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SE 477 Software and Systems Project Management


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Title: SE 477 Software and Systems Project Management

SE 477 Software and Systems Project Management
  • Dennis Mumaugh, Instructor
  • Office OHare, Room 113
  • Office Hours Wednesday, 430-600

  • Comments and feedback
  • Tips for students (http//
  • Mail
  • Make sure your email account is working. I have
    one account that is bouncing
  • Mailing list is enabled and active
  • Access to tools
  • MicroSoft Project is accessible for students as
    part of the MSDNAA for DePaul students. There is
    an entry on the MyCDM page under resources.
  • Team Project
  • Form teams of 2 to 3 people (no more) Get
    organized and start planning
  • Project is to develop a Recreation and Wellness
    Intranet Project.

SE 477 Class 2
  • Topic Software Project Management
  • Software project management overview
  • Project managers
  • Project organization
  • Putting a process in place
  • Software process
  • Phases for software project management
  • Defining the project
  • Project charter
  • Statement of work (SOW)
  • Preliminary Scope
  • Project management tools

Thought for the day
  • I am going to give you one advice about Project
    Management... Projects Are About Humans. Now Deal
    With That!

Last time
  • Roadmap for Software Project Management
  • Fundamentals
  • 4 Project Dimensions
  • People, process, product, technology
  • Software Process or What is a project?
  • Project characteristics
  • Trade-off Triangle
  • 36 Classic Mistakes

  • Reading
  • PMP Study Guide Chapter 2
  • Other texts on Reading List page

The Growth of Project Management as a Profession
PM History in a Nutshell
  • Birth of modern PM Manhattan Project (the bomb)
  • 1970s military, defense, construction industry
    were using PM software
  • 1990s large shift to PM-based models
  • 1985 TQM
  • 1990-93 Re-engineering, self-directed teams
  • 1996-99 Risk mgmt, project offices
  • 2000 MA, global projects

The Field
  • Jobs where are they?
  • Professional Organizations
  • Project Management Institute (PMI) (
  • The Project Management Institute (PMI) is an
    international professional society for project
    managers founded in 1969
  • Software Engineering Institute (SEI)
  • IEEE Software Engineering Group
  • Certifications
  • The PMBOK PMI Body of Knowledge
  • Tools
  • MS Project

The Field Part 2
  • Average PM salary 81,000
  • Contract rates for PMs can match techies
  • PMI certification adds avg. 14 to salary
  • PMI certs, 1993 1,000 2002 40,000
  • Other cert CompTIA Project

The Role of the Project Manager
  • Job descriptions vary, but most include
    responsibilities like planning, scheduling,
    coordinating, and working with people to achieve
    project goals
  • Remember that 97 of successful projects were led
    by experienced project managers, who can often
    help influence success factors

Skills for Project Managers
  • Project managers need a wide variety of skills
  • They should
  • Be comfortable with change
  • Understand the organizations they work in and
  • Be able to lead teams to accomplish project goals

Competencies for Project Managers
  • People skills
  • Leadership
  • Listening
  • Integrity, ethical behavior, consistent
  • Strong at building trust
  • Verbal communication
  • Strong at building teams
  • Conflict resolution, conflict management
  • Critical thinking, problem solving
  • Understands, balances priorities
  • Negotiating
  • Influencing the Organization
  • Mentoring
  • Process and technical expertise

Software Project Management
  • Fundamentals

Formal Project Management
  • Advantages of Using Formal Project Management
  • Better control of financial, physical, and human
  • Improved customer relations
  • Shorter development times
  • Lower costs
  • Higher quality and increased reliability
  • Higher profit margins
  • Improved productivity
  • Better internal coordination
  • Higher worker morale (less stress)
  • Less death marches
  • Less overworked personnel

What Helps Projects Succeed?
  • Firm basic requirements
  • Formal methodology
  • Reliable estimates
  • Other criteria, such as small milestones, proper
    planning, competent staff, and ownership
  • Executive support
  • User involvement
  • Experienced project manager
  • Clear business objectives
  • Minimized scope
  • Standard software infrastructure

The Standish Group, Extreme CHAOS, (2001).
Conventional Software Management Performance
  • Barry Boehms Industrial Software Metrics Top 10
  • Finding and fixing a software problem after
    delivery costs 100 times more than finding and
    fixing the problem in early design phases
  • You can compress software development schedules
    25, but no more
  • For every 1 you spend on development, you will
    spend 2 on maintenance
  • Software development and maintenance costs are
    primarily a function of source lines of code.
  • Variations among people account for the biggest
    difference in software productivity hire good
    people to succeed.

