots of psychology
  • Edward Titchener was a student of Wundt who
    immigrated to the United States in 1892.
  • He developed the approach he called
    structuralism.
  • In structuralism, the researcher attempts to
    describe the structures that compose the mind,
    its sensations, feelings and images.

50
Psychology Then and Now
  • The early era and the roots of psychology
  • Titchener presented a stimulus to his subjects
    and asked them to analyze its separate features
  • After Titcheners death in 1927, his research
    methods were abandoned
  • There was no feasible way to check the accuracy
    of his subjects observations
  • As psychology evolved through the 20th century,
    psychological researchers became more interested
    in describing and analyzing readily observable
    behaviors

51
Psychology Then and Now
  • The early era and the roots of psychology
  • William James wrote The Principles of Psychology
    (1890)
  • He was keenly interested in what the mind does,
    rather than the elements of mind
  • He rejected the methods of Wundt and Titchener
  • He wanted to learn how the mind produces
    behaviors. He called his approach functionalism

52
Psychology Then and Now
  • The early era and the roots of psychology
  • Typical questions from a functionalist
    perspective include
  • How does a person recall the answer to a
    question?
  • How does a person inhibit an undesirable impulse?
  • Can a person attend to more than one task at a
    time?

53
Psychology Then and Now
  • The early era and the roots of psychology
  • Psychophysics is a term created by early
    psychologists working on sensation and sensory
    experience
  • They noticed interesting aspects of the
    functioning of the senses
  • For example, the perception of a stimulus
    intensity is not directly proportional to the
    actual physical intensity of the stimulus.

54
Psychology Then and Now
  • The early era and the roots of psychology
  • Psychophysics attempts to provide a mathematical
    description of the relationship between the
    actual physical properties of the stimulus and
    its perceived properties
  • A sound that is half as loud (in physical terms,
    in decibels) as another sound may not sound that
    way to the listener

55
Psychology Then and Now
  • The early era and the roots of psychology
  • The works of Darwin had an enormous impact The
    Origin of Species (1859) The Descent of Man
    (1871) 
  • By presenting compelling evidence that humans and
    other animal species were related, Charles Darwin
    forced scientists and thoughtful people working
    in many disciplines to consider the basic
    features held in common by many or all animals,
    such as thinking and intelligence.
  • Comparative psychologists, who use this
    perspective, are specialists who compare
    different animal species.

56
Psychology Then and Now
  • The early era and the roots of psychology
  • Early comparative psychologists devised a number
    of experiments to try to measure animal
    intelligence, such as
  • The delayed response problem
  • The detour problem
  • The pattern recognition problems

57
Figure 1.8 Early comparative psychologists
assessed animal intelligence with the delayed
response problem. A stimulus was presented and a
delay ensued then the animal was expected to
respond to the remembered stimulus. Variations on
this delayed-response task are still used today.
58
Figure 1.9 Another task popular among early
comparative psychologists was the detour problem.
An animal needed to first go away from the food
in order to move toward it.
59
  • Figure 1.10 Zebras learn rapidly when they have
    to compare stripe patters (Giebel 1958). How
    smart a species is perceived to be depends on
    what ability or skill is being tested

60
Psychology Then and Now
  • The early era and the roots of psychology
  • According to the research of comparative
    psychologists, some species appeared to be gifted
    in one set of tasks and highly deficient in
    another.

61
Psychology Then and Now
  • The early era and the roots of psychology
  • Eventually the inconsistencies in performance
    between different tasks across a single species
    suggested to comparative psychologists that
    questions about animal intelligence might be
    meaningless.
  • This issue is similar to problems that we
    currently are encountering in the controversial
    area of measuring human intelligence.

62
Psychology Then and Now
  • The early era and the roots of psychology
  • Francis Galton was one of the first scientists to
    try to measure human intelligence and determine
    to what extent heredity influenced variations in
    human cognitive abilities.
  • He studied the sons of accomplished men and found
    that the offspring of the talented and famous had
    a high probability of being accomplished too.
  • He explained this as due chiefly to the influence
    of heredity.
  • Galton tried to develop an intelligence test, but
    did not succeed.

63
Psychology Then and Now
  • The early era and the roots of psychology
  • Alfred Binet devised the first useful
    intelligence test in 1905, at the behest of the
    French government, for use in identifying
    children in the public school system who might be
    in need of special services
  • His test was imported to the United States after
    his death, and was the template for the
    development of many IQ and other psychological
    tests
  • Some of the most interesting questions you will
    encounter in this course will involve whether it
    is truly possible to measure these qualities, or
    to fully understand what they are

64
Psychology Then and Now
  • The early era and the roots of psychology
  • While structuralism was abandoned because of
    problems with subjectivity, behaviorism is a
    field of psychology that concentrates on
    observable, measurable behaviors and not mental
    processes
  • Behaviorists primarily seek to study the
    observable behaviors associated with what is
    generally referred to as learning.

