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WASTE : Linking the local and global crises

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My thanks to Rossano Ercolini (Ambiente Futuro) for organizing my 29th ... RESPONSAILITA' DELLA CATENA DI PRODUZIONE (EPR = EXTENDED PRODUCER RESPONSIBILITY) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WASTE : Linking the local and global crises


1
WASTE Linking the local and global crises
  • Verona, May 25 2007
  • Dr Paul Connett
  • Professor Emeritus of Chemistry
  • St Lawrence University, Canton, NY
  • Paul_at_AmericanHealthStudies.org

2
My thanks to Rossano Ercolini (Ambiente Futuro)
for organizing my 29th visit to Italy
  • Rossano Ercolini
  • Ambientefuturo_at_interfree.it
  • 338-28-66-215

3
Il contesto generale
4
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5
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6
Alletà di 16 anni i ragazzi di oggi hanno già
guardato oltre 350.000 spot pubblicitari.
Paul Hawken The Ecology of Commerce
7
  • Viviamo su questo pianeta come se ne avessimo un
    altro su cui trasferirci
  • Non possiamo continuare a vivere in una società
    usa e getta su un pianeta finito
  • This is colonialism in time!
  • We are robbing our own children and grandchildren
  • Con le discariche non facciamo altro che
    SOTTERRARE le prove
  • Gli inceneritori non fanno che BRUCIARE le prove
  • Dobbiamo affrontare il vero problema

8
Il problema non è come eliminare i rifiuti,
ma piuttosto come NON produrli
9
Our task is to fight the throwaway ethic
over-consumption
10
Not only is over-consumption giving us a waste
crisis but also
11
Over-consumption is giving us a Global crisis
12
A LINEAR SOCIETY
We are imposing a linear society on a planet
that functions in circles
13
A LINEAR SOCIETY
Extraction of Virgin Materials
14
A LINEAR SOCIETY
Extraction of Virgin Materials
Production of Manufactured items
15
A LINEAR SOCIETY
Extraction of Virgin Materials
Production of Manufactured items
Consumption
16
A LINEAR SOCIETY
Extraction of Virgin Materials
Production of Manufactured items
Consumption
Discarded Materials
17
ENERGY
Extraction of Virgin Materials
Production of Manufactured items
Consumption
Discarded Materials
Solid waste Air pollution Water pollution Carbon
dioxide
18
ENERGY
ENERGY
Extraction of Virgin Materials
Production of Manufactured items
Consumption
Discarded Materials
Solid waste Air pollution Water pollution Carbon
dioxide
Solid waste Air pollution Water pollution Carbon
dioxide
19
INCINERATION LANDFILLS
ENERGY
ENERGY
Extraction of Virgin Materials
Production of Manufactured items
Consumption
Discarded Materials
Solid waste Air pollution Water pollution Carbon
dioxide
Solid waste Air pollution Water pollution Carbon
dioxide
20
RECYCLING OF MATERIALS
ENERGY
ENERGY
Extraction of Virgin Materials
Production of Manufactured items
Consumption
Discarded Materials
Solid waste Air pollution Water pollution Carbon
dioxide
Solid waste Air pollution Water pollution Carbon
dioxide
21
REUSE OF OBJECTS
ENERGY
ENERGY
Extraction of Virgin Materials
Production of Manufactured items
Consumption
Discarded Materials
Solid waste Air pollution Water pollution Carbon
dioxide
Solid waste Air pollution Water pollution Carbon
dioxide
22
COMPOSTING
ENERGY
ENERGY
Extraction of Virgin Materials
Production of Manufactured items
Consumption
Discarded Materials
Solid waste Air pollution Water pollution Carbon
dioxide
Solid waste Air pollution Water pollution Carbon
dioxide
23
Global warming
Composting
Landfill
Incineration
24
Global warming
Composting
Landfill
Incineration
Methane SLOW
25
Global warming
Composting
Landfill
Incineration
Carbon dioxide FAST
Methane SLOW
26
Global warming
Composting
Landfill
Incineration
Carbon dioxide Some Methane SLOW
Carbon dioxide FAST
Methane SLOW
27
Global warming
Composting
Landfill
Incineration
Carbon dioxide Some Methane SLOW
Carbon dioxide FAST
Methane SLOW
Sequestered Carbon
28
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29
Gli studi della EU sul confronto dei sistemi di
trattamenti dei RU residui
AEA executive report waste climate change (Nov.
2002)
  • Recycling
  • Composting
  • Mechanical biological treatment (MBT)
  • Anaerobic Digestion (AD)
  • Incineration
  • Landfill of untreated waste

