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RFID in Action RFID Principles

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Title: RFID in Action RFID Principles


1
RFID in Action RFID Principles Applications
along the Value Chain
  • Alfio Grasso
  • Deputy Director, Auto-ID Lab, Adelaide

2
Overview
  • Essential RFID Basic Concepts Components
  • RFID Applications
  • RFID Standards current and emerging
  • 10 Steps to RFID Deployment!
  • RFID Learnings
  • Auto-ID Lab, Adelaide
  • Conclusions

3
Essential RFID Basic Concepts Components
  • Skip to RFID Applications

4
RFID
  • Radio Frequency Identification
  • Automatic Data Capture
  • Uses RF to communicate
  • Basic Elements
  • Tags
  • Readers/Antennas
  • Host CPU

5
Tag reading
The black spot
Reader Tx typically 1W, 6dB gain Antenna But
propagation loss, resulting Rx at Tag typically
µW On tag, RF energy used for DC power and
modulation More loss back to Reader Rx Therefore
a very weak reply is obtained
6
RFID Systems
  • Tags
  • Attached to objects or items
  • Contains electronics (chip), and antenna
  • Most are passive (no power source)
  • Active tags have a battery
  • Readers
  • Contains electronics, Tx, Rx and control
  • Connected to antenna(s), mostly external
  • Energise tags (passive tags)
  • Commands tags (wake up battery assist tags,
    enables management of the tag population)
  • Receive tag replies

7
Gen 2
8
Gen 2 Compliant Readers
9
RFID Antenna(s)
10
Host CPU
  • Application
  • Do something with the tag information
  • Potential to generate massive amounts of data
  • Once installed it costs virtually NOTHING to read
    a tag!
  • Real time data gt real time decisions
  • OHIO (Zero Human Involvement Operations)
  • Term defined by John Greaves, CHEP International

11
RFID Physics
12
Maxwells Equations in Differential Form
Vortex
  • Two basic forms of field
  • Vortex Field lines go in closed loops (top 2)
  • Source Fields emerge outward from a source
    (bottom 2)

Source
13
What they tell us
  • Maxwell's equations tell us that even in the
    absence of charges or currents at a point, a
    varying field (either E or H) will create a
    vortex of the other type of field (H or E).
  • Maxwells equations also tell us what happens
    near a metallic surface
  • Electric Field is perpendicular to the surface
  • Magnetic Field is tangential to the surface

14
Electromagnetic propagation
15
Near and far field distributions
  • Electric field launched by an electric dipole
  • There is also a magnetic field not shown
  • Near the antenna a source field is created
  • Far field a vortex is created

16
Near and far fields
  • The far field is an energy propagating field
  • The near field is an energy storage field
  • Near field - far field boundary is l/2p
  • Boundary
  • 13.56 MHz 3.5 m
  • 915 MHz 52 mm

17
Boundary Condition electric field
18
Boundary Condition magnetic field
19
The basic laws how they work
  • Gausss law
  • Electric flux deposits charge
  • Electric field cannot just go past a conductor,
    it must turn and meet it at right angles
  • Faradays law
  • Oscillating magnetic flux induces voltage in a
    loop that it links

20
Planar printed coil
  • 13.56 MHz tag
  • Magnetic field normal to plane of tag, i.e.
    coming out of or into the slide
  • Induced voltage in coil
  • Voltage magnified by resonance, coil tuned to
    input capacitance of the circuit
  • Not suitable for mounting on metal, but can mount
    normal to metal surface.

21
Ferrite cored solenoid
Suitable for placing against metal
22
Electric field bow tie
Small antenna that just respond to electric
field, which in this case is in the horizontal
direction
23
Electric field box structure
Electric Field is vertical, bottom plate could be
placed on the metal surface.
24
RFID Applications
  • Skip to RFID Standards

Non Supply Chain Applications
25
Electronic Toll Collection
26
Extended Read Range
27
Vehicle ID, Sugar Industry
Photos courtesy of Mirrabooka Systems
28
Steel Production
29
Hot-Axle Detection and RFID
Photo courtesy of Sugar Research Institute
30
Location ID
31
Location ID
32
Industrial Waste Management
33
Domestic Waste Management
34
Manufacturing
Photo taken at Hendersons Automotive Technologies
Pty Ltd
35
Library
Photos courtesy of the National Library Board
Singapore
36
Warehouse Management
Photo taken at Carlton United Beverages
37
Warehouse Management
38
Paper Roll Identification
39
Vehicle Manufacture
40
Why Now!
  • Recent improvements in tag and reader technology
  • Better performance
  • Easier deployment and maintenance
  • Better use of existing infrastructure and
    technologies
  • Improvements in tag and reader manufacturing
  • Cheaper tags and readers
  • Industry standardisation
  • EPCglobal and ISO

41
Forecast
  • IDTechEx released the 2007 update to its annual
    ten-year forecast on the RFID market. Some of its
    key predictions for 2007are
  • IDTechEx expects 1.71 billion tags will be sold
    this year across all sectors, from supply chain
    to retail to public transport to national ID
    cards.
  • Case- and pallet-tagging, driven largely by U.S.
    mandates, will contribute 420 million units to
    this total, rising to one billion in 2009.
  • The aggregate value of the RFID market will be
    just shy of 5 billion in 2007.
  • The largest piece of the market will be RFID
    cards, contributing 2.99 billion. The remaining
    1.97 billion will come from supply chain labels,
    tickets, fobs, etc.
  • Excluding the RFID card business, the U.S. market
    will continue to dominate globally, with 58.4
    percent. Europe will have 33 percent. If the RFID
    card business is taken into account, China is the
    dominant market, (national ID card initiative).
  • IDTechEx predicts the RFID market value will hit
    27.88 billion ten years from now, in 2017.

