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Learning Theories

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Learning Theories & Program Design Lecture Demonstration Hands on experience Feedback What Is Learning? What Is Learned? Verbal information Intellectual skills Motor ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Learning Theories


1
Learning Theories Program Design
  • Lecture
  • Demonstration
  • Hands on experience
  • Feedback

2
What Is Learning? What Is Learned?
  • Verbal information
  • Intellectual skills
  • Motor skills
  • Attitudes
  • Cognitive strategies

3
Learning Theories
  • Reinforcement theory
  • To perform or avoid certain behaviors
  • Positive reinforcement
  • Negative reinforcement
  • Extinction
  • Punishment
  • Behavior Modification
  • Based on reinforcement theory
  • Save money
  • Decrease costs
  • Increase safety ranking for the department

4
Learning Theories
  • Social Learning
  • You learn by watching others. Behavior that is
    reinforced or rewarded tends to be repeated.
  • High self monitors
  • Low self monitors
  • Self Efficiency
  • I can do it?
  • To increase self-efficiency use
  • Verbal persuasion
  • Logical verification
  • Modeling
  • Past accomplishments

5
Process Of Social Learning
  • Attention
  • Model stimuli
  • Trainee characteristics
  • Retention
  • Coding
  • Organization
  • Rehearsal
  • Motor
  • Physical capability
  • Accuracy
  • Feedback
  • Motivational
  • Reinforcement

6
Learning Theories
  • Goal setting theory
  • Directs energy
  • Must be specific
  • Must be measurable
  • Challenging
  • Achievable
  • Must have a definite date

7
Learning Theories
  • Goal orientation
  • Mastery orientation
  • Trainees want the trainer to be more interested
    in how they are learning
  • Performance orientation
  • How the trainee compares to others

8
Needs Theories
  • Maslows needs theory
  • Physiological needs
  • Relatedness needs
  • Growth needs
  • Self esteem
  • Self actualization

9
Needs Theories
  • McCellands need theory
  • Need for achievement
  • Need for affiliation
  • Need for power
  • Expectancy theory
  • Expectancy X Instrumentality X Valence Effort

10
Learning Theories
  • Adult learning theory
  • Pedagogy vs. Androgogy
  • Children
    Adults
  • 1. Passive learners 1. Need to
    know why
  • 2. Have few experiences 2. Self directed

  • 3. Have work experiences

  • 4. Problem centered
  • 5.
    Motivated extrinsically

  • intrinsically

11
Mutuality
  • Both Trainee and Trainer are involved with
    learning and discovering
  • Design Issue
    Implications
  • Self-Concept
    Mutual planning collaboration in

  • instruction
  • Experience
    Use learner experience as basis for

  • examples applications
  • Readiness
    Develop instruction based on the

  • learners interest competencies
  • Time perspective
    Immediate application of content
  • Orientation of learning
    Problem-centered instead of

  • subject-centered

12
Information Processing Theory
  • Internal processes are affected by external
    events
  • Stimulus

Stimulus
Receptors
Sensory Register
Short-Term Memory
Long-Term Memory
Environment Feedback Enforcement
Effectors
Response Generator
13
The Learning Process
  • What are physical mental processes?
  • How does learning occur?
  • Do employees have different learning styles?

14
The Learning Process Continued
  • Process of External Instructional
    Forms of Instruction
  • Learning Events
  • Expectancy 1. Informing the learner
    1a. Demonstrate the expected
  • of the lesson
    objective performance

  • 1b. Indicate the kind of
    verbal

  • question to be answered
  • Perception 2. Presenting stimuli with
    2a. Emphasize the features of the
  • distinctive
    features subject perceived

  • 2b. Use formatting and
    figures in text

  • to emphasize features
  • Working storage 3. Limiting the amount to
    3a. Chunk lengthier material
  • be learned
    3b. Provide a visual image of
    material

  • to be learned

  • 3c. Provide practice and
    over learning

  • to aid the attainment of
    automaticity
  • Semantic encoding 4. Providing learning
    4a. Provide verbal cues
  • guidance
    4b. Provide verbal links

  • 4c. Use diagrams models

15
Learning Process Continued
  • Process of External Instructional
    Forms of Instruction
  • Learning Events
  • Long-Term 5. The amount to be
    5a. Vary the context and setting
  • Storage learned
    for presentation recall

