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Atlantic Revolutions

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Atlantic Revolutions 1750-1914 The Promise of the Enlightenment Contract government (John Locke) A political theory that views government as stemming from the people ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Atlantic Revolutions


1
Atlantic Revolutions
  • 1750-1914

2
The Promise of the Enlightenment
  • Contract government (John Locke)
  • A political theory that views government as
    stemming from the people, who agree to surrender
    some personal freedom in return for a government
    that guarantees protection of citizens rights
    and property.
  • Laissez faire (Adam Smith)
  • An economic theory that advocates freeing
    economies from government intervention and
    control.

3
The Promise of the Enlightenment
  • Salons
  • were places where people discussed the ideas of
    the Enlightenment, published in the Encyclopedia
    (1751-1772)

4
Atlantic Revolutions
The North American Revolution 17751787 The French Revolution 17891815 Haitian Revolution 1791-1804 Latin American Revolutions 1810-1825
Popular sovereignty authority to govern comes
from the people, not from God or tradition.
5
North American Revolution1775-1787
  • A conservative political movement aimed to
    preserve colonial liberties, rather than gain new
    ones.
  • Colonists regarded autonomy as their birthright.
  • Colonial society was more egalitarian than Europe
    or Latin America.
  • Revolted against taxation without
    representation.

6
North American Revolution1775-1787
  • U.S. Constitution was one of the first documents
    that put the ideas of the Enlightenment into
    practice.

7
French Revolution 1789-1815
  • French government was bankrupt
  • Unlike the American Revolution, it was driven by
    social conflicts based on the unfairness of the
    Old Regime
  • Effort to create a new society during the Reign
    of Terror.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte spread the ideals of the
    revolution through conquest.

8
Legacy of the French RevolutionBirth of -isms
Nationalism Create a nation-state unified under the rule of law. Liberalism Create centralized nation-states ruled under a constitution Conservatism Maintain the status-quo, tradition, continuity and monarchies. Romanticism Glorified nature, emotion, and the imagination in art and philosophy.
9
Nationalism
10
Liberalism and Romanticism
11
ConservatismPrince Klemens von Metternich
  • Conservatism is a political philosophy which
    embodies a desire to prevent change. 19th Century
    conservatives believed in the power behind
    absolute monarchy, the aristocracy and the
    Church. The conservatives of Europe succeeded in
    creating an era between 1815 and 1914 without
    war. They did so through repression of dissension
    and thought.

12
Haitian Revolution, 1791-1804
  • Santo Domingue was a French Caribbean colony.
  • Regarded as the richest colony in the world.
  • Majority of the population were slaves.
  • Solidarity and suffering made it ripe for
    revolution.

13
Haitian Revolution, 1791-1804
  • French Revolution inspired revolts and demand for
    political equality.
  • In1793, a proclamation granted slaves freedom.
  • In 1794, the French revolutionary government
    declared blacks had rights equal to whites.
  • This created wide-spread rebellions across the
    Caribbean and Latin America.

14
Haitian Revolution, 1791-1804
  • Toussaint LOverture possessed strong military
    skills and became the leader in the Haitian
    Revolution.
  • Although he modeled French ideals of freedom and
    citizenship, he re-enslaved many Haitians.

15
  • Latin American
  • Revolutions
  • 18101825

16
Mexican Revolution 1810-1821
  • Father Miguel Hidalgo opened a campaign against
    colonial rule in 1810 with the help from the
    popular classes, natives and creoles.
  • Augustin de Iturbide created a constitutional
    monarchy in 1821.

17
Simon BolivarLiberator
  • Took up arms, leading military campaigns , which
    along with popular uprisings, ousted Spain from
    much of Latin America.
  • 1830 created the Gran Colombia in northern South
    America.

18
Brazilian Independence
  • Pedro I, son of Portugals king, declared Brazil
    independent in 1822 and made himself king.
  • More peaceful transition than the rest of Latin
    America with little change to the social
    structure.

19
Latin American Revolutions
  • Creoles were offended by the Spanish monarchys
    efforts to control them in the eighteenth
    century.
  • Latin American independence movements were
    limited at first because there was little
    tradition of local self-government.
  • Society was authoritarian, with class divisions.

20
Latin American Revolutions
  • Many leaders were liberals and their message
    appealed to the lower classes.
  • In reality, the indigenous people and slaves got
    little benefit from independence.
  • It was very difficult to unite various Spanish
    colonies, unlike the United States.
  • The United States grew more democratic and
    wealthy while Latin American countries grew more
    impoverished, undemocratic, and unstable.

21
Global Impact
  • Inspired efforts to abolish slavery, give women
    greater rights, and extend franchise in many
    countries
  • Nationalism was shaped by revolutions
  • Principles of equality eventually gave rise to
    socialism and communism

22
Reflection Questions
  • To what extent were revolutions the product of
    misery, injustice, and oppression?
  • To what extent did they reflect the growing
    weakness of established authorities, and the
    arrival of new ideas?

23
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24
  • What was revolutionary about the Industrial
    Revolution?
  • What was common to the process of
    industrialization everywhere, and in what ways
    did that process vary from place to place?
  • What did humankind gain from the Industrial
    Revolution, and what did it lose?
  • In what ways might the Industrial Revolution be
    understood as a global rather than simply a
    European phenomenon?
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