Extract from summary report
30
Kg gas serra/tonnellata Rifiuti Urbani
Riciclaggio e compostaggio -461
Trattamento Meccanico-Biologico e stoccaggio -366
Termovalorizzazione -10
Waste Management Options and Climate Change. AEA
2002
31
Arguments against incineration
  • Emissioni tossiche nellatmosfera
  • Produzione di ceneri tossiche
  • Pubblica opposizione. Incineration is
    anti-democratic
  • Costi finanziari. Incineration is a poor
    investment
  • Produzione di energia (spreco di energia)
  • Ci sono migliori alternative Zero Waste 2020

32
1.Gli inceneritori producono ceneri tossiche
33
MODERN TRASH INCINERATOR
ELECTRICITY
TURBINE
WET SCRUBBER
SECONDARY CHAMBER
DE-NOX
STEAM
FABRIC FILTER
TEMP lt 200oC
CHUTE
BOILER
SEMI- DRY SCRUBBER
Ca(OH) 2
SUSPENSION
ACTIVATED CHARCOAL
GRATES
AMMONIA INJECTION
TRASH
FLY ASH
BOTTOM ASH
34
Politicians often approve incineration before
they have any idea where the toxic ash is going
to go!
35
Ash disposal in other countries
  • Germany puts fly ash into nylon bags and buries
    them in salt mines (like nuclear waste)
  • Some Japanese incinerators vitrify the ash
  • Denmark has a wonderful solution it
  • sends its ash to Norway!
  • The Netherlands puts the fly ash into asphalt and
    the bottom ash into road building!

36
2. Gli inceneritori emettono gas tossici
37
AIR EMISSIONS
CO2 H2O
ACID GASES HCI, HF, SO2 NOx
TOXIC METALS Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr etc
NEW COMPOUNDS PCBs PCDDs (DIOXINS) PCDFs
(FURANS) ETC
NANO PARTICLES
38
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39
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40
Catalytic oxidizers
Brominated/chlorinated dioxins and furans
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Chlorinated hydrocarbons
41
The dangers of nanoparticles
  • Nanoparticles are not efficiently captured by air
    pollution control devices,
  • travel long distances,
  • penetrate deep into the lungs

42
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43
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44
Nano Pathology
  • Nano particles are so small they can easily cross
    cell membranes
  • Including the blood brain barrier and the nuclear
    membrane
  • Ferry toxic metals into the brain
  • Stabilized free radicals cause oxidative stress
    - inflammation - many degenerative diseases

45
Aggregati di Piombo, Bario, Cromo, Ferro e
Silicio in Cervello.
http//www.nanodiagnostics.it/Fotografia.aspx?ID1
1
46
Dioxins - major concerns
  • Dioxins accumulate in animal fat
  • One liter of cows milk gives the same dose of
    dioxin as breathing air next to the cows for
    EIGHT MONTHS (Connett and Webster, 1987).
  • Dioxins steadily accumulate in human body fat.
    The man cannot get rid of them BUT A woman can
  • by having a baby!
  • The highest dose of dioxin goes to the fetus and
    then to the new born infant via breastfeeding,
    and
  • dioxins interfere with hormones which control
    sexual and mental development

47
WE WANT DIOXIN
OUT OF OUR BABIES!
48
Institute of Medicine, 2003
  • Fetuses and breastfeeding infants may be at
    particular risk from exposure to dioxins due to
    their potential to cause adverse
    neurodevelopmental and immune system effects

49
Institute of Medicine, 2003
  • The committee recommends
  • 1) the government place a high public health
    priority on reducing dioxin intakes by girls and
    young women in the years well before pregnancy is
    likely to occur
  • 2) (By) substituting low-fat or skim milk, for
    whole milkand other foods lower in animal fat

50
Thermal treatment is dangerous
  • In cities because the fine particles can get deep
    down into our lungs
  • In rural areas because the dioxins can get into
    our food

51
While modern incinerators have reduced dioxin
emissions there is no real accountability in most
countries
52
YOU NEED THREE THINGS TO PROTECT THE PUBLIC FROM
TOXIC EMISSIONS.
STRONG REGULATIONS
ADEQUATE MONITORING
TOUGH ENFORCEMENT
IF ANY LINK IS WEAK THE PUBLIC IS NOT PROTECTED
53
3. Incineration is extremely unpopular
  • In the US over 300 incinerator proposals defeated
    since 1985
  • US has not permitted a new trash incinerator
    since 1995.

