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Endocrine Glands

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Title: Endocrine Glands


1
Endocrine Glands
2
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3
Endocrine Glands
  • Islets of Langerhans
  • Gonads
  • Ovaries
  • Testes
  • Pineal gland
  • Thymus
  • others
  • Hypothalamus
  • Pituitary
  • Anterior lobe
  • Posterior lobe
  • Thyroid gland
  • Parathyroid glands
  • Adrenal Glands
  • Cortex
  • Medulla

Hormonal Communication
4
Hypothalamus
  • Part of brain
  • Regulates ANS, emotions, feeding/satiety, thirst,
    body temperature, etc.
  • Hormones related to these functions
  • Releasing hormones
  • Axonal transport to posterior lobe

5
Anterior Pituitary
  • Releasing hormones regulate AP aka
  • adeno hypo physis glands under
    growth
  • All proteins
  • TSH (thryoid stimulating hormone/thyrotropin)
  • ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
  • FSH (gonadotropin)
  • LH (gonadotropin)
  • Tropins/tropic hormones
  • GH (growth hormone)
  • Prolactin-releasing H

Hypothalamic Pituitary Axis Animation IP Web
6
Anterior Pituitary
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Anterior P. Homeostatic Imbalances
  • Growth hormone (GH or hGH)
  • Promotes mitosis, cell division
  • Elongation of long bones, etc.
  • Healing of wounds Lack of hGH retards growth
  • Hypersecretion in youth produces giantism
  • Hyposecretion in childhood produces pituitary
    dwarfism
  • Hypersecretion in adult produces acromegaly

9
Posterior Pituitary
  • Axonal transport to Posterior Pituitary aka
  • neuro hypo physis
  • nerve under growth
  • Hypothalamic cell bodies synthesize
  • oxytocin
  • ADH

10
PituitaryPosterior lobe
  • Oxytocin
  • Stimulates smooth muscle contraction of uterus
    mammary glands.
  • Antidiuretic H.
  • Stimulates water reabsorption in collecting
    ducts.
  • Stimulates vasoconstriction (vasopressin)
  • Lack ? diabetes insipidus

11
Posterior Pituitary Homeostatic Imbalances
  • ADH
  • Hyposecretion produces diabetes insipidus
    tasteless
  • Excessive thirst and urination
  • central or neurogenic DI
  • gestagenic or gestational DI
  • nephrogenic DI
  • dipsogenic DI

Diabetes Insipidus Foundation, Inc.
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13
Thyroid Gland
  • Location in neck
  • Inferior to larynx
  • Anterior lateral to trachea
  • Composed of follicles
  • Follicle cells produce thyroglobulin
  • Thyroxin (T4)
  • Triiodothyronine (T3)
  • Both thyroid hormone, bodys major metabolic
    hormone
  • Parafollicular/ C cells
  • Calcitonin
  • Decreases blood Ca2 by depositing it in bones

14
Homeostatic imbalances
  • Hypothyroidism results
  • Myxedema (in adults)
  • Goiterlow levels of iodine
  • Cretinism (in children)
  • Hyperthyroidism results
  • Graves disease

15
Parathyroid Glands
  • Four small glands embedded in posterior of
    thyroid
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  • Stimulates osteoclasts to free Ca2 from bone
  • Stimulates Ca2 uptake from intestine kindey

Hormonal Regulation of Calcium
16
Parathyroid Homeostatic Imbalances
  • Severe hyperparathyroidism causes massive bone
    destruction
  • If blood Ca2 fall too low, neurons become
    overactive, resulting in tetany

17
  • Feedback Loop
  • Negative feedback in calcium homeostasis. A rise
    in blood Ca2 causes release of calcitonin from
    the thyroid gland, promoting Ca2 deposition in
    bone and reducing reabsorption in kidneys.
  • A drop in blood Ca2 causes the parathyroid gland
    to produce parathyroid hormone (PTH), stimulating
    the release of Ca2 from bone.
  • PTH also promotes reabsorption of Ca2 in kidneys
    and uptake of Ca2 in intestines.