  • 5b. Relate newly
    learned

  • material to previous

  • 5c. Provide variety
    of contexts
  • Retrieval 6. Providing cues that
    6a. Use elicit cues to recall
  • are used in recall
    material

  • 6b. Familiar sounds
    or rhymes
  • Generalizing 7. Enhancing retention
    7a. Design learning situation to
  • learning transfer
    share elements with the situation

  • 7b. Provide verbal
    links to

  • additional complexes
    of info
  • Gratifying 8. Providing feedback
    8a. Provide feedback on accuracy timing
  • about performance
    8b. Confirm if original expectancies
    met
  • correctness

16
The Learning Cycle
  • 4 stage dynamic cycles
  • Concrete experiences
  • Reflective observation
  • Abstract conceptualization
  • Active experimentation

17
Age Influences On Learning
  • Decreases with age
  • Short term memory
  • Speed of processing
  • Increases with age
  • Experiences to draw from
  • Generations
  • Nexters (born after 1980)
  • Gen Xers (1961-1980)
  • Baby Boomers (1945-1960)
  • Traditionalist (1920-1944)

18
Implications Of the Learning Process For
Instruction
  • Instruction- characteristics of environment in
    which learning occurs

19
Learning Styles
  • Learning Style Dominant Abilities
    Characteristics
  • Diverger Concrete
    experience Generates ideas,
  • Reflective
    observation multiple perspectives


  • Interested in people
  • Assimilator Abstract
    Conceptualization Inductive
    reasoning,
  • Reflective
    Observation Less concerned with

  • people
  • Converger Abstract
    conceptualization Decisiveness,
    practical
  • Active
    experimentation Deals with
    technical


  • tasks
  • Accommodator Concrete
    experience Carrying out
    plans
  • Active
    Experimentation At ease with
    people

20
Employees Need To Know Why They Should Learn
  • Need to Know
  • Objective-purpose
  • Expected-outcomes
  • Quality of performance expected
  • Conditions in which employee will perform

21
Employee Need Meaningful Training Content
  • Employee needs the opportunities to practice
  • A. Practice Conditions
  • Provide information
  • Encouragement
  • Advance organizers
  • Help employee master learning goals
  • Realistic expectations

22
Employee Need Meaningful Training Content
  • B. Practice Involves Experience
  • C. Massed vs. Spaced Practices
  • D. Whole vs. Part Practices
  • E. Effective Practice Conditions

23
Employees Need To Commit Training Content To
Memory
  • Short terms move to long terms
  • Employees need feedback
  • Employees learn through observation
  • Communities of practice

24
Employees Need Training Program To Be Well
Organized
  • Communicating courses and programs to employees
  • Enrolling employees in courses and programs
  • Preparing and processing any materials such as
    readings of tests
  • Preparing materials that will be used in
    instruction
  • Arranging for the training facility and room
  • Testing equipment that will be used

25
Employees Need training Program To Be Well
Organized
  • Having backup equipment
  • Providing support during instruction
  • Distributing evaluation materials
  • Facilitating communications between trainer and
    trainees
  • Recording course completion in the trainees
    training records

26
Instructional Emphasis For Learning Outcomes
  • Internal Conditions
  • External Conditions
  • Table 4-7 page 131

27
Considerations In Designing Effective Training
Programs
  • Training Site
  • Comfortable square not long
  • Quiet acoustics
  • Plenty of space
  • Well lit
  • Equipment electrical outlets
  • Good chairs, round tables

28
Considerations In Designing Effective Training
Programs
  • Seating arrangements
  • Based on training design page 134
  • Create a learning setting
  • Break out rooms
  • Prepare in advance
  • Check out equipment
  • Greet employees as the enter

29
How Trainers Can Make Training Site Conductive To
Learning
  • Engaging trainee
  • Be dynamic
  • Use different places in the room
  • Focus on employees
  • Facilitate interaction
  • Classroom management
  • Keep it clean and well organized
  • Managing group dynamic
  • Program design
  • Course Parameters
  • Course title
  • Target audience
  • Goals
  • Total time
  • Number of employees
  • Prerequisites
  • Instructor

30
Objectives
  • Program objectives broad
  • Course objectives
  • Measurable/specifics
  • Challenging/achievable
  • Detailed lesson plan
  • List the content and sequence of training. Look
    at page 139 and 140
  • Lecture demonstrate experience
  • Remember breaks
  • Snacks and drinks
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