Source RFID Update 1 Feb 2007
42
Standards
  • EPCglobal
  • ISO
  • Regulatory

Skip to 10 Steps
43
EPCglobal
44
Standards Development Structure
Discussion Groups (no opt-in/IP and open to
everybody)

Level 0
Consumer Electronics
Aerospace
Chemical
Automotive
Requested Provision
Industry Action Groups (optional opt-in/IP)

Level 1
Retail SC FMCG/AFF
HLS
TLS
??
Business Drivers Use Cases


Joint Requirement Groups (opt-in/IP)
Cross Industry Adoption Implementation Groups
(no opt-in/IP)
Item Level Tagging
Active Tagging
Level 2
Tag Data
Reusable Transport Item
Sensors Batteries
Adoption Programmes
Implementation Sharing
Data Exchange
Requirements
Technical Action Groups (opt-in/IP)

Level 3
Software Action Group
Hardware Action Group
45
General Information of Groups
  • PPSC
  • Released EMF Best Practices
  • Limits on human exposure
  • Discussion Groups
  • Consumer Electronics
  • Automotive
  • Chemical
  • Aerospace Defence
  • Fibre Packaging

46
Joint Requirements Group
  • Item Level Tagging
  • Sensors Battery-Assist Passive Tagging
  • Tag Data (User Memory TID)
  • Active Tagging
  • Drug Pedigree Messaging
  • Data Exchange
  • FMCG Data Exchange Pilot
  • Reusable Transport Items (new)

47
Cross Industry Adoption
  • Implementation Sharing (IS)
  • Cookbook
  • http//www.epcglobalinc.org/what/cookbook
  • Gen 2 Migration
  • Key Performance Indicators
  • European Adoption Programme (EAP)
  • Asian Adoption Program (AAP)

48
Industry Action Groups
  • Retail Supply Chain (RSC)
  • Apparel, Fashion and Footwear (AFF)
  • Store Level Operations and Processes
  • Supply Chain Process
  • Tagging Requirements
  • Media and Entertainment (ME)

49
Industry Action Groups
  • Health and Life Sciences (HLS)
  • HLS Task Force Industry Adoption
  • Track Trace
  • Serialisation
  • Medical Devices

50
Industry Action Groups
  • Transportation and Logistics
  • Transportation
  • 4 Walls
  • Import Export
  • Integration
  • Global Pilot
  • Multi-Sourcing EPC Assignment (new)

51
Technical Action Groups
  • Hardware Action Groups
  • Software Action Groups

52
HAG Working Groups
  • Class 1 Generation 2 (Work completed)
  • Gen 2 Testing Certification
  • Air Interface (Item Level Tagging)
  • UHF AI
  • HF AI
  • Interoperability
  • Tag, Label, Reader Printer Performance
  • General Metrics
  • Tag Inlay
  • Reader and Tag Performance
  • Ad-Hocs
  • Product Data Protection
  • ETSI (Complete, but may re-start, LBT)
  • Health Science
  • Sensors Batteries

53
SAG Working Groups
  • Reader Protocol gt Reader Operations
  • Reader Management (Complete)
  • Filtering and Collection (Phase 1 Complete)
  • ONS (Complete)
  • Security (Phase 1 Complete)
  • EPCIS Phase 2
  • Tag Data Translation Standards (Phase 1
    Complete)
  • Drug Pedigree Messaging (Complete)

54
(No Transcript)
55
EPC Event Layers
56
EPCIS Concepts
57
Capture Application
58
EPCglobal Specifications
  • http//www.epcglobalinc.org/standards/
  • EPC Tag Data Standard, V1.3
  • EPC Tag Data Translation Standard, V1.0
  • Class 1 Generation 2 UHF Air Interface Protocol
    Standard V1.0.9 "Gen 2
  • Class1 Gen2 Conformance, V1.0
  • Reader Protocol (RP) Standard, V1.1
  • Reader Management (RM) Standard, V1.0
  • Application Level Events (ALE) Standard, V1.0
  • Object Naming Service (ONS) Standard, V1.0
  • EPCglobal Certificate Profile Standard, V1.0
  • Drug Pedigree Standard, V1.0

59
Best Practice
  • Recommended Occupational Use Best Practices for
    Complying with Limits on Human Exposure to
    Electromagnetic Fields (EMF)
  • http//www.epcglobalinc.org/public/bestpractice/EP
    Cglobal_Best_Practices_January_2007.pdf
  • EPCglobal Information Paper on Health Science
    Aspects of RFID
  • http//www.epcglobalinc.org/apps/org/workgroup/sub
    scriber/download.php/6711/latest/EMF20Information
    20Paper20Jan202007.pdf