Conventional Software Management Performance
  • The overall ratio of software to hardware costs
    is still growing.
  • Only about 15 of software development effort is
    devoted to programming
  • Software systems and products typically cost 3
    times as much per SLOC as individual software
    programs. Software system products (system of
    systems) costs 9 times as much
  • Walkthroughs catch 60 of the errors
  • 80 of the contributions comes from 20 of the

First Principles
  • One size does not fit all
  • Spectrums
  • Project types
  • Sizes
  • Formality and rigor

  • Hope is not a strategy.
  • Classic Mistake Avoidance
  • Development Fundamentals
  • Risk Management
  • Schedule-Oriented Practices

PMIs 9 Knowledge Areas
  • Project integration management
  • Scope
  • Time
  • Cost
  • Quality
  • Human resource
  • Communications
  • Risk
  • Procurement

Project Management Framework
Project Phases and Project Life Cycles
Project Life Cycles
  • What is a project life cycle?
  • All projects are divided into phases
  • All phases together are known as the Project Life
  • Each phase is marked by completion of
  • Identify the primary software project phases

Lifecycle Relationships

Seven Core Project Phases
  • The traditional (aka waterfall) Software
    Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

Project Phases A.K.A.

Project Managers
  • Growing demand for software project managers
  • Organizations have become customer-driven.
  • Organizations have evolved from function to
    process structures.
  • Organizations are using task forces more
  • Organizations have become more project-oriented.
  • From the organization perspective, project
    managers are needed to
  • Gain market share
  • Be first to market
  • Stay profitable
  • Maintain Quality

Project Managers
  • Project Managers are mainly responsible to all
    issues related to the software project issues
    may vary depending on the project scale, some of
    the common issues are
  • Schedule
  • Budget
  • Quality
  • Delivery of products
  • Locking resources
  • Bottom line, as a project manager you will notice
    that most of your time is consumed chasing and
    collecting the status of project tasks.

Understanding Organizations
Structural frame Focuses on roles and
responsibilities, coordination and control.
Organization charts help define this frame.
Human resources frame Focuses on providing
harmony between needs of the organization and
needs of people.
Political frame Assumes organizations are
coalitions composed of varied individuals and
interest groups. Conflict and power are key
Symbolic frame Focuses on symbols and meanings
related to events. Culture is important.
Organizational Structures
  • Functional
  • Engineering, Marketing, Design, etc
  • PL from production
  • Projectized
  • Project A, Project B
  • Income from projects
  • PM has PL responsibility
  • Matrix
  • Functional and Project based
  • Program Mgmt. Model
  • Shorter cycles, need for rapid development process

Functional Organization
  • Cons
  • Walls can lack customer orientation
  • Silos create longer decisions cycles
  • Conflicts across functional areas
  • Project leaders have little power
  • Pros
  • Clear definition of authority
  • Eliminates duplication
  • Encourages specialization
  • Clear career paths

Projectized Organization
  • Pros
  • Unity of command
  • Effective inter-project communication
  • Cons
  • Duplication of facilities
  • Career path

Examples defense avionics, construction
Matrix Organization
  • Pros
  • Project integration across functional lines
  • Efficient use of resources
  • Retains functional teams
  • Cons
  • Two bosses for personnel
  • Complexity
  • Resource priority conflicts

Matrix Forms
  • Weak, Strong, Balanced
  • Degree of relative power
  • Weak functional-centric
  • Strong project-centric

Organizational Structure Influences on Projects
PMBOK Guide, 2000, p. 19
  • A process encapsulates an organizations
    experience in form of successful recipes.
  • Process descriptions, generally, contain the
    sequence of steps to be executed, who executes
    them, the entry/exit criteria for major steps,
  • Guidelines, checklists, and templates provide
    support to use the processes.

