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Response to Intervention

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Title: Response to Intervention


1
Response to Intervention
  • In Pennsylvania
  • Presented by
  • Judy Marquette

2
What Is Response to Intervention?
  • A comprehensive, multi-tiered intervention
    strategy to enable early identification and
    intervention for students at academic or
    behavioral risk.
  • An alternative to the discrepancy model for the
    identification of students with learning
    disabilities.

3
Key Characteristics of RtI
  • Universal Screening of academics and behavior
  • Multiple tiers of increasingly intense
    interventions
  • Differentiated curriculum-tiered intervention
    strategy
  • Use of scientifically research-based
    interventions
  • Continuous monitoring of student performance
  • Benchmark/Outcome assessment

4
Pennsylvanias Three-tiered Model
  • An Integrated Approach (General, Remedial and
    Special Education)
  • Based upon a functional perspective
  • Focused on academic/behavioral growth of all
    students
  • Student needs exist on a continuum
  • Resources organized and provided in direct
    proportion to student need
  • Implementation
  • Scientifically research-based practices
  • Problem Solving Model
  • A Best Practice approach
  • Considers all system variables (child, teacher,
    environment)
  • Results in objective and measurable interventions
    (evidence-based)

5
Pennsylvania
Response to Intervention Model
Tier 3 Intensive Interventions for Low
Performing Students Alter curriculum, Add time,
support resources
Continuum of Time, Intensity and Data Increases
Percentage of Students Requiring Intensive
Supports Decreases
Tier 2 Strategic and Targeted
Interventions for Students At Risk for
Failure Strategic Instruction, Increased Time and
Opportunity to Learn
Strategic Interventions for Students at Risk of
Academic Failure
Tier I Benchmark and School Wide
Interventions for Students on Grade-level
(benchmark) and All Students (Effective
Instructional Practices provided within the
General Education Curriculum)
6
What are interventions?
  • Targeted assistance based on progress monitoring
  • Administered by teacher and/or specialist
  • Provide additional instruction (individual or
    small group)
  • Match materials to instructional level
  • Modify modes of task presentation
  • Modify instruction time
  • Increase task structure
  • Increase task relevant practice

McCook, J., LRP Conference, December 2005
7
What are interventions?
  • Mini-lesson on skills deficits
  • Decrease group size
  • Increase amount and type of cues and prompts
  • Teach additional strategies
  • Change curriculum
  • Change types and method of corrective feedback
  • Etc.

McCook, J., LRP Conference, December 2005
8
Interventions are NOT
  • Preferential seating
  • Shortened assignments
  • Parent contacts
  • Classroom observations
  • Suspension
  • Doing more of the same assignments
  • Retention

McCook, J., LRP Conference, December 2005
9
A Standard Protocol Intervention
  • Is scientifically research-based.
  • Has a high probability of producing change for
    large numbers of students.
  • Is designed to be used in a standard manner
    across students.
  • Is usually delivered individually or in small
    groups.
  • Is often scripted or very structured.
  • Can be orchestrated by a problem-solving team.

10
Tier 1 Benchmark/Schoolwide
  • Data Analysis Teaming
  • Effective Instruction
  • Universal Screening
  • Progress Monitoring
  • General Education Curriculum
  • Schoolwide Behavior Support

Tier I Benchmark and School Wide
Interventions for Students on Grade-level
(benchmark) and All Students (Effective
Instructional Practices provided within the
General Education Curriculum)
11
Tier 1 Benchmark/Schoolwide
  • Definition Students who are making expected
    progress in the general education curriculum and
    who demonstrate social competence
  • Describes school-wide interventions that are
    available to all students
  • Effective instruction
  • Clear expectations
  • Effective student support
  • Periodic benchmark assessments
  • Universal prevention

12
Tier 1 Benchmark/Schoolwide
Universal Prevention, Screening, Monitoring
  • Teachers implement a variety of scientifically
    research-based teaching strategies and approaches
  • Students receive differentiated instruction based
    on data from ongoing assessments.
  • High quality instructional and behavioral
    supports are provided for all students in general
    education
  • School personnel conduct universal screening of
    literacy skills, academics, and behavior.

Adapted from Kovaleski (2005). Special
Education Decision Making ppt.
13
Tier 2 Strategic/Targeted
Tier 2 Strategic and Targeted
Interventions for Students At Risk for
Failure Strategic Instruction, Increased Time
and Opportunity to Learn
Targeted Skill based Interventions More Frequent
Progress Monitoring
14
Tier 2 Strategic/Targeted
  • Definition Academic and behavioral strategies,
    methodologies and practices designed for students
    not making expected progress in the general
    education curriculum and/or have mild to moderate
    difficulties demonstrating social competence.
    These students are at risk for academic failure.

15
Tier 2 Strategic Interventions
  • Use of standard protocol interventions
  • Scientifically research-based interventions
  • Academic reading math
  • Behavior
  • Core instruction with supplemental materials
  • Differentiated instruction in general ed.
  • Specialists assist with strategic instruction in
    regular classroom

16
Tier 3 Intensive Interventions
Tier 3 Intensive Interventions for Low
Performing Students Alter curriculum, Add time,
support resources
Intensive instruction Small Group skill-based
instruction Weekly Progress Monitoring
17
Tier 3 Intensive Interventions
  • Definition Academic and behavioral strategies,
    methodologies and practices designed for students
    significantly lagging behind established
    grade-level benchmarks in the general education
    curriculum or who demonstrate significant
    difficulties with behavioral and social
    competence.