60
2007 Work Plan
  • Completion of the hardware, software, and data
    interfaces standard set
  • RATIFICATION of STANDARDS expected
  • ALE (Application Level Event Filtering and
    Collection) 1.1
  • Reader Operations (DCI) 1.0
  • UHF Item Level Tagging 1.0
  • Sensor and Battery Tagging 1.0
  • Tag Data Standard 1.4
  • HF Item Level Tagging 1.0
  • EPCIS Version 1.2 (ePedigree, Traceability)
  • Active Tagging 1.0
  • Completion of Transportation and Logistics Pilot
    Phase 2
  • Development of a Track and Trace Standard that
    addresses the need for pedigree on demand
  • Formation of Industry Action Group and
    appropriate work groups for consumer electronics,
    aerospace defence and chemicals industries

61
ISO Standards
62
RF Regulations
  • Regulators
  • Classify RFID as Industrial, Scientific and
    Medical use.
  • ISO has 18000 standards that cover MOST of the
    ISM bands.

63
ISM Bands
64
Air Interface Protocols
  • 18000 Air Interface Protocols for Item Management
  • 125-134 kHz (ISO 18000-2)
  • 13.56 MHz or HF (ISO 18000-3)
  • 433 MHz (ISO 18000-7)
  • 860 to 960 MHz or UHF (ISO 18000-6)
  • Includes EPCglobal C1G2 V1.1.0 as 6TC
  • 2.45 GHz (ISO 18000-4)
  • 5.8 GHz (no ISO standard)

65
Other RFID Standards
  • ISO/IEC 18000-1
  • Reference architecture and definition of
    parameters to be standardized
  • ISO/IEC TR18001
  • Application requirements profiles
  • Now a standard ISO/IEC 16997
  • ISO/IEC 18046
  • Performance Test Methods
  • Part 1 - RFID System
  • Part 2 - Interrogator
  • Part 3 - Tag

66
Conformance Test Methods
  • ISO/IEC TR18047-2
  • Test methods for air interface communications
    below 135 kHz
  • ISO/IEC TR18047-3
  • Test methods for air interface communications at
    13,56 MHz
  • ISO/IEC TR18047-4
  • Test methods for air interface communications at
    2.45 GHz
  • ISO/IEC TR18047-6
  • Test methods for air interface communications at
    860 to 960 MHz
  • ISO/IEC TR18047-7
  • Test methods for air interface communications at
    433 MHz

67
Other Relevant ISO Standards
  • ISO/IEC 10374
  • Freight containers Automatic identification
  • ISO/IEC 11784
  • Radio Frequency Identification of Animals - Code
    Structure
  • ISO/IEC 11785
  • Radio-Frequency Identification of Animals -
    Technical Concept
  • ISO/IEC 14223
  • Radio-Frequency Identification of Animals -
    Advanced Transponders
  • ISO/IEC 15418
  • EAN/UCC Application Identifiers and Fact Data
    Identifiers and Maintenance

68
  • ISO/IEC 15424
  • Data Carrier Identifiers (including Symbology
    Identifiers)
  • ISO/IEC 15434
  • Transfer syntax for high capacity ADC media
  • ISO/IEC 15459
  • Unique identification of transport units
  • Part 1 General
  • Part 2 Registration procedures
  • Part 3 Common Rules for Unique Identifiers
  • Part 4 Unique Identifiers for Supply Chain
    Management
  • Part 5 Returnable Transport Items
  • Part 6 Product Groupings in material lifecycle
    management

69
  • ISO/IEC 15960
  • Transaction Message Profiles
  • ISO/IEC 15961
  • Data protocol
  • Part 1 - Application interface
  • Part 2 Registration of Data Constructs
  • Part 3 RFID Data Constructs
  • ISO/IEC 15962
  • Data protocol data encoding rules and logical
    memory functions
  • ISO/IEC 15963
  • Unique identification for RF tags
  • ISO/IEC 16997
  • Application Requirements Profile

70
  • ISO/IEC 17363
  • Supply chain applications of RFID - Freight
    containers
  • ISO/IEC 17364
  • Supply chain applications of RFID - Returnable
    transport items
  • ISO/IEC 17365
  • Supply chain applications of RFID - Transport
    units
  • ISO/IEC 17366
  • Supply chain applications of RFID - Product
    packaging
  • ISO/IEC 17367
  • Supply chain applications of RFID - Product
    tagging

71
  • ISO/IEC 18185
  • Freight containers - Electronic seals
  • Part 1, Communication protocol
  • Part 2, Application requirements - Approved
  • Part 3, Environmental characteristics - Approved
  • Part 7, Physical layer
  • Part 4, Data protection
  • Part 6, Messages sets for transfer between seal
    reader and host computer
  • Part 5, Sensor interface
  • Withdrawn - 18185 is a read-only tag