54
4. Incineration is a poor investment
  • Most of the money spent on incinerators goes into
    complicated machinery and leaves the community,
    whereas
  • The money spent on the alternatives goes into
    jobs and stays in the community.

55
5. Incineration is a waste of energy!
  • 3-4 times more energy saved by reusing objects
    and recycling materials in waste stream.
  • In Italy a law passed in 1996 allows incinerators
    to sell electricity at three times the price from
    other sources. The public pays!
  • This explains the current rush to build new
    incinerators in Italy even though they are so
    unpopular.
  • The Alberta government has just provided a 20
    million subsidy for a new incinerator in Edmonton

56
Energy Comparison Recycling versus incineration
(ICF consulting, 2005)
material Energy savings from recycling GJ/tonne Energy output from incineration GJ/tonne Energy savings recycling versus incineration
Newsprint 6.33 2.62 2.4
Fine paper 15.87 2.23 7.1
Cardboard 8.56 2.31 3.7
Other paper 9.49 2.25 4.2
HDPE 64.27 6.30 10.2
PET 85.16 3.22 26.4
Other plastic 52.09 4.76 10.9
57
6. Incineration is not sustainable
58
Anche rendendo sicuro lincenerimento, Esso non
sarà mai una cosa sensata. Semplicemente non ha
senso spendere così tanti soldi Per distruggere
risorse che dovremmo Risparmiare per il
futuro. (PC)
59
7. THERE ARE BETTER and SUSTAINABLE ALTERNATIVES
TO INCINERATION
60
The ZERO 2020 strategy
61
SPOSTARSI A MONTE Progettare i rifiuti
allesterno del ciclo produttivo
NO ALLINCENERIMENTO
NO ALLE DISCARICHE
62
I rifiuti non sono un problema tecnologico sono
un problema di progettazione industriale
63
Per ottenere Zero Rifiuti
  • Occorrono tre cose
  • RESPONSABILITA INDUSTRIALE (a monte)
  • RESPONSABILITA della COMUNITA (a valle)
  • 3) Una BUONA LEADERSHIP POLITICA (per saldare
    insieme entrambe)

64
RESPONSABILITA INDUSTRIALE
  • 1. PROGETTO INDUSTRIALE DI SOSTENIBILITA
  • 2. PRODUZIONE PULITA - riduzione di elementi
    tossici nei prodotti e nella produzione
  • 3. RESPONSAILITA DELLA CATENA DI PRODUZIONE (EPR
    EXTENDED PRODUCER RESPONSIBILITY)

65
Extended Producer Responsibilty
  • In futuro le imprese produttrici dovrebbero
    considerare di dover ritirare I propri prodotti e
    confezioni, dopo luso
  • leggi si stanno gia muovendo in questa direzione.

66
Extended Producer Responsibilty
  • XEROX CORPORATION EUROPE recupero di vecchie
    macchine fotocopiatrici da oltre 16 paesi
  • Raccolte in enormi depositi in Olanda, dove
    vengono smontate
  • Oltre il 95 dei materiali viene riutilizzato o
    riciclato!
  • Con un risparmio di 76 milioni nel 2000!!

67
ONTARIO, CANADA
  • The Beer industry has used refillable glass
    bottles for over 50 years
  • 98 recovered
  • on average each bottle reused 18 times
  • Refillable glass bottles 11 cents cheaper per
    serving than disposable bottles.
  • 2000 jobs in collection and cleaning
  • No cost to municipality
  • Packaging costs internalized

68
COMMUNITY RESPONSIBILITY Classification of
Discarded materials
  • 1. Avoidables (e.g. throwaway plastic objects)
  • 2. Reusables (e.g furniture, appliances)
  • 3. Toxics (e.g paint, oil, batteries)
  • 4. Compostables (e.g. food scraps)
  • 5. Recyclables (e.g. paper, glass, metals)
  • 6. Residuals
  • Residuals bad industrial design

69
RESPONSABILITA della COMUNITA
  • Community responsibility begins with Source
    Separation (porta a porta)
  • One container for compostables (i.e. the organic
    fraction)
  • One (or more) containers for the recyclables
  • One container for the residuals