18
Tier 3 Intensive Interventions
  • Use of standard protocols
  • Supplemental instructional materials
  • Small intensive groups
  • Can be outside the general ed. classroom
  • Tutoring by remedial educators
  • 10-20 week interventions

19
Pennsylvania
Response to Intervention Model
20
IST to RtIWhere we have been Where we are
going
  • Academic Standards
  • PSSA/PASA
  • Access to General Education Curriculum
  • Curriculum Aligned with Academic Standards
  • Scientific Research Base
  • State-wide Emphasis on Data-Informed
    Decision-Making
  • PVAAS
  • State-wide Dibels Training Support for All
    Students
  • State-wide Positive Behavior Support Training
  • State-wide Progress Monitoring Training
  • Tutoring Extended Learning Opportunities
  • Assessment Anchors
  • Focus on All Students-All Subgroups
  • School Improvement Model
  • Inclusive Practices

21
Layers of Support for RtI Implementation
  • School- District Regional State-wide
  • Strategic, Structured Proactive
  • RtI Pilot School Program
  • RtI Framework
  • Resource Tool Kits
  • Regional Trainer-of-Trainer Series
  • Ongoing Topical Area Workshops Trainings
  • Intermediate Unit Technical Assistance
    Consultants
  • Special Education Curriculum Consultants
  • Training and On-site assistance
  • Build Capacity to support all schools

22
RtI Pilot School Program
  • Competitive Application Process
  • 7 RtI Pilot Schools selected - representing
    state-wide distribution
  • Selection of the pilot schools required that
    designated core components of RtI are already in
    place
  • The school-wide nature of the RtI model required
    that the core components be viewed as
    prerequisites
  • Required to insure both the opportunity for
    success and accurate evaluation of RtI
    implementation outcomes
  • Required to indicate the full commitment of both
    district and intermediate unit administrators
  • Required to indicate the full commitment of both
    special and general educators.

23
RtI Pilot School Program
  • Competitive Application Process
  • Interested districts demonstrated the following
    Essential Criteria
  • Effective implementation of a scientific,
    research-based core curriculum in both reading
    and math.
  • Administrative mandate and support for all
    aspects of training and implementation of the
    model. Including participation in all necessary
    training, teaming, and data collection activities
    required in implementation.
  • Flexibility in models of service delivery
    allowing
  • Flexibility in staff roles (regular, special,
    remedial educators)
  • Flexibility in student grouping
  • Flexibility in scheduling
  • A culture supporting data based decision making
    through universal screening and progress
    monitoring
  • School, grade, or student specific teaming
  • Scheduled team meetings
  • Team access to school data school data
  • Universal screening (DIBELS, etc)
  • Support to implement with fidelity scientific,
    research-based interventions by regular, special
    and remedial educators.

24
RtI Pilots Support for Implementation
  • School-wide implementation
  • District-wide administrative supports
  • Region-wide professional development support
  • State-wide professional development resources

25
RtI PilotsSupport for Implementation
  • Partnerships to Support All students and All
    educators
  • Local, Regional, State Partnerships
  • School-wide RtI Pilot Team Comprehensive
    Representation
  • Intermediate Unit Assistance Both Special
    Education Curriculum
  • PaTTAN Consultants East, Central West Regions
  • University Partners Research Assistance
  • State Level Collaboration
  • Engaged Parents and Community
  • Build Local Regional Capacity to implement a
    school-wide RtI system which can be replicated in
    other schools

26
RtI PilotsImpact - Research
  • Our University partners will conduct extensive
    data collection and analysis at the pilot sites
    to evaluate the impact of the program. A variety
    of research questions will be posed including
  • What is the impact of implementation of the RtI
    process on the districts achievement of adequate
    yearly progress, on the number of students
    receiving special education, and on other
    progress measures (PVAAS)?
  • What is acceptable progress?
  • What are appropriate criteria for movement
    through the tiers?
  • What are appropriate criteria for eligibility
    determination?
  • How is the RtI of students in special education
    determined?


27
RtI Pilot Orientation Event
28
Alignment of RtI Model Framework for
Implementation
Preparation and Training
Determination of Eligibility
Administrative Supports
Parental Involvement
Universal Screening
Data Analysis
Collaboration with the RtI Process
Strategic Targeted Interventions
Benchmark School-wide Interventions
Intensive Interventions
Intensive Progress Monitoring
Progress Monitoring
Tier 3 Intensive Interventions
Tier 2 Strategic Targeted Interventions
for Students at Risk
Tier 1 Benchmark and School Wide Interventions
for Students on Target and All Students
29
RtI Framework
Content
Process
30
RtI Framework Components
  • Administrative Supports
  • Preparation Training
  • Tier I Benchmark School-wide Interventions for
    All Students
  • Universal Screening
  • Data Analysis
  • Tier 2 Strategic Targeted Interventions
  • Tier 2 Progress Monitoring
  • Tier 3 Intensive Interventions
  • Tier 3 Progress Monitoring
  • Collaboration with the RtI Process
  • Determination of Eligibility
  • Parental Involvement

31
RtI Support for Implementation
  • Resources RTI TOOL KIT Development
  • 1. Overview of RTI
  • 2. Universal Screening
  • 3. Data Analysis Teaming
  • 4. Evaluating and Selecting Core Curricula
  • 5. School Intervention Model - Differentiated
    Instruction
  • 6. Explicit Instruction Strategies
  • 7. Progress Monitoring
  • 8. Problem-Solving Teaming
  • 9. Positive Behavior Supports
  • 10. Using RtI in the Determination of Eligibility
    for Special Education
  • 11. Training for Principals and Administrators
  • 12. RTI Applications at the Secondary Level


32
Pennsylvania RtI Implementation
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