72
  • ISO/IEC 19762
  • Harmonised Vocabulary
  • Part 1General Terms Relating to AIDC
  • Part 2 Optically Readable Media
  • Part 3 Radio Frequency Identification
  • Part 4 Conceptual Relationship between Terms
  • Part 5 Locating Systems

73
  • ISO/IEC 21007
  • Gas Cylinders - Identification and Marking Using
    Radio Frequency Identification Technology
  • Part 1 Reference Architecture and Terminology
  • Part 2 Numbering Schemes for Radio Frequency

74
Other Relevant ISO Standards
  • ISO/IEC 24710
  • Elementary Tag Licence Plate functionality, for
    18000-2 to 18000-7
  • ISO/IEC 24720
  • Guidelines for direct part marking
  • ISO/IEC 24729
  • Implementation guidelines
  • Part 1 RFID enabled labels
  • Part 2 - Recyclability of RF Tags
  • Part 3 - RFID Interrogator/Antenna Installation

75
  • ISO/IEC 24730
  • Real Time Location Systems
  • Part 1 Application Program Interface
  • Part 2 2.45 GHz air interface protocol
  • Part 3 433 MHz air interface (Cancelled)
  • Part 4 Global Locating Systems
  • ISO/IEC 24752
  • System Management Protocol
  • ISO/IEC 24753
  • Application Protocol Encoding and processing
    rules for sensors and batteries

76
  • ISO/IEC 24769
  • RTLS Device Conformance Test Methods
  • ISO/IEC 24770
  • RTLS Device Performance Test Methods
  • ISO/IEC 24791
  • RFID for Item Management Software System
    Infrastructure
  • Part 1 Device Management
  • Part 2 Data Management
  • Part 3 Application Management
  • Part 4 Application Interface
  • Part 5 Device Management
  • Part 6 Security

77
Regulatory Standards
  • Up to date information available from
  • http//www.epcglobalinc.org/tech/freq_reg/RFID_at_
    UHF_Regulations_20061124.pdf

78
UHF
  • The UHF tags will be able to be read by readers
    operating within 860 960 MHz range.
  • The readers will be restricted to a small subset
    of this range depending on where in the world
    they are being operated.
  • There are also regulations on the amount of power
    emitted by the readers depending on where the
    readers are being used.
  • Therefore, a tag may be applied to an item and
    shipped anywhere in the world, but a reader has
    to be specifically set up for the region or
    country

79
Map of the ITU regions
80
ITU Region 1 (EU and Africa) EN300-220 EN302-208
  • CEPT countries
  • 869.4 - 869.65 MHz 500mW erp DClt10
  • 865.6 - 867.6 MHz 2W erp LBT
  • South Africa
  • 869.4 - 869.65 MHz 500mW erp
  • 915.2 - 915.4 MHz 8 W eirp
  • Note all of the above operate in lt 250kHz
    channels

81
ITU Region 2 (Americas) FCC Part 15.247
  • USA, Canada and Mexico
  • 902 - 928 MHz 4W EIRP FHSS, 500kHz wide
    channels permitted relaxed emission
    requirements within the whole band.
  • Central South America
  • Generally similar to North America but varies
    from country to country.

82
ITU Region 3 (Asia)
  • Singapore
  • 866-869 MHz 0.5W ERP 920-925 2W ERP (licence)
  • Australia
  • 918 - 926 MHz 1W EIRP
  • 920 926 MHz 4W EIRP
  • Experimental
  • Strict conditions apply
  • Elsewhere in Asia
  • Generally follow CEPT some exceptions below
  • New Zealand 864 - 868 MHz 4W EIRP
  • China 917 to 922 2W ERP
  • Hong Kong 865-868 2W ERP 920-925 4W EIRP
  • Japan 952 - 954 MHz 4W EIRP (licensed)
  • Malaysia 919-923 MHz, 2W ERP
  • South-Korea 910 914 MHz
  • Taiwan 922-928 1W ERP (indoor) 0.5W (outdoor)

83
European Recommendation
  • Draft ETSI TR 102 436 Technical Report
  • Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum
    Matters (ERM)
  • Installation and commissioning of RFID systems
    operating at UHF

84
AIM RFID Emblem
  • AIM Global's RFID Experts Group (REG)
  • Visual aid to workers
  • Help find and identify the presence (and type) of
    RFID tag in a label, tag or item.
  • Also identify compatible printer/encoders and
    readers
  • http//www.aimglobal.org/standards/RFIDEmblem/

85
Implementation Plan
  • 10 Essential Steps

Auto-ID Lab, Adelaide
86
1 - Definition
  • Define your RFID implementation metrics
  • Compliance
  • Reduce Inventory
  • Stock Visibility
  • Reduce Costs
  • Increase asset utilisation
  • Reduce shrinkage
  • Reduce/eliminate shipping errors
  • Consider existing infrastructure
  • Vendors
  • Customers

87
Plan Cont
  • Investigate world standards ISO or EPC
  • Choose frequency of operation
  • 13.56 (HF) or 860 to 960 MHz (UHF)
  • Extensive pilot or test plan
  • Develop assessment criteria for solution
    providers
  • Minimise scope creep!

