Design for Manufacturability - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Design for Manufacturability


1
Design for Manufacturability Prototyping
  • Sam Chiappone, Manager
  • Fabrication Prototyping SoE
  • GMP Class Fall 2010

2
Learning Objectives
  • Gain an awareness of DFM
  • Understand that various methodologies and
    approaches exist to address the objectives of DFM
  • Learn that design complexity is a key parameter
    associated with cost

3
Design for X
  • Performance
  • Overall features
  • Reliability
  • Serviceability
  • Environmental impact
  • Conformance to a standard
  • Manufacturability
  • Durability
  • Serviceability
  • Aesthetics
  • Perceived quality

4
DFM Defined
  • Realizes reducing manufacturing cost begins at
    the design phase of a product.
  • Design revisions are made in an effort to reduce
    part count to eliminate non-value added elements
    of a component, subassembly, and/or final
    assembly.
  • Overall quality is not compromised as a result of
    the reduced costs.
  • Reduced costs higher profit margins

5
DFM Process Inputs
  • Conceptual ideas
  • Sketches/drawings
  • Prototypes
  • Product specifications
  • Estimated manufacturing and assembly costs
  • Production numbers
  • Delivery dates
  • Manufacturing engineering
  • Customer
  • Manufacturing and assembly process analysis and
    justification
  • Bill of materials

6
DFM Process Inputs
7
Process Steps
  • Estimate manufacturing costs
  • Reduce cost of components
  • Reduce the cost of assembly
  • Reduce the cost of support operations
  • Consider the impact of DFM

8
Manufacturing Costs
9
Costs
  • Cost Factors
  • Fixed cost does not change based on production
    numbers
  • 125,000 CNC Milling Machine
  • Variable cost changes as a result of production
    numbers
  • Raw material aluminum stock .. plastic
  • Assembly labor costs (sometimes temp help is used
    and can be adjusted based on demand)

10
Costs
11
Step 1 Manufacturing Costs
  • Component costs
  • Make or buy
  • Make Design and build from raw material
  • Costs Labor, equipment, tooling
  • In-house vs. supplier
  • Buy vendor standard items (nuts, bolts,
    motors, gears)

12
Step 1 Manufacturing Costs
  • Assembly Costs
  • Assembly costs
  • Discrete components packaged into subassemblies
    and final assemblies
  • Similar to manufacturing (processing tooling)
  • Typically products produced in quantities less
    then 100,000 are hand assembled which equals high
    labor costs in US industry.

13
Step 1 Manufacturing Costs
  • Overhead Costs
  • Indirect cost of supporting manufacturing
  • Housekeeping, security, utilities, administration

14
Step2 Reduce Component Costs
  • Understand the available and potential process
    capabilities
  • Example 90 degree corner in an internal pocket
  • Two step process milling and EDM
  • Is the feature needed?
  • Increased processing equals increased cost and
    delivery time
  • Understand the acceptable tolerance range
  • Make it as good as you can

15
Step2 Reduce Component Costs
  • Understand the advantages and disadvantages of
    basic manufacturing processes
  • Why use forging?
  • Use net shape processes when possible (plastic
    injection molding)
  • Maximize tooling design for high production
    numbers
  • Family die/mold
  • Pool stair example Latham Plastics

16
Step2 Reduce Component Costs
  • Use standard components for jigs, fixtures,
    molds, and dies
  • Allow suppliers to develop manufacturing plans
    around your specifications. Do not tell them how
    to make it.

17
Step 3 Reduce Assembly Costs
  • Eliminate nonessential parts
  • Optimized Part Count Benefits Include
  • Reduced Weight
  • Reduced Complexity
  • Reduced Opportunity for error
  • Reduced Assembly Time

18
Step 3 Reduce Assembly Costs
  • Eliminate nonessential parts
  • Integrated part - Can the part be combined with
    another part?
  • Inset molding a metal bracket in the plastic
    injection molding process could eliminate a
    fastener, assembly process, and potential point
    of failure.
  • No assembly
  • Reduced tooling/processing
  • Assist in quality specifications (orientations
    are set)

19
Step 3 Reduce Assembly Costs
  • Guidelines for design for assembly
  • Part inserted from top axis (Z) top down
    assembly
  • Self alignment features
  • Tapers and chamfers
  • No orientation required
  • Phillips head screw aligned with driver bit
  • One hand assembly
  • Less time, availability of the other hand to do
    another task
  • No tools required for assembly
  • Reduce the number of snap rings, cotter pins,
    springs, bolts/nuts
  • Use Single motion assembly items
  • Pins and snap-fits
  • Secure part with single motion
  • Press fit

