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South America

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South America Preview Section 1: Natural Environments Section 2: History and Culture Section 3: South America Today Chapter Wrap-Up Section 1: Natural Environments ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: South America


1
South America
  • Preview
  • Section 1 Natural Environments
  • Section 2 History and Culture
  • Section 3 South America Today
  • Chapter Wrap-Up

2
Section 1 Natural Environments
  • Read to Discover
  • What are the major landforms and rivers of South
    America?
  • What climates, plants, and animals are found in
    South America?
  • What natural resources does the continent have?

3
Section 1 Natural Environments
Question What are the different environments and
landforms of South America?
4
Section 1 Natural Environments
Landforms and Rivers
Climates
Tropical, humid in Amazon basin Highland
climates in Andes Tropical wet and dry in many
areas Mediterranean in central Chile
Semiarid and arid in Patagonia,
Atacama
Andes Guiana Highlands,
tepuís Brazilian Highlands Amazon River
basin, Llanos, Gran Chaco, Pampas Amazon,
Orinoco, Paraná Rivers
SouthAmerica
Natural Resources
Biomes
Rubber and timber Hydroelectricity
production Nuts and plants for medicine Gold,
silver, copper, iron ore, bauxite, oil
Tropical rain forest Dry forest Savannas Deserts
5
Section 1 Natural Environments
  • South America has major mountains and plains.
  • MountainsAndes, Guiana Highlands, Brazilian
    Highlands
  • PlainsAltiplano, Amazon River basin, Llanos,
    Gran Chaco, Pampas, Patagonia
  • Three large river systems flow into the Atlantic
    Ocean.
  • Amazon4,000 miles long
  • OrinocoDrains the Guiana Highlands and Llanos
  • ParanáDrains eastern slopes of Andes and
    Brazilian Highlands

6
Section 1 Natural Environments
  • South America has a wide variety of climate
    regions.
  • Amazon BasinWorlds largest tropical humid
    region many rain forest species
  • AndesHighland climates with varied vegetation
    wildlife based on elevation, including llamas,
    alpacas, vicuñas, and Andean condors
  • Tropical Wet and DryVarious areas dry forest or
    savanna
  • ChileMediterranean climate with marine west
    coast
  • PatagoniaSemiarid and arid few animals
  • Atacama DesertNorthern Chile, southern Peru
    driest region

7
Section 1 Natural Environments
Natural Resources
  • Fertile soils
  • Climates suitable for growing crops
  • Water for irrigation and hydroelectric power
  • Forest products
  • Vast mineral wealthGold, silver, copper, iron
    ore, bauxite (aluminum ore), emeralds
  • EnergyOil deposits in Venezuela and other
    countries, including tar sands

8
Section 2 History and Culture
  • Read to Discover
  • What were some important events in the early
    history of South America?
  • How did the colonial era and independence affect
    South America?
  • What are some important features of South
    Americas cultures?

9
Section 2 History and Culture
Early History
  • First inhabitants, hunter-gatherers, arrived more
    than 12,000 years ago.
  • Various early civilizations arose, including the
    Chibcha of Colombia.
  • Incan civilization spanned much of Andean region.
  • Spanish conquered the Inca in the 1530s.
  • Spain and Portugal divided the continent Spain
    in the west, Portugal in the east.
  • Colonists brought new plants, animals, and
    diseases.
  • Portuguese brought slave labor to Brazil to work
    sugar plantations.

10
Section 2 History and Culture
Question How did the colonial period and
independence affect South America?
11
Section 2 History and Culture
Causes and Effects in South Americas History
12
Section 2 History and Culture
Cultural Features
  • Great Ethnic VarietyMixed-race, European,
    American Indian, African, East Indian, Japanese
  • LanguageReflects colonization Indian languages
    still spoken
  • ReligionMajority Roman Catholic also Hinduism,
    Islam, traditional indigenous religions
  • Traditional Culture, despite change

13
Section 3 South America Today
  • Read to Discover
  • What is the economy of South America like today?
  • What are South American cities like?
  • What issues and challenges face the people of
    South America?

14
Section 3 South America Today
Economy
Cities
Issues
Developing or middle-income countries
Agriculture, subsistence and commercial farming
Wide range of industrial products Mercosur
important free trade group
Large parts of each countrys population living
in big cities Rural-urban migration Urban
poor living in slums that surround the city
Crime and lack of services in these areas
Poverty Amazon rain forests being cleared for
farming and ranching Soil exhaustion and
overgrazing threatening the land Border
disputes, terrorism, and political corruption
15
Chapter Wrap-Up Understanding the Main Ideas
  1. What are the five climate zones of the Andes, and
    what vegetation is found in each?
  2. What are some products that come from the rain
    forest?
  3. What were some accomplishments of early South
    American people?
  4. How did Spanish and Portuguese settlement spread?
  5. What are three factors that create tensions in
    South America?
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