88
Business case ROI
  • Create a cross functional team
  • Senior Executives from manufacturing, operations,
    packaging, warehouse management, security and
    finance
  • Educate the Team
  • Real RFID performance and expectations
  • Leverage the data, both internally amongst
    operational departments, but eventually with
    outside trading partners

Source The Road to ROI, RFID Journal Mar 2005
89
Business case ROI Cont
  • Identify the problems and opportunities
  • Resolve issues
  • Change to processes, packaging etc
  • Define the scope of the RFID deployment
  • Concentrate on which macro-level problem will
    deliver the most benefits to the organisation
  • List factors within the companys control that
    contribute to that macro-level problem
  • Narrow the scope, maybe by region, department or
    area.
  • Consider pallet level rather than case or item

90
Business case ROI Cont
  • Analyse operations and processes
  • Itemise the business processes, quantifying
    processes
  • Breakdown all processes, not just the clearly
    inefficient ones
  • Prioritise Projects
  • Could end up with 5 to 7 RFID projects
  • Can the same RFID infrastructure be used for more
    than 1 project?
  • Related projects most likely to deliver results

91
Business case ROI Cont
  • Assess financial impact
  • Benefits as well as costs
  • Tag and Reader costs
  • Installation (power, comms, antenna
    infrastructure)
  • Operational Costs
  • Impact of other projects
  • Other projects may add to the benefits and yet
    reduce costs

92
Business case ROI Cont
  • Sensitivity Analysis
  • Cost of components, tags, reader etc.
  • Mandates
  • Revisit the business case regularly
  • As with any plan, review and re-evaluation is key
    to its success
  • Report progress

93
Wal-Mart results
  • University of Arkansas 29 week Wal-Mart study
  • 16 reduction in out-of-stocks
  • Out-of-stock items with RFID were replenished
    three times faster than comparable items using
    traditional bar codes.
  • Wal-Mart also saw a 10 reduction in manual
    orders, which mean a reduction of excess
    inventory.
  • Latest update
  • Re-analysis indicates gt30 reduction of oos

Source Computer Business Review, 18 October
2005 Source RFID Journal 5th May 2006
94
2 - Solution Providers
  • Evaluate Solution Providers
  • Tag Manufacturers
  • Reader Manufactures
  • IT infrastructure
  • Installation
  • Commissioning
  • Maintenance
  • Upgrades

95
3 - IT Impacts RF Issues
  • IT System impacts
  • Interface to existing system, or new system!
  • Accuracy of that data
  • Accumulation of much more data
  • Decision processes with that data, making the
    data USEFUL!

96
RF Issues
  • RFID issues in your environment
  • RF Interference
  • LAN, Other RFID Readers, EMI, Bluetooth, 802.11
  • Metal
  • Moisture
  • Allow time for experimentation
  • Expansion
  • Scope creep or leverage
  • Duplication

97
RF Issues Cont
  • RFID Design
  • Hardware Systems
  • Fixed or portable RFID readers?
  • Portable not OHIO (that is not automatic)!
  • Business processes
  • Simulation?
  • RFID Friendly Assets
  • As infrastructure is upgraded plan on using RF
    friendly assets, even if not implementing RFID

98
Gillette Fusion Launch
EPC used in EPC-enabled stores to help ensure
perfect retail execution to coincide with 2006
Super Bowl launch
  • The first new product packaging designed to be
    EPC-friendly
  • EPC used on Fusion cases, sidekicks, PDQ trays
    and pallets
  • 5 Blade Razor!

99
4 - Purchase/Deploy/Integrate
  • Equipment Supply
  • Development
  • Manufacture lead times
  • Engineering work and preparation
  • Deployment of infrastructure
  • Readers and Antennas
  • IT Systems
  • Ancillary equipment

100
Purchase/Deploy
  • Tags
  • Supply
  • Initialisation (EPC code and data)
  • Database update
  • Installation
  • Verification
  • Training
  • Employees, Managers, IT development

101
Integration
  • Integration into IT systems
  • Database design
  • Scalability
  • New/Existing
  • Interim period
  • Exceptions, when no tag applied!
  • Evaluation of performance
  • Fine adjustments
  • Upgrade path

102
Integration Cont
  • Other partners
  • Suppliers
  • Customers
  • Competitors
  • Finally Rollout
  • Duplicate (other sites, divisions)
  • Expand (RFID applications)
  • Leverage (RFID infrastructure)

103
When to tag?
Source Deploying RFID with varying levels of
Back-end Systems Integration, Ellen Boerger RFID
Director NCR Corporation
104
Gradual Ramp-Up
  • Tagging philosophy changes over time.
  • Tag_at_ship, No Integration with IT Systems
  • Slap Ship, incur cost but no benefit!
  • Tag_at_ship, WMS Export and Offline System
  • Good for low volume, offline system minimises IT
  • Tag_at_ship, Semi-automated WMS Integration
  • Online integration with WMS, but manual
    operations for some tagging steps, i.e.
    programming, application /or verification
  • Tag_at_pick/Tag_at_receive
  • Verify at ship
  • Tag_at_source
  • Verify at receive, pick, ship
  • Tag_at_vendor
  • mandate

