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CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

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CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM The Blood Vessels Chapter 19 Blood Flow Through Tissues Brain (13%) Heart (4%) Kidneys (20%) Abdominal organs (24%) Skeletal muscles (20%) All ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM


1
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
  • The Blood Vessels
  • Chapter 19

2
Types of Blood Vessels
  • Arteriestransport blood away from the heart and
    typically carry oxygenated blood.
  • Veinstransport blood toward the heart and
    typically carry deoxygenated blood.
  • Capillariesmicroscopic blood vessels that allow
    exchange between blood and tissues.

3
Blood Flow
Arteries Capillaries Veins
4
Layers of a Blood Vessel
  • Tunica interna (intima) inner most
  • Endothelium
  • Tunica mediamiddle
  • Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation
  • Tunica externa (adventitia) outermost
  • Vasa vasorum

5
Arteries versus Veins
6
Blood Flow
Arteries Capillaries Veins
7
Arterial System
  • Elastic arteries
  • Muscular arteries
  • Arterioles
  • Arterial anastomoses

8
Major Arteries
9
Capillaries
  • Characteristics
  • Squamous epithelium
  • Basal lamina
  • Pericytes
  • Types
  • Continuous
  • Fenestrated
  • Sinusoidal

10
Capillary Beds
  • Precapillary sphincter
  • Metarteriole-thoroughfare channels
  • True capillaries

11
Venous System
  • Venules
  • Venous sinuses
  • Veins
  • Varicose Veins
  • Venous Anastomoses

12
Major Veins
13
Blood Reservoirs
14
Vessel Comparison
15
PHYSIOLOGY OF BLOOD VESSELS
16
Definition of Terms
  • Resistance the opposition to flow and is a
    measure of the amount of friction blood
    encounters as it passes through vessels.
  • Blood Pressure the force per unit area exerted
    on a vessel wall by the blood contained within it
    (expressed in mm Hg).
  • Blood flow the volume of blood flowing through a
    vessel, an organ, or the entire circulation in a
    given period.

17
RESISTANCE
18
Peripheral Resistance
  • Blood viscosity
  • Total blood vessel length
  • Blood vessel diameter

19
BLOOD PRESSURE
20
Blood Pressure
  • Arterial blood pressure
  • Systolic pressure
  • Diastolic pressure
  • Pulse pressure
  • Mean arteriole pressure
  • Capillary blood pressure
  • Venous blood pressure

21
Venous Blood Pressure
  • Muscular pump
  • Respiratory pump

22
Factors affecting Blood Pressure
  • Cardiac Output
  • Increased CO increased BP
  • Decreased CO decreased BP
  • Peripheral Resistance
  • Increased vasoconstriction increased BP
  • Increased vasodilation decreased BP
  • Blood Volume
  • Increased blood volume increased BP
  • Decreased blood volume decreased BP

23
Maintaining BP (Short-term neural)
  • Vasomotor centers of the medulla
  • Vasomotor tone
  • Baroreceptor-initiated reflexes
  • Chemoreceptor-initiated reflexes
  • Hypothalamus and cerebral cortex

24
Maintaining BP (Short-term hormones)
25
Maintaining BP (Short-term hormones chemicals)
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Endothelin
  • Inflammatory chemicals
  • Alcohol and Nicotine???

26
Maintaining BP (Long-term renal regulation)
  • Direct Renal Regulation
  • Blood volume
  • Filtrate production
  • Indirect Renal Regulation
  • Renin
  • Angiotensin II

27
Factors That Increase MAP
28
MONITORING CIRCULATORY HEALTH
29
Vital Signs
  • Taking Pulse
  • Measuring Blood pressure
  • Respiratory rate
  • Body temperature

30
Pulse Points
31
Blood PressureAuscultatory Method
32
Blood Pressure Disorders
  • Hypertension140/90 mm Hg or higher
  • Hypotension100/80 mm Hg or lower

33
BLOOD FLOW
34
Blood Flow
  • Through Tissues
  • Brain (13)
  • Heart (4)
  • Kidneys (20)
  • Abdominal organs (24)
  • Skeletal muscles (20)
  • All others (19)

35
Velocity of Blood Flow
  • Inversely related to cross-sectional area of the
    blood vessel
  • Capillaries have low velocity!
  • Arteries have high velocity!
  • Veins have medium velocity!

36
Regulation of Blood Flow
  • Short-term autoregulation
  • Metabolic controls
  • Myogenic controls
  • Long-term autoregulation
  • Angiogenesis

37
Regulation of Blood Flow
38
Relationship Between Blood Flow, Pressure, and
Resistance
  • Blood flow (F) is directly proportional to the
    difference in blood pressure (P) between two
    points in the circulation and inversely
    proportional to the peripheral resistance (R) in
    the systemic flow. Therefore
  • F DP
  • R

39
Blood Flow through Capillaries and Capillary
Dynamics
40
Capillary Transport Mechanisms
41
  • Hydrostatic pressure (HP) causes filtration or
    reabsorption of fluids
  • Colloid osmotic pressure (OP) results from the
    presence of large non-diffusible solutes or
    colloids
  • Net filtration pressure (NFP) (HPc HPif)
    (OPc-OPif)

42
Net Filtration Pressure
43
Circulatory Shock
  • Hypovolemic shock extreme blood loss
  • Vascular shock blood volume normal but poor
    circulation due to extreme vasodilation
  • Cardiac shock pump failure

44
Blood Vessel Disorders
  • Atherosclerosisplaque build up within vessel
  • Aneurysmballooning of blood vessel
  • Phlebitisinflammation of a vein

45
Blood Vessels of the Body
  • Pages 722-744

46
END OF MATERIAL FOR TEST I !!!
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