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Urine Analysis

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Test measures hemoglobin and myoglobin. Trace amounts may be clinically significant. ... Negative result does not rule out the presence of hemoglobin or globulins. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Urine Analysis


1
Urine Analysis
  • Diane C. Jette, Ph.D.
  • BioMedica Diagnostics Inc.

2
Reagent Test Strips
  • Multiple test reagents on a ready to use test
    strip.
  • Test results are read at different times after
    brief exposure to urine sample.
  • The color on strip is compared to the reference
    color shown on test strip packaging.

3
Typical Test Strip
  • Test
  • Glucose
  • Bilirubin
  • Ketone
  • Blood
  • Protein
  • Nitrite
  • Leukocytes
  • pH
  • Specific Gravity
  • Urobilinogen
  • Sensitivity_
  • 4 to 7 mmol/L
  • 7 to 14 ?mol/L
  • 0.5 to 1.0 mmol/L (Acetoacetic acid)
  • 150 to 620 ?g/L (Hemoglobin)
  • 0.15 to 0.3 g/L (Albumin)
  • 13 to 22 ?mol/L
  • 5 to 15 cells/ ?L
  • pH 5.0 to 8.5
  • 1.000 to1.030
  • 0.2 to 8 ?mol/L

4
Glucose
  • Small amounts of glucose normally excreted by the
    kidney.
  • Below sensitivity of the test.
  • gt6 mmol/L clinically significant.

5
Bilirubin
  • Normally no Bilirubin is detected in urine.
  • Even trace amounts are clinically significant.

6
Ketones
  • Test detects acetoacetic acid in urine.
  • Normal urine negative with this test.
  • Detectable levels seen during physiological
    stress such as fasting, pregnancy, and frequent
    strenuous exercise.
  • Large amounts with ketoacidosis due to starvation
    and abnormal carbohydrate or lipid metabolism.

7
Specific Gravity
  • Range 1.000 and 1.030
  • Elevated specific gravity seen with elevated
    protein levels (1 to 7.5 g/L)

8
Blood
  • Test measures hemoglobin and myoglobin.
  • Trace amounts may be clinically significant.
  • Often found in urine of menstruating females.
  • False positives may be seen with urinary tract
    infections

9
pH
  • Range from pH 5 to 8.5.
  • False results may occur if excessive urine
    remains on the strip.

10
Protein
  • Test sensitive to albumin.
  • Negative result does not rule out the presence of
    hemoglobin or globulins.
  • Normally no protein present in urine.
  • Greater than 0.3 g/L is clinically significant.

11
Urobilinogen
  • Normal Range in urine 3 to 17 ?mol/L
  • Greater than 34 ?mol/L transition from normal to
    abnormal.
  • Total absence of urobilinogen cannot be
    determined with this test.

12
Nitrite
  • Dependant on the conversion of dietary nitrate to
    nitrite by Gram Negative Bacteria.
  • Positive results may indicate presence of greater
    than 105 cells per mL.
  • Color not proportional to the number of cells.

13
Leukocytes
  • Normally no leukocytes present in urine.
  • Positive result is clinically significant.
  • Some drugs interfere with the test
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