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Database Systems Chapter 2

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Title: Database Systems Chapter 2


1
Database SystemsChapter 2
  • ITM 354

2
Data Models
  • Data Model
  • A set of concepts to describe the structure of a
    DB (data types, relationships), operations for
    manipulation of the DB, and constraints on the
    DB.
  • Data Model Operations Operations for specifying
    DB retrievals and updates.
  • Basic operations (insert, delete, modify, )
  • User-defined operations (e.g. calculate_credit_rat
    ing)

3
Types of Data Models
  • Conceptual (high-level, semantic) data models
  • close to the way users perceive data. (Also
    called entity-based or object-based data models.)
  • Physical (low-level, internal) data models
  • describe details of how data is stored in the
    computer managed by a DBMS and an DBA.
  • Implementation (representational, logical) data
    models
  • fall between the above two, balancing user views
    with some computer storage details (e.g. most
    relational data models).

4
Schemas
  • Database Schema
  • The description of a database. Changes
    infrequently.
  • Also called the intension.
  • Includes descriptions of the DB structure, data
    types, and constraints.
  • Schema Diagram
  • A diagram of (most aspects of) a database schema.
  • Data types, relationships, constraints are not
    shown
  • Schema Construct
  • A component (or object) of the schema, e.g.,
    STUDENT, COURSE.

5
Schemas vs. Instances
  • Database State
  • The actual data stored in a database at a
    particular moment in time.
  • Also called database instance (or occurrence or
    snapshot).
  • Also called the extension.

6
An Example Schema Diagram
7
Database Schema/Database State
  • Database State the instantaneous content of a DB
    gt changes frequently.
  • Initial Database State the state when the DB is
    loaded.
  • Valid State A state that satisfies the structure
    and constraints of the database.

8
Example of a DB State
9
Three-Schema Architecture
  • A quasi-standard created by ANSI in the 1970s to
    support three of the important DBMS
    characteristics
  • program/data independence
  • multiple views
  • use of a catalog to store the DB description

10
Three-Schema Architecture - 2
  • Defines DBMS schemas at three levels
  • Internal schema describes physical storage
    structures and access pathshow the data is
    stored.
  • Typically uses a physical data model.
  • Conceptual schema describes the structure and
    constraints of the entire DB for all userswhat
    is stored in the DB.
  • Uses a conceptual or an implementation data
    model.
  • External schemas describe the user views.
  • Typically uses the same data model as the
    conceptual level.
  • Many DBMSs do not support/separate all three
    levels.

11
Three-Schema Architecture - 3
  • Mappings among schema levels are needed to
    transform requests and data.
  • Programs refer to an external schema, and are
    mapped by the DBMS to the internal schema for
    execution.
  • Data extracted from the internal DBMS level is
    reformatted to match the users external view
    (e.g. formatting the results of an SQL query for
    display in a Web page)

12
Three-Schema Architecture 4.
13
Program/Data Independence
  • Logical Data Independence The External Views
    (applications) are immune to the changes in the
    conceptual level and physical level schemas.
  • Physical Data Independence The External Views
    (applications) Conceptual Level Schemas
    (conceptual and logical schema) are immune to
    the changes in physical level schemas.

14
Program/Data Independence 2.
  • When a schema at a lower level is changed, only
    the mappings between this schema and higher-level
    ones need to be changed.
  • The higher-level schemas themselves are
    unchanged.
  • Application programs are unaffected since they
    refer to the external schemas, hence program/data
    independence.

15
DBMS Languages - 1
  • Data Definition Language (DDL) Used by the DBA
    and database designers to specify the conceptual
    schema of a database. In many DBMSs, the DDL is
    also used to define internal and external schemas
    (views).
  • Some DBMSs (that have a clear separation between
    conceptual and internal levels) have a separate
    storage definition language (SDL) and view
    definition language (VDL) to define internal and
    external schemas.

16
DBMS Languages - 2
  • Data Manipulation Language (DML)
  • Used to specify database retrievals and updates
  • DML commands (data sublanguage) can be embedded
    in a general-purpose programming language (host
    language), such as COBOL, C, C, or Java.
  • Alternatively, stand-alone DML commands can be
    applied directly (called a query language).

17
DBMS Languages 3.
  • High Level or Non-procedural Language
  • For example, the SQL relational language
  • Are set-oriented and specify what data to
    retrieve rather than how to retrieve it.
  • Also called declarative languages.
  • Low Level or Procedural Language
  • Retrieve data one record-at-a-time
  • Constructs such as looping are needed to retrieve
    multiple records, along with positioning pointers.

18
DBMS Interfaces - 1
  • Stand-alone query language interfaces
  • Example Entering SQL queries at the DBMS
    interactive SQL interface (e.g. SQLPlus in
    ORACLE)
  • Programmer interfaces for embedding DML in
    programming languages
  • User-friendly interfaces
  • Menu-based, forms-based, graphics-based, etc.
  • Which approach does PhP/MySQL use?