18
Adrenal Glands
  • One on top of each kidney
  • Cortex
  • Corticosteroid
  • glandular
  • Medulla
  • Catecholamines
  • neurohormonal
  • Epinephrine
  • Norepinephrine

19
Adrenal Cortex
  • Cortex
  • Activity stimulated by ACTH
  • Controls prolonged responses by secreting
    corticosteroids.
  • Mineralcorticoids
  • Aldosterone? regulate salt and water balance
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Cortisol? regulate glucose metabolism and the
    immune system.
  • Gonadocorticoids
  • Androgens
  • Estrogens

20
Adrenal Cortex Imbalances
  • Hypersecretion leads to Cushings disease
  • ACTH-releasing tumors or side effects of
    corticoid drugs.
  • Hyposecretion leads to Addisons Disease
  • Deficits in glucocorticoids and mineralcorticoids

21
Adrenal Medulla
  • Medulla
  • The adrenal medulla mediates shortterm responses
    by secreting catecholamine hormones.
  • Cells are modified neurons (lack axons)
  • Epinephrine (adrenaline)
  • Norepinephrine (noreadrenaline)
  • enable a rapid ( fight-or-flight ) responses to
    stress by increasing blood glucose and blood
    pressure and directing blood to the heart, brain,
    and skeletal muscles.

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Pancreas
  • Consists of two major types of secretory tissues
    which reflects its dual function
  • Exocrine gland
  • secretes digestive juice
  • localized in the acinar cells
  • Endocrine gland
  • releases hormones
  • localized in the islet cells (islets of
    Langerhans)

24
Pancreatic Islets
  • About a million embedded in pancreas
  • Control centers for blood glucose
  • Insulin from beta cells
  • Glucagon from alpha cells

25
Insulin Glucagon
26
Islets of Langerhans
  • Insulin stimulates glucose uptake, glycogenesis
  • Glucagon stimulates glycogenolysis, glucose
    release from liver (vs gluconeogenesis)

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  • Feedback Loop
  • A rise in blood glucose causes release of insulin
    from beta cells the pancreas, promoting glucose
    uptake in cells and storage as glycogen in the
    liver.
  • A fall in blood glucose stimulates alpha cells in
    the pancreas to secrete glucagon, which causes
    the liver to break down glycogen and release
    glucose.

29
Pancreas Homeostatic ImbalancesDiabetes siphon
mellitus mel honey
  • Symptoms
  • Polyuria
  • Polydipsia
  • Polyphagia

Blood Level Regulation in Diabetics
30
Gonads
  • Ovaries
  • Estrogens
  • Progesterone
  • Testes
  • Testosterone
  • Reproductive functions when we study reproductive
    system.

31
Pineal gland
  • Melatonin
  • ? Inhibits early puberty
  • ? Day/night cycles
  • Timing of sleep, body temperature, appetite
  • Secretes melatonin during darkness
  • Participates in setting the bodys clock
  • Melatonin is a potent antioxidant
  • Melatonin is high when young and is reduced as we
    age

32
Thymus
  • Thymus gland
  • Thymopoietins, thymic factor, thymosins
  • Influence development of T lymphocytes

33
Non-Endocrine Gland Hormones
  • Stomach (gastrin)
  • Small intestine (duodenum?intesetinal gastrin,
    secretin, cholecystokinin)
  • Heart (atrial natriuretic peptide)
  • Kidneys (erythropoietin, active vitamin D3)
  • Adipose tissue (leptid, resistin)
  • Skin
  • Placenta (human chorionic gonadotropin, human
    placental lactogen, relaxin)

34
Functions regulated by the Endocrine System
  • Growth
  • Healing
  • Water balance Blood Pressure
  • Calcium Metabolism
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Stress
  • Regulation of other Endocrine Organs

35
Growth
  • Growth hormone-releasing hormone
  • Human growth hormone (hGH)
  • Thyrotropin (TSH)
  • Thyroxine triiodothyronine
  • Calcitonin
  • Somatostatin (GHIH)

36
Healing
  • Growth hormone-releasing hormone
  • Human growth hormone (hGH)
  • Thyrotropin (TSH)
  • Thyroxine triiodothyronine
  • Calcitonin
  • Glucagon, Insulin
  • Erythropoietin

37
Water balance Blood pressure
  • ADH
  • Aldosterone
  • Angiotensin II
  • Atrial natriuretic H.
  • Epinephrine

38
Calcium Metabolism
  • Calcitonin
  • Parathyroid H. (PTH)
  • Estrogens/androgens
  • Growth hormone

39
Energy Metabolism
  • Thyroxine triiodothyronine
  • Thyroid-stimulating H. (thyrotropin, TSH)
  • Epinephrine norepinephrine
  • Insulin
  • Glucagon
  • Adrenocorticotropic H. (ACTH)
  • Cortisol

40
Stress
  • Epinephrine norepinephrine
  • T4 T3 ??
  • ACTH
  • Cortisol
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