20
Step 4 Reduce Support Costs
  • Reduced parts reduced inventory
  • Reduced storage, reduced inventory control, raw
    material costs
  • Reduced supply chain management costs

21
Step 5 Consider Impact
  • Overall cost reduction
  • Labor
  • Raw materials
  • Purchased components
  • Tooling
  • Reduced product development cycle
  • Constant review of quality specifications will
    result in continuous product improvements
  • Increased manufacturing and assembly knowledge
  • Share with future design teams on similar product
    concepts
  • Product review will evaluate material selection
  • Environmental impact (materials, part count,
    reduced manufacturing byproducts coolants,
    reduced parts equals reduced energy into a
    system)

22
Tools
  • Past Experience

Material and Processes in Manufacturing Tenth
Edition - DeGarmo
23
Tools
  • Supplier network
  • Consultants and software
  • Boothroyd Dewhurst DFMA software tools developed
    by Dr. Boothroyd and Dr. Dewhurst in 1983.
    Current customers include Harley-Davidson, John
    Deere, and Abbott Laboratories.
  • Website http//www.dfma.com/
  • Prototyping

24
Prototyping
  • What Is It?
  • A model of a product or process with one or more
    dimension of interest. The model may include
    conceptual sketches, mathematical models,
    critical design elements, and or fully functional
    physical models.

25
Why Do It?
  • Learning
  • Communication
  • Proof of Concept
  • Testing
  • Experimentation
  • Experience
  • Marketing
  • Evaluation
  • DFM/DFA Analysis

www.machinedesign.com
26
Expected Outcome
  • Verify
  • Form
  • Function
  • Fit
  • Analyze
  • Cost
  • Learn
  • Process Knowledge
  • Continuous Improvement

27
Basic Types
  • Simulation
  • CAD, CAM, FEA, Solid Models, etc.
  • AutoForm
  • Assemblies in SolidWorks / NX
  • Physical
  • Machined
  • Components or full working models
  • Rapid Prototypes
  • Prototype mfg and assembly systems
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Design for Manufacturability

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Title: Design for Manufacturability


1
Design for Manufacturability Prototyping
  • Sam Chiappone, Manager
  • Fabrication Prototyping SoE
  • GMP Class Fall 2010

2
Learning Objectives
  • Gain an awareness of DFM
  • Understand that various methodologies and
    approaches exist to address the objectives of DFM
  • Learn that design complexity is a key parameter
    associated with cost

3
Design for X
  • Performance
  • Overall features
  • Reliability
  • Serviceability
  • Environmental impact
  • Conformance to a standard
  • Manufacturability
  • Durability
  • Serviceability
  • Aesthetics
  • Perceived quality

4
DFM Defined
  • Realizes reducing manufacturing cost begins at
    the design phase of a product.
  • Design revisions are made in an effort to reduce
    part count to eliminate non-value added elements
    of a component, subassembly, and/or final
    assembly.
  • Overall quality is not compromised as a result of
    the reduced costs.
  • Reduced costs higher profit margins

5
DFM Process Inputs
  • Conceptual ideas
  • Sketches/drawings
  • Prototypes
  • Product specifications
  • Estimated manufacturing and assembly costs
  • Production numbers
  • Delivery dates
  • Manufacturing engineering
  • Customer
  • Manufacturing and assembly process analysis and
    justification
  • Bill of materials

6
DFM Process Inputs
7
Process Steps
  • Estimate manufacturing costs
  • Reduce cost of components
  • Reduce the cost of assembly
  • Reduce the cost of support operations
  • Consider the impact of DFM

8
Manufacturing Costs
9
Costs
  • Cost Factors
  • Fixed cost does not change based on production
    numbers
  • 125,000 CNC Milling Machine
  • Variable cost changes as a result of production
    numbers
  • Raw material aluminum stock .. plastic
  • Assembly labor costs (sometimes temp help is used
    and can be adjusted based on demand)

10
Costs
11
Step 1 Manufacturing Costs
  • Component costs
  • Make or buy
  • Make Design and build from raw material
  • Costs Labor, equipment, tooling
  • In-house vs. supplier
  • Buy vendor standard items (nuts, bolts,
    motors, gears)

12
Step 1 Manufacturing Costs
  • Assembly Costs
  • Assembly costs
  • Discrete components packaged into subassemblies
    and final assemblies
  • Similar to manufacturing (processing tooling)
  • Typically products produced in quantities less
    then 100,000 are hand assembled which equals high
    labor costs in US industry.