19
DBMS Interfaces - 2.
  • User-friendly interfaces
  • Menu-based, popular for browsing on the web
  • Forms-based, designed for naïve users
  • Graphics-based (PointnClick, DragnDrop etc.)
  • Natural language requests in written English,
    e.g. give me all products from vendor 10 that
    cost more than 200
  • Combinations of the above

20
Other DBMS Interfaces
  • Speech as Input and Output
  • Web Browser as an interface
  • Parametric interfaces, e.g., bank tellers using
    function keys.
  • Interfaces for the DBA
  • Creating user accounts, granting authorizations
  • Setting system parameters
  • Changing schemas or access paths

21
Database System Utilities
  • To perform certain functions such as
  • Loading data stored in files into a database.
    Includes data conversion tools.
  • Backing up the database periodically on tape.
  • Reorganizing database file structures.
  • Report generation utilities.
  • Performance monitoring utilities.
  • Other functions, such as sorting, user
    monitoring, data compression, etc.

22
Other Tools
  • Data dictionary / repository
  • Used to store schema descriptions and other
    information such as design decisions, application
    program descriptions, user information, usage
    standards, etc.

23
Other Tools
  • Application Development Environments and CASE
    (computer-aided software engineering) tools
  • Examples
  • PowerBuilder (Sybase)
  • JBuilder (Borland)
  • JDeveloper 10G (Oracle)

24
Typical DBMS Components
25
Centralized and Client-Server DBMS Architectures
  • Centralized DBMS
  • Combines everything into single system including-
    DBMS software, hardware, application programs,
    and user interface processing software.
  • User can still connect through a remote terminal
    however, all processing is done at centralized
    site.

26
A Physical Centralized Architecture
27
Basic 2-tier Client-Server Architectures
  • Specialized Servers with Specialized functions
  • Print server
  • File server
  • DBMS server
  • Web server
  • Email server
  • Clients can access the specialized servers as
    needed

28
Logical two-tier client server architecture
29
Clients
  • Provide appropriate interfaces through a client
    software module to access and utilize the various
    server resources.
  • Clients may be diskless machines or PCs or
    Workstations with disks with only the client
    software installed.
  • Connected to the servers via some form of a
    network.
  • (LAN local area network, wireless network, etc.)

30
DBMS Server
  • Provides database query and transaction services
    to the clients
  • Relational DBMS servers are often called SQL
    servers, query servers, or transaction servers
  • Applications running on clients utilize an
    Application Program Interface (API) to access
    server databases via standard interface such as
  • ODBC Open Database Connectivity standard
  • JDBC for Java programming access
  • Client and server must install appropriate client
    and server module software for ODBC or JDBC

31
Two Tier Client-Server Architecture
  • A client program may connect to several DBMSs,
    sometimes called the data sources.
  • Data sources can be files or other non-DBMS
    software that manages data.
  • Other variations of clients are possible e.g.,
    in some object DBMSs, functionality is
    transferred to clients including data dictionary
    functions, optimization and recovery across
    multiple servers, etc.

32
Three Tier Client-Server Architecture
  • Common for Web applications
  • Intermediate Layer called application server or
    web server
  • Stores the web connectivity software and the
    business logic part of the application used to
    access the corresponding data from the database
    server
  • Acts like a conduit for sending partially
    processed data between the database server and
    the client.
  • Three-tier architecture can enhance security
  • Database server only accessible via middle tier
  • Clients cannot directly access database server

33
Three-tier client-server architecture
34
Classification of DBMSs
  • Based on the data model used
  • Traditional Relational, Network, Hierarchical.
  • Emerging Object-oriented, Object-relational.
  • Other classifications
  • Single-user (typically used with personal
    computers)vs. multi-user (most DBMSs).
  • Centralized (uses a single computer with one
    database) vs. distributed (uses multiple
    computers, multiple databases)

35
Variations of Distributed DBMSs (DDBMSs)
  • Homogeneous DDBMS
  • Heterogeneous DDBMS
  • Federated or Multidatabase Systems
  • Distributed Database Systems have now come to be
    known as client-server based database systems
    because
  • They do not support a totally distributed
    environment, but rather a set of database servers
    supporting a set of clients.

36
Cost Considerations for DBMSs
  • Cost Range from free open-source systems to
    configurations costing millions of dollars
  • Examples of free relational DBMSs MySQL,
    PostgreSQL, others
  • Commercial DBMS offer additional specialized
    modules, e.g. time-series module, spatial data
    module, document module, XML module
  • These offer additional specialized functionality
    when purchased separately
  • Different licensing options site license,
    maximum number of concurrent users (seat
    license), single user, etc.

37
Summary
  • Data Models and Their Categories
  • Schemas, Instances, and States
  • Three-Schema Architecture
  • Data Independence
  • DBMS Languages and Interfaces
  • Database System Utilities and Tools
  • Centralized and Client-Server Architectures
  • Classification of DBMSs
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