105
(No Transcript)
106
5 - Assessment Criteria
  • Range of Hardware
  • Tags, Readers, Volume, Vendors, Standards,
    Frequency, Host platforms, Ancillary equipment,
    Upgrades, Expansion
  • Range of IT Solutions
  • Integration into legacy systems
  • Privacy
  • Expansion
  • Services
  • Global or Local
  • Site Inspection, Design, Installation,
    Commissioning, Maintenance
  • Partner networks (hardware, middleware)

107
Assessment Criteria Cont
  • Relevant experience in your industry
  • Testing
  • ISO 18047-X Conformance Test Methods
  • ISO 18046 Performance Test Methods
  • EPCglobal (Gen 2 V1.0.2) Conformance Test Methods
  • EPCglobal Certification
  • Vendor test Facility
  • Testing your products in your installation(s)
  • Development/Customisation
  • Tags and Readers, ancillary sensors
  • Packaging, Cost, IP issues
  • Maintenance

108
6 - Reader Tag Issues
  • Reader location is important, but local
  • Antenna
  • Tunnel/Portal (multiple antennas)
  • Circular Vs Linear
  • Host Interface, online
  • Remote restart
  • Alarm/alerts/Heartbeat
  • Self diagnostic tests
  • Upgrades

109
Location Location Location
  • Tag location will be crucial for performance
  • Want global use for product/tag life
  • Optimal location for RF Tag may not be the same
    as the location for a human readable tag/label
  • Consider composition of the object
  • If lots of metal, then look for gaps!
  • Metal surface can be used to extend the read
    range (?/4 separation)
  • Life time environmental exposure

110
Location
Photos courtesy of RFID Journal
111
Courtesy Auto-Id Lab Cambridge
112
7 - Process flow
  • Consider a change to the process flow
  • How package is handled, stored and pallet stacked
  • Change packaging to be RFID friendly
  • Test tag after application
  • Metal, moisture, damage
  • Consider alternative technologies/methods to get
    100 reads
  • Process when items are Single units
  • Aggregation/Association

113
Single Items
Source RFID Pilot Trial Learnings -
Georgia-Pacific
114
Source RFID Learning RFID Learnings Wal Wal-Mart
115
Association/Verification at stretch-wrap
Source Supply Chain improvement through
EPC/RFID- DHL/Deutsche Post
116
100
Source Compensating for less than 100 case Read
Rates, Joe Doran (The Gillette Co.)
117
8 - Data
  • RFID data
  • Once installed, no real additional cost to read a
    tag
  • Sensor data
  • Temperature, Weight, etc
  • Middleware (Savants) filters/concentrators
  • RFID enabled enterprise applications
  • Database maintenance
  • Legacy data
  • Accuracy of data
  • Exchange data with partners
  • Vendors and Customers
  • UCCnet Global Registry
  • Scalable

118
9 - The Human Touch
  • Privacy
  • Establish a privacy committee
  • Consider all users, employees, contractors,
    customers, vendors, supply chain personnel
  • Employees
  • Explanation
  • Efficiency, bottom line benefits
  • Training

119
FIP
  • Fair Information Practices
  • Origins back to 1973
  • 4 Principles
  • Notice
  • Choice
  • Access
  • Security

120
Privacy
  • Develop a Privacy Policy and ENFORCE IT!
  • Engage consumer groups BEFORE implementation
  • Educate Users
  • Adverts, Pamphlets, Posters, Internet, Toll free
    line.
  • Disclose the use of RFID
  • Tags and Readers
  • Not only the tagged goods, but also the presence
    of readers
  • Consumer acceptance of reader locations
  • But if hidden readers are used, consumer trust
    could be shattered!
  • EPCglobal Logo
  • More printed info on the label
  • Web address for more information

Source Privacy Profits, RFID Journal July 2005
121
Privacy Cont
  • Inform on the Use of RFID
  • Even if you are not using RFID, but goods, boxes
    etc may come into your facility, tell the
    consumer.
  • Educate/Inform Staff
  • Management
  • Public relations
  • Store personal, in contact with consumers
  • Direct to customer service or website
  • Dont write personally identifiable information
    to the TAG
  • Contradiction of FIP
  • Illegal under the European Unions Directive on
    Privacy and Electronic Communication

122
Privacy Cont
  • Secure the data and limit what you collect
  • Apply the same level of security to EPC data as
    one would apply to any customer data.
  • Avoid associating the EPC number with the person
    purchasing the item.
  • No clear benefit in knowing what unique item is
    being purchased by an individual

123
Privacy Cont
  • Choice
  • Kill or remove
  • Dont tie returns to having an active (working)
    tag
  • Still have discounts and participate in loyalty
    programs, even if they choose to kill the tag.
  • Opt in or Opt out
  • Do consumers opt in , or do they have to opt out.
    Opt in is safer as the consumer has made a
    positive choice
  • Consumer to have the right to view any
    information stored about them.
  • Correct if wrong, or delete
  • Consumers to have the right to choose to share
    that information with 3rd Parties

124
Privacy Cont
  • Keep Privacy policy up to date
  • Reflect changes in technology, processes
  • Reassess the communication strategy to keep
    consumers informed