65
Psychology Then and Now
  • The early era and the roots of psychology
  • Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a
    purely objective experimental branch of natural
    science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction
    and control of behavior. 
  • John B. Watson, 1913

66
Psychology Then and Now
  • The early era and the roots of psychology
  • The earliest researchers in the field of
    behaviorism and learning expected to find that it
    operated using simple, basic and predictable
    laws, comparable to Newtons physical laws of the
    universe
  • Much as Newtons majestic clockwork has given
    way to the more random and unpredictable world of
    modern quantum physics, the specialty of
    behaviorism has revealed some laws of behavior,
    but also major complications arising from other
    processes (such as the influence of cognition and
    motivation)

67
Psychology Then and Now
  • The early era and the roots of psychology
  • The early questions posed by behaviorists in the
    mid-20th century have given way to complex
    questions about how humans learn to be aggressive
    and violent
  • This is just one of many interesting questions
    with complex answers that have yet to be fully
    revealed
  • Even modern behaviorists have left behind the
    hope of discovering simple universal principles
    of behavior. But the principles of behaviorism
    are still interesting and useful, as you will
    soon see

68
Psychology Then and Now
  • The early era and the roots of psychology
  • In presenting psychoanalytic theory, Sigmund
    Freud revolutionized psychology by proposing the
    existence of an unconscious mind rooted in our
    animal origins
  • He worked with his patients to understand how
    this hidden part of the mind influenced their
    mood and behavior by analyzing their dreams,
    fantasies, and perceptions of their own early
    childhood experiences
  • Although much of psychoanalytic theory has been
    rejected as unscientific, psychology is still
    heavily influenced by Freuds ideas about
    treatment of psychological distress

69
Recent Trends in Psychology
  • Modern clinical psychology
  • The trauma experienced by so many soldiers in
    World War II provided ample opportunity for the
    further development of psychoanalysis and
    innovation in new methods of psychotherapy.
  • Behaviorists used rewards and other principles of
    learning in treating psychological distress.
  • Other fields of psychology that eventually made
    contributions to therapy as the 20th Century
    progressed include humanistic and cognitive
    psychology.

70
Recent Trends in Psychology
  • Academic and applied psychology
  • Although many researchers have abandoned the
    study of consciousnesses or self, there is still
    abundant research being done on cognition.
  • Applied fields of psychology are booming. These
    include
  • Health psychology (addiction, stress, nutrition.)
  • Forensic psychology (dealing with issues of
    mental competence for trial, and accuracy of
    eyewitness testimony.)

71
Recent Trends in Psychology
  • The role of women in psychology
  • What about the history of women in psychology? In
    the early days of psychology, opportunities for
    women were limited as they were in so many areas
    at the time
  • Mary Calkins was one of the pioneering women in
    the field. Her graduate education in psychology
    at Harvard was paid for as part of her teaching
    salary at Wellesley College
  • Calkins never received the Ph.D that she earned
    from Harvard, but she went on to do research,
    study memory, and serve as the president of the
    American Psychological Association.

72
Recent Trends in Psychology
  • Cross-cultural psychology and human diversity
  • In examining a variety of issues related to
    psychology, scientists have become more conscious
    of cultural context over the past three decades
  • Psychologists now recognize, for example that
    mental illness is at least partly culturally and
    socially defined
  • What is considered psychologically adaptive is
    defined by the culture in which one is raised

73
Recent Trends in Psychology
  • Cross-cultural psychology and human diversity
  • An observation that supports these ideas is that
    homosexuality once was considered a psychological
    disorder. It is no longer considered a legitimate
    mental illness in our culture, whatever
    controversy continues about issues of sexual
    orientation.
  • Psychoanalytic theories of child development seem
    irrelevant in world cultures where children are
    fathered by one man but raised by his brother.

74
Recent Trends in Psychology
  • An evolving science
  • We have changed radically as a species, and we
    have changed our world over the past century.
    This fact is having major consequences for our
    day-to-day functioning and long-term survival.
  • Psychology cannot always provide simple answers
    and solutions. But psychologists are working to
    help us understand ourselves better, find the
    best solutions and change ourselves when it is in
    our best interest to do so.

75
  • We will cover Chapter 2 tomorrow.
  • After the Chapter 1 Quiz.
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