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Feed Formulation and Manufacture


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Title: Feed Formulation and Manufacture

Feed Formulation and Manufacture
  • Dr. Joe M. Fox
  • MARI-5314
  • from Lovell, Akiyama and Dominy

Computer Formulation of Feeds
  • Least-cost feed formulation a feed formula that
    is both nutritionally-complete (within limits)
    and with a minimum ingredient cost (within
  • now-a-days is developed and completed through the
    use of computers using linear-programming
  • typical packages Brill, Mix-it, Agridata
  • used by most feed mills/manufacturers

Least-cost Formulation
  • Least-cost feed formulations require that the
    following information be provided
  • cost of feed ingredients
  • nutrient content of feed ingredients
  • nutritient requirement of the animal
  • availability of the nutrient to the animal
  • minimum-maximum restrictions on levels

Least-cost Formulations
  • Costs of feed ingredients and nutrient content
    are fairly available for most commercial
  • costs can be evaluated on a daily basis
  • nutrient requirements are fairly well known
  • the most critical piece of information regards
    digestibility/availability of nutrients within
    the feed ingredient
  • various indices DE, ME, APD, etc.
  • these can be set in formula w/restrictions

Least-cost Formulation
  • these are nutrient and ingredient restrictions
    that have been used for least cost formulation of
    catfish feeds
  • theoretically, protein level does not have to be
    restricted if essential amino acid requirements
    are well-known
  • for catfish, if the minimum requirements for
    lysine and the sulfur-containing AAs are met,
    other EAA requirements are also met

Least-cost Formulations
  • Other restrictions minimum available phosphorus
    and digestible energy
  • only maximum calcium is typically considered due
    to availability in water
  • whole fish or other animal protein sources have
    been shown beneficial for catfish feeds
  • cottonseed meal is restricted to 10 due to
    gossypol (protein) content (toxic)
  • xanthophyll content often restricted due to it
    causing yellow discoloration of fish at high

Least-cost Restrictions for Shrimp Feeds
Least-cost Formulations other restrictions
  • Limitations to computer formulations exist and
    should be recognized
  • where the computer says its ok, the experienced
    formulator knows differently
  • example too high fat content for pelleting
  • example sorghum might be as good as corn in an
    extruder, but not a pelletizer
  • this is why advantages are maximized when a
    number of options are available

Computer Formulation of Feeds
  • Originally, the development of feed formulations
    was a real task
  • mathematical models for formulating
    nutritionally-adequate diets at lowest cost were
  • however, everything had to be hand calculated
  • feed formulation the preparation of
    nutritionally-complete diets for feeding animals

Least-cost Formulations other restrictions
  • In many cases, logistics of obtaining ingredients
    and their storage limit the number of ingredients
  • availability of feedstuffs is not as important as
    having the option to substitute
  • must also take into consideration the physical,
    palatability, and toxicological properties of the
  • nutrient availability also varies

Least-cost Formulations restrictions
  • As mentioned, most least-cost formulae are
    derived by linear programming
  • it has its disadvantage in that it uses data out
    of the NRC handbook for fixed, maximum growth
  • it does not take into consideration optimum
    return on growth for various feed nutrient
  • this requires regression analysis
  • regression analysis is now being integrated into
    poultry formulae, probably not yet available for

Part 2 Feed Production
  • Largely provided by Wenger, Inc. and Akiyama

Feed Production
  • Two major methods pelletizing and extrusion
  • steam pelleting produces a dense pellet that
    sinks rapidly in water
  • extrusion produces a low density feed particle
    that has a tendency to float
  • steam pelleting uses moisture, heat and pressure
    to agglomerate ingredients into larger,
    homogenous particles
  • steam added to the ground feed mash (mix)
    partially gelatinizes starch, binding ingredients

Pelletizing Feeds
  • Generally, steam is also added prior to passing
    the mash through the pellet die
  • this increases its moisture content to 15-18
  • temperature goes up to about 85oC
  • steam pelleted feeds must be firmly bonded for
    satisfactory stability in water
  • starch is important for adequate binding
  • fat and fiber are antagonistic to process
  • supplemental fat not added if pelleting

Pelletizing Feeds
  • All conventional pellet mills include the
    following equipment
  • variable speed feeder
  • conditioning chamber
  • die and roller assembly
  • speed reduction device
  • prime mover
  • base
  • the variable speed feeder provides a continuous,
    controlled flow of feed mix

Pelletizing Feeds conditioning
  • The conditioning chamber is actually a mixer with
    either fixed or movable paddles
  • conditioning is accomplished by the addition of
    controlled amounts of steam
  • steam liberates natural oils, partially
    gelatinizes starches, increases temp, increases
  • starch gelatinization loss of birefringence or
    the irreversible rupture of the native secondary
    bonds in the crystalline region of the starch
  • the speed reduction device is added to reduce
    motor speeds to that of the die head
  • this is absolutely critical for the production of
    consistent-sized particles

gelatinization process
Sinking vs. Floating Feeds
Typical Pellet Mill
Typical Pellet Mill Process Flow
Typical Pellet Mill
Die Assembly
Comparison extrusion vs. pelleting
Process flow diagrams
Typical Extruder (side view)
Comparison pelletized vs. extruded feeds
Pellet Comparison continued
Price Comparison
Pellet Appearance
  • Feed pellets should contain no fractures
  • fractures are indicative of poor processing and
    conducive to poor water stability
  • fractures allow water to seep into pellet more
    rapidly, pellet hydrates, breaks
  • feed pellets should not clump together
    (indivative of poor drying, results in poor
    nutritional quality, stability)
  • fines from bags should total less than 2
  • result you lose money, get poor water quality

Feed Pellet Size
  • What feed pellet size you feed is determined by
    age of animal
  • size of particle must be the one most efficient
    for location and consumption by animal
  • proper nutrient package, right size,
  • smaller pellets usually imply easier distribution
  • feed particles range in size from less than 50 µM
    to over 1/8 in. diameter

Feed Pellet Size
  • Larvae lt50, 50-125, 250, 500 µM, according to
    larval substage
  • postlarvae flakes, fine crumbles (500 µM)
  • juveniles to 2-3 g medium crumble (1mm) to
    coarse crumble (2mm)
  • 3-6 g short pellet (3/32 x 2-4 mm)
  • 6-10g medium pellet (3/32 x 6 mm)
  • 10-16 g long pellet (3/32 x 10 mm)
  • over 16 g 1/8 in. diam, various lengths
  • point one pellet per shrimp per feeding

Feed Pellet Size
  • For a 2mm x 6mm pellet, you have approximately 1
    million pellets per 100 lb bag
  • if your 10 ha pond has 2 million shrimp in it (20
    per sqm), feeding two 100 lb bags gives each
    shrimp 1 pellet/feeding
  • 20 pellets per sqm pellet density
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