70
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71
1
72
1
2
73
1
2
3
74
1
2
3
Impianto di Compostaggio
75
(No Transcript)
76
Compostaggio rurale
77
1
2
3
Impianto di Compostaggio
Centrale di Riciclaggio
78
(No Transcript)
79
1
2
3
Impianto di Compostaggio
Centrale di Riciclaggio
?
80
1
2
3
Impianto di Compostaggio
Centrale di Riciclaggio
?
Reuse Repair Centers
81
1
2
3
Impianto di Compostaggio
Centrale di Riciclaggio
?
Reuse Repair Centers
De-costruire
82
1
AVOIDABLES Waste Reduction initiatives
2
3
Impianto di Compostaggio
Centrale di Riciclaggio
?
Reuse Repair Centers
De-costruire
83
Italy
  • A supermarket chain near Florence is providing
    dispensers which allow customers to refill
    shampoo and detergent bottles

84
Alcune iniziative italiane per la riduzione
85
1
AVOIDABLES Waste Reduction initiatives
2
3
Impianto di Compostaggio
Centrale di Riciclaggio
?
Reuse Repair Centers
De-costruire
86
Come gestiamo la frazione residua un momento
cruciale della filosofia Rifiuti Zero
  • Incineration attempts to make the residuals
    disappear
  • Zero Waste 2020 needs to make the residuals VERY
    VISIBLE, because
  • Frazione Residua cattiva progettazione
    industriale
  • We need better (sustainable) industrial design
    for the 21st Century

87
Nova Scotia, Canada
  • They have built IMPIANTO DI SEPARAZONE della
    FRAZIONE RESIDUA
  • These buildings are built in front of the
    landfill - NO residuals can go to landfill
    without being screened.

88
IMPIANTO DI SEPARAZONE della FRAZIONE RESIDUA
89
IMPIANTO DI SEPARAZONE della FRAZIONE RESIDUA
PIU RICICLABILI
90
IMPIANTO DI SEPARAZONE della FRAZIONE RESIDUA
TOSSICI
PIU RICICLABILI
91
IMPIANTO DI SEPARAZONE della FRAZIONE RESIDUA
TOSSICI
PIU RICICLABILI
IMBALLAGGI E OGGETTI NON RICICLABILI
92
IMPIANTO DI SEPARAZONE della FRAZIONE RESIDUA
TOSSICI
PIU RICICLABILI
IMBALLAGGI E OGGETTI NON RICICLABILI
DISCARICA TEMPORANEA
93
IMPIANTO DI SEPARAZONE della FRAZIONE RESIDUA
FRAZIONE ORGANICA SPORCA
TOSSICI
PIU RICICLABILI
IMBALLAGGI E OGGETTI NON RICICLABILI
DISCARICA TEMPORANEA
94
IMPIANTO DI SEPARAZONE della FRAZIONE RESIDUA
FRAZIONE ORGANICA SPORCA
TOSSICI
PIU RICICLABILI
IMBALLAGGI E OGGETTI NON RICICLABILI
STABILIZZAZIONE BIOLOGICA
DISCARICA TEMPORANEA
95
We need to improve on these facilities by adding
a RESEARCH CENTER for the non-recyclable fraction
96
IMPIANTO DI SEPARAZONE della FRAZIONE RESIDUA
FRAZIONE ORGANICA SPORCA
TOSSICI
PIU RICICLABILI
IMBALLAGGI E OGGETTI NON RICICLABILI
STABILIZZAZIONE BIOLOGICA
DISCARICA TEMPORANEA
97
FRAZIONE RESIDUA, CENTRO DI RICERCA
FRAZIONE ORGANICA SPORCA
TOSSICI
PIU RICICLABILI
IMBALLAGGI E OGGETTI NON RICICLABILI
CENTRO DI RICERCA
STABILIZZAZIONE BIOLOGICA
DISCARICA TEMPORANEA
98
FRAZIONE RESIDUA, CENTRO DI RICERCA
IMBALLAGGI E ALTRI RIFIUTI NON RICICLABILI
Università locale
RICERCA SCIENTIFICA SU NUOVI IMPIEGHI DEI
MATERIALI OTTENUTI DA RIFIUTI E MIGLIORE
PROGETTAZIONE INDUSTRIALE
99
FRAZIONE RESIDUA, CENTRO DI RICERCA
TOSSICII
Università locale
RICERCA SCIENTIFICA FOR CLEAN PRODUCTION
100
1
AVOIDABLES Waste Reduction initiatives
2
3
Impianto di Compostaggio
Centrale di Riciclaggio
?
Reuse Repair Centers
De-costruire
101
1
2
3
AVOIDABLES Waste Reduction initiatives
Impianto di Compostaggio
Centrale di Riciclaggio
Residual Screening Reseach Facility
Reuse Repair Centers
De-costruire
102
1
AVOIDABLES Waste Reduction initiatives
2
3
Impianto di Compostaggio
Centrale di Riciclaggio
Residual Screening Reseach Facility
Reuse Repair Centers
Household Toxics
De-costruire
103
Consiglio
  • La creazione di un
  • Istituto Nazionale
  • per una Società Sostenibile
  • Con funzione di coordinamento della ricerca
    locale e regionale presso il Centro per la
    Ricerca e lo Screening sulla Frazione Residua (
    cattiva progettazione industriale)