125
10 - Champion
  • Approval from the TOP
  • Realistic Expectations
  • Start small but think big
  • Small enable fine adjustments (experiment)
  • Big so as to leverage RFID throughout the
    business
  • Dont oversell
  • External/Internal expertise
  • Partner with both suppliers and customers
  • Possible change to business processes
  • Other infrastructure
  • Sensors, EAS, anti-counterfeit, engineering
  • Periodic assessment

126
10 Steps
  • Define the Project
  • Evaluate Solution Providers
  • Assess IT and RF Impacts
  • Purchase/Deploy/Integration Plan
  • Develop Assessment Criteria
  • Reader/Tag Issues
  • Process Flow
  • Data
  • Human Involvement
  • Champion

127
RFID Learnings
128
Redundancy
  • Redundancy
  • Two independent readers per booth
  • Confidence in up-time
  • Heart Beat, every 2 seconds
  • Reliability
  • Ability to read internal tag, iff antenna port
    terminated in 50 ohm load (i.e. it is still
    connected)
  • Firmware upgradeable
  • Reflection
  • Large trucks and busses reflect RF beam, skew
    into adjacent lane
  • Discriminate replies based on received signal
    strength
  • Reduce maximum power output
  • Interference (Multiple Readers)
  • Used a time based multiplexer to assign Tx
    windows for each independent reader

129
Extended Range
  • Nominal read range was 6m
  • Requirement was 12m (width of road)
  • Used a separate Tx and Rx antenna
  • Usually a single antenna is used for both Tx and
    Rx. A directional coupler is used to couple RF
    energy from the Tx port to the Antenna port, and
    then from the Antenna port to the Rx port.
  • The Directional Coupler usually has 10dB of loss
    in one of the coupled paths, as a minimum,
    however the isolation between Tx and Rx is
    approximately 50dB
  • Usually the problem is getting power to the tag,
    and hence Engineers do not want to insert loss
    into the Tx path.
  • The 10 db is therefore normally inserted in the
    receive port.
  • By removing the Directional Coupler and having 2
    antennas, the loss in the receive port is
    eliminated. But more importantly, the isolation
    between the Tx and Rx ports increases, thereby
    reducing the Tx phase noise coupled into the Rx,
    resulting in an increased sensitivity, and hence
    greater read range.

130
Infrastructure Reduction
  • Usually RFID readers can have multiple antenna
    ports
  • If applications are slow, it is possible to
    multiplex the antenna ports in time.
  • In the photo, one port was used for incoming
    vehicles and the other port was used for outgoing
    vehicles.
  • The RFID reader was mounted in the middle of the
    roadway.
  • Tags could always be then placed on the drivers
    side window
  • Allows optimum positioning for both incoming and
    outgoing reads
  • Minimises cabling for both antennas, both
    antennas have almost identical performance

131
Lightening
  • This application in tropics
  • Lightening hits very common
  • Antenna buried between tracks
  • RF Lightening arrestors placed inline with BOTH
    antenna connections, inside stainless-steel
    enclosure, well earthed
  • RF protection also installed on host connection
    (which was a serial line)

132
Is ground connected?
  • RF earth and Comms earth should be tied, at one
    point.
  • COMMS was intermittent, because no separate comms
    earth was provided between the remote RFID reader
    and the host CPU in a building some metres away.
    The comms earth was actually earth, on hot dry
    days, its impedance would be so high, that a
    significant potential was developed across the
    two earths!

133
Vibration and Electricity Discharge
  • Vibration
  • This application had both high vibration and high
    electric discharge
  • Ensure mounting of RFID reader is such that all
    components with large momentum are orientated so
    as to minimise vibration fatigue.
  • Any large momentum devices fixed to mounting
    chassis
  • Glue, maybe additional fastening
  • Removable ICs (in those days UTC timers and
    EEPROM device), physically locked into sockets
  • Electricity Discharge
  • Use lightening protection on all comms and RF
    leads to antennas
  • Use lightening protection on all power supply
    leads.

134
Eddy Currents
  • Although this application called for tags to be
    mounted on metal, the RFID installer, used a
    metal ring to hold the tag in place.
  • Unfortunately the metal ring was at the same
    plane as the RFID tag, that was inside the
    plastic package
  • A small 10mm slot was cut in the ring, and full
    read range was achieved.