13
Step 1 Manufacturing Costs
  • Overhead Costs
  • Indirect cost of supporting manufacturing
  • Housekeeping, security, utilities, administration

14
Step2 Reduce Component Costs
  • Understand the available and potential process
    capabilities
  • Example 90 degree corner in an internal pocket
  • Two step process milling and EDM
  • Is the feature needed?
  • Increased processing equals increased cost and
    delivery time
  • Understand the acceptable tolerance range
  • Make it as good as you can

15
Step2 Reduce Component Costs
  • Understand the advantages and disadvantages of
    basic manufacturing processes
  • Why use forging?
  • Use net shape processes when possible (plastic
    injection molding)
  • Maximize tooling design for high production
    numbers
  • Family die/mold
  • Pool stair example Latham Plastics

16
Step2 Reduce Component Costs
  • Use standard components for jigs, fixtures,
    molds, and dies
  • Allow suppliers to develop manufacturing plans
    around your specifications. Do not tell them how
    to make it.

17
Step 3 Reduce Assembly Costs
  • Eliminate nonessential parts
  • Optimized Part Count Benefits Include
  • Reduced Weight
  • Reduced Complexity
  • Reduced Opportunity for error
  • Reduced Assembly Time

18
Step 3 Reduce Assembly Costs
  • Eliminate nonessential parts
  • Integrated part - Can the part be combined with
    another part?
  • Inset molding a metal bracket in the plastic
    injection molding process could eliminate a
    fastener, assembly process, and potential point
    of failure.
  • No assembly
  • Reduced tooling/processing
  • Assist in quality specifications (orientations
    are set)

19
Step 3 Reduce Assembly Costs
  • Guidelines for design for assembly
  • Part inserted from top axis (Z) top down
    assembly
  • Self alignment features
  • Tapers and chamfers
  • No orientation required
  • Phillips head screw aligned with driver bit
  • One hand assembly
  • Less time, availability of the other hand to do
    another task
  • No tools required for assembly
  • Reduce the number of snap rings, cotter pins,
    springs, bolts/nuts
  • Use Single motion assembly items
  • Pins and snap-fits
  • Secure part with single motion
  • Press fit

20
Step 4 Reduce Support Costs
  • Reduced parts reduced inventory
  • Reduced storage, reduced inventory control, raw
    material costs
  • Reduced supply chain management costs

21
Step 5 Consider Impact
  • Overall cost reduction
  • Labor
  • Raw materials
  • Purchased components
  • Tooling
  • Reduced product development cycle
  • Constant review of quality specifications will
    result in continuous product improvements
  • Increased manufacturing and assembly knowledge
  • Share with future design teams on similar product
    concepts
  • Product review will evaluate material selection
  • Environmental impact (materials, part count,
    reduced manufacturing byproducts coolants,
    reduced parts equals reduced energy into a
    system)

22
Tools
  • Past Experience

Material and Processes in Manufacturing Tenth
Edition - DeGarmo
23
Tools
  • Supplier network
  • Consultants and software
  • Boothroyd Dewhurst DFMA software tools developed
    by Dr. Boothroyd and Dr. Dewhurst in 1983.
    Current customers include Harley-Davidson, John
    Deere, and Abbott Laboratories.
  • Website http//www.dfma.com/
  • Prototyping

24
Prototyping
  • What Is It?
  • A model of a product or process with one or more
    dimension of interest. The model may include
    conceptual sketches, mathematical models,
    critical design elements, and or fully functional
    physical models.

25
Why Do It?
  • Learning
  • Communication
  • Proof of Concept
  • Testing
  • Experimentation
  • Experience
  • Marketing
  • Evaluation
  • DFM/DFA Analysis

www.machinedesign.com
26
Expected Outcome
  • Verify
  • Form
  • Function
  • Fit
  • Analyze
  • Cost
  • Learn
  • Process Knowledge
  • Continuous Improvement

27
Basic Types
  • Simulation
  • CAD, CAM, FEA, Solid Models, etc.
  • AutoForm
  • Assemblies in SolidWorks / NX
  • Physical
  • Machined
  • Components or full working models
  • Rapid Prototypes
  • Prototype mfg and assembly systems
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