104
Incenerendo
  • si convertono 3 tonnellate di rifiuti in
  • 1 tonnellata di ceneri tossiche
  • che nessuno vuole!!!

105
Con la strategia Rifiuti Zero
  • Si convertono TRE tonnellate di rifiuti in
  • 1 tonnellata di risorse compostabili
  • 1 tonnellata di risorse riciclabili
  • e
  • 1 tonnellata di consapevolezza!

106
Messaggio allindustria
  • Se non possiamo riutilizzarlo, riciclarlo o
    compostarlo,
  • lindustria non dovrebbe produrlo!!!
  • We need better industrial design for the 21st
    Century

107
IMPIANTO DI SEPARAZONE e CENTRO DI RICERCA della
FRAZIONE RESIDUA
  • Will Italy be the first to build an impianto di
    separazone e centro di ricerca della frazione
    residua?

108
Progress towards Zero Waste around the world
  • www.zwia.org
  • Note over 50 of communities in New Zealand have
    declared a Zero Waste strategy

109
San Francisco
  • Popolazione 850.000
  • Carenza di spazio
  • 50 raccolta differenziata entro il 2000
  • 63 raccolta differenziata entro il 2004
  • 75 raccolta differenziata entro il 2010
    (obiettivo)
  • 100 (or very close!)entro il 2020 Zero Rifiuti

110
I Fantastici 3
111
The green container
  • Receives the clean compostables (all organic
    discards)

112
Impianto di Compostaggio
113
UN RICCO COMPOST, PRONTO PER LA VENDITA
114
I PRODOTTI BIOLOGICI TORNANO SUI MERCATI E NEI
RISTORANTI DI SAN FRANCISCO
115
I Fantastici 3
116
The blue container
  • Receives ALL the recyclables...

117
Centrale di Riciclaggio
_at_ Molo 96
118
Ontario
  • The city of Markham (north of Toronto) has
    diverted 70 from landfill in 2 years.

119
Italy Porta a Porta (no Vespa!)
  • Litalia ha uno dei migliori centri di ricerca al
    mondo per la progettazione di una raccolta porta
    a porta efficace ed efficiente di rifiuti
    riciclabili e organici
  • Scuola Agraria del Parco di Monza
  • Enzo Favoino

120
Italy
  • Over 600 communities in Italy are achieving over
    50 diversion using door to door collection
    systems

121
Comunità in Lazio che hanno riciclato più del 50
dei rifiuti attraverso il sistema di raccolta
porta-a-porta in un solo anno!
Comune Populazione rifiuto differenziato
Sonnino 7,154 54
Sermoneta 7,000 64
Lenola 4,200 65
Monterosi 3,029 54
Bassiano 1,670 50
Castelforte 4,700 52
122
Italy
  • Novara - (near Turin, population 100,000)
    achieved 70 diversion in just 18 months!

123
Italy
  • In the Treviso region

124
  • RISULTATI QUANTITATIVI
  • AUMENTO RACCOLTA DIFFERENZIATA

125
RISULTATI QUANTITATIVI AUMENTO RACCOLTA
DIFFERENZIATA
126
  • DIFFERENZIATA COSTA DI PIU?

Costi di gestione senza raccolta
differenziata Costi di gestione con raccolta
differenziata
127
  • La gestione dei rifiuti
  • nei Comuni del Consorzio Priula
  • Paolo Contò
  • Consorzio Intercomunale Priula - Villorba (TV)
  • consorzio_at_priula.it

128
Another three reasons why ZW 2020 is better than
incineration
  • Jobs!
  • Jobs !!
  • Jobs !!!

129
Nuova Scozia (Canada)
  • 50 dei rifiuti sottratto alle discariche in 5
    anni (Halifax 60)
  • 1000 posti di lavoro creati dallaprile 1996
  • Altri 2000 posti di lavoro creati in industrie
    che usano i materiali separati
  • Nearly all the separated materials are re-used in
    Nova Scotias own industries.