135
Reflections
  • Not shown in this photo is the reader
  • Even though the tags were spaced some 1.5 m
    apart, the large read range of the UHF reader,
    and the metal (moulds, machinery, etc),
    multi-path reads were obtained.
  • The Reader Power was reduced, and in addition a
    metal screen was installed around the reader
    antenna, to limit the beamwidth.
  • Some chicken wire, about 350 mm in diameter and
    about 450 mm in length was used to limit those
    side reads
  • The reader antenna was approximately 300 mm in
    diameter

136
Shielding
  • The two examples shown detail conductive screens,
    installed around read antennas, to either
  • A) Stop conveyor cross reads
  • B) Protect from interference
  • Such screens can also be used to protect the read
    environment from a noisy environment, as can
    sometime be obtained with electric motors, which
    are used on some conveyor systems

Photo courtesy of RFID Journal
137
Library
Photos courtesy of the National Library Board
Singapore
138
Stray HF Fields
  • At HF magnetic field must travel from the reader
    antenna to the tag and back to the reader antenna
    in an unbroken path.
  • Looking at the centre station, one could envisage
    HF fields emanating from the antenna, and going
    in ever increasing circles.
  • Unfortunately, the HF reader could read the tags
    on both adjacent mats. The mats did not contain
    the antenna, that is below the bench top.
  • In order to stop the extended read range, each
    antenna had metal sides (initially made from
    alfoil) which extended past the antenna by 100
    mm, and located about 100 mm from each antenna
    dimension.
  • This had the result that any RF field that may
    stray on the top side to the adjacent mat, while
    it may have energised the tag, its reply, after
    diverting around the metallic shields was so weak
    that it could be discriminated against, and
    eliminated.

139
RF Friendly
  • Both photos show a UHF antenna enclosed in a
    metal box for physical protection
  • Sometimes from the environment
  • Sometime for protection against criminal activity
  • The issue is that some space is required around
    the antenna
  • The first one limits the read range, while the
    second one has the metal box approximately 100mm
    away from the antenna, and presents little
    performance degradation
  • Always plan upgrades with RFID in mind

140
Neatness Counts
  • The picture shows a UHF antenna with a reader
    mounted behind.
  • This installation was in an underground mine, and
    the electrician did not terminate the power and
    communication cables, but instead just looped
    them around the antenna.
  • The resulting eddy currents, severely limited the
    performance.

141
Temporary Conditions
  • This picture shows a large vehicle with a tag
    attached (note the notch in the tag mounting
    bracket.
  • What is the potential source of problem?
  • The fence
  • Shields the reader from a UHF LAN antenna.

142
Adelaide, Auto-ID Lab
143
The Auto-ID Laboratories
144
Auto-ID Labs
  • One of 7 Auto-ID Labs around the world
  • MIT, USA
  • Cambridge, UK
  • Adelaide, Australia
  • Keio, Japan
  • Fudan, China
  • St Gallen, Switzerland
  • ICU, Korea

145
Three entities
  • Auto-ID Lab
  • EPCglobal research
  • via sub-award from MIT
  • RFID Automation
  • Contract Research
  • Australasian Adoption Research Initiative
  • RFID adoption, Networking, Resources

146
Research Projects
  • The design of cost effective and small footprint
    tag antennas, suitable for attachment onto metal
    surfaces.
  • Interference studies in high density reader
    environments.
  • Electromagnetic propagation studies applicable to
    European Regulations
  • High security authentication tags
  • One Time Codes
  • Elliptic Curve Cryptography
  • Shrinking Functions

147
RFID Automation
  • RFID Automation
  • Web page www.rfidautomation.org
  • Established to undertake research projects
    outside the Auto ID Lab
  • To-date
  • Seven consultancies
  • One Research Contract
  • One Research Project

148
Contract Research
  • Separate from the EPCglobal funded work
  • Commercial Infrastructure
  • Adelaide Research Innovation Pty Ltd
  • Intellectual Property Protection
  • Pork CRC Research Contract
  • Joint Strike Fighter

149
Australasian Adoption Research Initiative
  • Established in April 2005
  • Mechanism for the Auto-ID Lab, Adelaide to
    conduct research into RFID that is relevant to
    Australian and New Zealand industry.
  • Foster adoption of the RFID technology being
    developed by EPCglobal.
  • Enables participation by companies across a broad
    range of industries and applications, to network
    and gain access to the wealth of expertise and
    experience in RFID.

150
Conclusion
  • RFID Automatic Data Capture
  • RFID is about management
  • RFID Physics
  • Near and Far Fields
  • Inductive and Propagating RFID Systems
  • Termination on conductive surfaces

151
Standards
  • EPCglobal
  • Specifications
  • Work Groups
  • Implementation Aids
  • ISO Regulatory
  • Current plans to incorporate EPCglobals UHF and
    HF Air Interface Protocols.
  • Singapores Regulations OK for UHF

152
Plan to succeed
  • Define (scope)
  • Solution Providers
  • Impacts (RF and IT)
  • Purchase/Deploy
  • Assessments
  • Reader Tag Issues
  • Processes
  • Data
  • Privacy
  • Educate users (employees, customers, suppliers,
    etc)
  • Champion

153
Key Learnings
  • Redundancy
  • Infrastructure
  • Environment Installation Practices
  • Lightning, vibration, electricity discharge, eddy
    currents, shielding, reflections, stray fields,
    RF friendly assets, neatness, temporary
    structures, hidden traps
  • Auto-ID Lab, source of assistance

154
Start Today!
155
Questions
156
Further Information
  • Alfio Grasso
  • Deputy Director
  • Auto-ID Lab, Adelaide
  • University of Adelaide
  • Web autoidlab.eleceng.adelaide.edu.au/
  • Email alf_at_eleceng.adelaide.edu.au
  • Ph 61-8- 8303 6473
  • Mob 61 402 037 968
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