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Immunology 334Y

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1883 novel theory of immunity, that. immunity involved active defense ... Frank Burnet 1899-1985. 1949 first use of the term self in. the context of immunology ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Immunology 334Y


1
Immunology 334Y
  • R.D. Inman
  • 2008

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  • Eli Metchnikoff 1845-1916
  • Russian zoologist Nobel prize 1908
  • 1883 novel theory of immunity, that
  • immunity involved active defense
  • mechanisms, and that the phagocyte was
  • the key player
  • Challenged the 19C German physiologists
  • claiming that biological processes were
  • basically physics and chemistry
  • Set up battle between
  • cellularists vs humoralists
  • (evolutionary (immunochemists)
  • biologists)

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  • Frank Burnet 1899-1985
  • 1949 first use of the term self in
  • the context of immunology
  • Proposed that central concern of
  • immunology was to discriminate
  • between self and non-self
  • But
  • Identity of self immunologically is
  • an evolving process originally
  • antigenicity meant foreigness, but
  • anti-DNA abs changed that. And is
  • MMTV-altered repertoire us or them?
  • Self/nonself discrimination has been
  • challenged by the Danger theory as
  • the fundamental principle underlying

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Innate and Adaptive Immunity
  • Innate
  • inborn existing from birth not learned
  • from experience
  • Adaptive
  • adjusting or modifying to fit circumstances
  • (vs Darwinian adaptation artistic adaptation)

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The Problem at Hand the perpetual challenge of
infection, aka the host vs pathogen struggle
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The Attackers
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Innate Immunity 0-4 hrs First Line Defense
Adaptive Immunity gt96 hr
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The Phases of an Infection
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Pathogen
Epithelium
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Bacterial Invasiveness
Pathogen
Epithelium
Host Defense
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Pathogen
Epithelium
.Vibrio cholerae . Helicobacter pylori
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Pathogen
Epithelium
Highest exposure for all pathogens exposed to
antibodies
Extracellular milieu (blood,
lymph, interstitial space)
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Epithelium
Extracellular milieu
cytoplasm
vacuole
Intracellular milieu
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Epithelium
Extracellular milieu
Viruses Chlamydia
cytoplasm
Salmonella
vacuole
Intracellular milieu
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Epithelium
Extracellular milieu
cytoplasm
  • Phagolysosome
  • respiratory burst
  • (H202) (N0)
  • NADPH oxidase

vacuole
Intracellular milieu
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Epithelium
Extracellular milieu
cytoplasm
  • Phagolysosome
  • respiratory burst
  • (H202) (N0)
  • NADPH oxidase
  • chronic
  • granulomatous
  • disease

vacuole
Intracellular milieu
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Figure 2-7 part 1 of 2
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Figure 2-7 part 2 of 2
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Direct Mechanisms of tissue damage by pathogens.
I. Exotoxin
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Direct mechanisms of tissue damage by
pathogens II. Endotoxin
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Direct mechanisms of tissue damage by pathogens
III. Cytopathic Effect
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Indirect I.
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Bacterial endocarditis
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Indirect II.
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Indirect III.
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Figure 2-2 part 1 of 2
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Figure 2-2 part 2 of 2
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  • System Breakdown
  • Burns
  • Trauma
  • Cystic fibrosis

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Figure 2-4
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Airway Defenses
Mucociliary clearance
mucus
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Mucociliary clearance
mucus
-maintained by a chloride channel CFTR (cystic
fibrosis transmembrane regulator)
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Mucociliary clearance
mucus
-maintained by a chloride channel CFTR (cystic
fibrosis transmembrane regulator)
44
Mucociliary clearance
mucus
  • -maintained by a chloride channel
  • CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator)
  • single mutation (eg 508) altered chloride
    transport

sticky viscous
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Mucociliary clearance
XXXX
mucus
  • -maintained by a chloride channel
  • CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator)
  • single mutation (eg 508) altered chloride
    transport

sticky viscous
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Figure 2-4
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Figure 2-5 part 1 of 2
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Figure 2-5 part 2 of 2
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Bactericidal Products from Macrophages and
Neutrophils
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