130
UNA BUONA LEADERSHIP
Abbiamo bisogno di leader politici e industriali
dotati di grandi visioni immaginazione e CHE
NON SIANO NOIOSI
131
Le persone noiose risolvono i problemi nel
posto sbagliato !
132
Chi tenta di risolvere il problema A VALLE pensa

1. UNA TAZZA 2. UN SECCHIO 3. UNA POMPA A PEDALE
4. UNA POMPA ELETTRICA
133
Chi tenta di risolvere il problema A MONTE pensa

134
Einstein
  • A clever person
  • solves a problem
  • A genius
  • avoids it!

135
  • Un pizzico di creatività a monte può far
    risparmiare milioni a valle

136
Conclusioni
  • The Zero Waste Strategy addresses four key
    issues
  • 1. Individuals must be more careful about what
    they buy
  • 2. Industries must be more careful about what
    they make
  • 3. Communities must be more responsible in the
    way that discarded materials are collected and
    handled
  • 4. Education has a key role in linking waste
    management to sustainability and the fight
    against Global Warming

137
Conclusioni
  • The throwaway society contributes to global
    warming by wasting finite resources and wasting
    energy
  • Landfills and incinerators do not solve the
    problem but only hide the symptoms
  • The Zero Waste strategy by intensifying reuse,
    recycling, and composting and by tackling
    overconsumption and poor industrial design,
    reduces global warming and the other impacts of
    primary processing

138
Education
Sustainable agriculture
Zero Waste 2020
Architecture
Industrial design
Sustainable Energy
Community development
Sustainable Economic Development
139
Conclusioni
  • Non abbiamo bisogno di inceneritori!
  • Esistono alternative
  • migliori più sicure,
  • migliori per leconomia,
  • migliori per i vostri figli, e
  • migliori per il pianeta.

140
But in Italy there remains a major obstacle
141
THE BAD LAW
Level of Pollution
Level of corruption
142
THE GOOD LAW
Level of Pollution
Public participation
143
Dio ricicla, il diavolo brucia
144
The Battle Hymn of Garbage
  • (Chorus)
  • We dont want incineration
  • We dont want incineration
  • We dont want incineration
  • We know theres a better way!

145
The Battle Hymn of Garbage
  • While we recognize our landfills
  • All are swelling with the waste
  • This doesnt justify
  • A bad decision made in haste!
  • Let us put our heads together
  • So the problem may be faced
  • And we must do it now!

146
The Battle Hymn of Garbage
  • (Chorus)
  • We dont want incineration
  • We dont want incineration
  • We dont want incineration
  • We know theres a better way!

147
The Battle Hymn of Garbage
  • Mine eyes have seen the garbage
  • Thats a smoldering on the grate
  • We must stop incineration
  • Before it is too late
  • Unless we wish the dangers
  • We had better separate
  • And we must do it now!

148
The Battle Hymn of Garbage
  • (Chorus)
  • We dont want incineration
  • We dont want incineration
  • We dont want incineration
  • We know theres a better way!

149
Extra slides
150
No accountability
  • Typically incinerators tested once or twice a
    year using 6 hour tests to check dioxin in flue
    gas.
  • These are collected with advanced notice to the
    operator
  • Thus, 18 (36?) hours of IDEAL data is being used
    to ESTIMATE 8000 hours of REAL operation.
  • THIS IS NOT SCIENTIFIC!
  • Two week sampling (The Amesa system) is now
    available. This system allows collection of 26 X
    two-week samples per year - i.e. continuous
    sampling
  • Most incinerator operators are not using the two
    week sampling system or other scientific
    monitoring.

151
Hiding the name!
  • Waste Incineration is so unpopular with the
    public that incinerator promoters have used a
    variety of names for plants that burn trash
  • In US, they were called Resource Recovery
    Facilities and Waste to Energy plants.
  • In UK they were called Energy from Waste (EfW)
    facilities.
  • In Italy and France they are called Thermal
    Valorization and Thermal Optimization
  • Now all the rage are the descriptions
    gasification, pyrolysis and plasma arc facilities.

152
The most appropriate name for incinerators
  • RDF
  • Resource Destruction Facilities!

153
Dobbiamo copiare la natura
  • La natura non produce rifiuti!
  • I rifiuti sono uninvenzione delluomo
  • Società sostenibile società a rifiuti zero
  • Zero Waste is an idealistic goal,
  • but Zero Waste 2020 puts this goal into a
    realistic time frame
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