Putting a Process in Place
  • Choosing a Process.
  • All projects have a process, unfortunately some
    dont specify and implement their process.
  • Projects with no specified process end up
  • Thrashing, unproductive work, can quickly cripple
    a project.
  • Generally, there are two choices for choosing a
  • Tailor the organizational process to your
  • Used when most of the people are from the same
    group as before
  • Used when the last project was successful.
  • Specify a process for your project.
  • Good when people are from different organizations
    using different processes

Tailoring a Process
  • Steps to Tailoring an Organizational Process
  • Determine how your project differs from the
    typical organizational project.
  • Form two lists activities your project needs
    from the organizational process and tasks your
    project doesnt need from the process
  • Propose changes to the organizational process
  • Circulate the tailored process within the team
    and other key personnel for review and input.
  • Integrate the changes and move quickly for

Assessing the Process
  • Assessing should be an ongoing process through
    out the project.
  • Both the project and the process should lend
    themselves to assessment and improvement.
  • Make gathering measurements part of concurrent
  • Gather data to answer the following
  • Were the tasks and supporting activities
  • How much effort did each task and activity
  • What tasks and activities were performed but
    werent in the process specification?
  • How did the products change over time?
  • When did tasks and activities start and stop?
  • How did tasks and activities integrate?
  • When in the project did we spend effort doing
  • Repeat this during project close out.

The Project Manager Responsibilities
  • Project planning
  • Managing the project
  • Lead project team
  • Building client partnerships
  • Targeting to the business

Few Rules Before We Embark
  • And finally, communicate, communicate, and

  • Definition of a Project
  • A project is a sequence of unique, complex, and
    connected activities having one goal or purpose
    and that must be completed by a specific time,
    within budget, and according to specification.
  • What is a Program?
  • A program is a collection of projects.
  • The projects must be completed in a specific
    order for the program to be considered complete.
    Because they compromise multiple projects, they
    are larger in scope than a single project.

Project Parameters
  • Five constraints operate on every project
  • Scope
  • Quality
  • Cost
  • Time
  • Resources
  • A change in one of these constraints can cause a
    change in another constraint to restore the
    equilibrium of the project
  • Lets discuss each one of these in detail …

  • Scope is a statement that defines the boundaries
    of the project. It tells not only what will be
    done but also what will not be done.
  • In the information systems industry, scope is
    often referred to as a functional specification.
  • In the engineering profession, it is generally
    called a statement of work.

  • Two types of quality are part of every project
  • The first is product quality. This refers to the
    quality of the deliverable form the project.
  • The second type of quality is process quality,
    which is the quality of the project management
    quality itself. The focus is on how well the
    project management process works and how can it
    be improved. Continuous quality improvement and
    process quality management are the tools used to
    measure process quality.

  • The X-amount of dollars that it will cost to do
    the project is another variable that defines the
    project the budget that has been established for
    the project.
  • This is an important factor for projects that
    create deliverables that are sold to external

  • The customer specifies a timeframe within which
    the project must be completed.
  • Cost and time are inversely related to one
    another. The time a project takes to be completed
    can be reduced, but cost increases as a result.

  • Resources are assets, such as people, equipment,
    physical facilities, or inventory, that have
    limited availabilities, can be scheduled, or can
    leased from an outside party. Some are fixed,
    others are variable only in the long term. In any
    case, they are central to the scheduling of
    project activities and the orderly completion of
    the project .

Phases of the Project Management
  • There are five phases of the project management
    life cycle
  • Scope/Define/Initiate - Scope the project
  • Plan - Develop the project plan
  • Execute Launch the plan
  • Monitor Monitor/control project progress
  • Close - Close out the project
  • Note these can be repeated for each phase
  • Each process is described by
  • Inputs
  • Tools Techniques
  • Outputs

Initiating Process
  • State the problem/opportunity.
  • Establish the project plan.
  • Define the project objectives.
  • Identify the success criteria.
  • List assumptions, risks, obstacles
  • Inputs
  • Product Description
  • Strategic plan
  • Project Selection Criteria
  • Historical Information
  • Outputs
  • Project Charter
  • Project Manager assigned
  • Constraints
  • Assumptions

Planning Process
Devising and maintaining a workable scheme to
accomplish the business need that the project was
undertaken to address
  • Scope Planning
  • Scope Definition
  • Activity Definition
  • Activity Sequencing
  • Activity Duration Estimating
  • Resource Planning
  • Cost Estimating
  • Cost Budgeting
  • Risk Planning
  • Schedule Development
  • Quality Planning
  • Communications Planning
  • Organization Planning
  • Staff Acquisition
  • Procurement Planning
  • Project Plan Development

Develop the project plan
  • Identify the project activities.
  • Estimate the activity duration.
  • Determine resource requirements.
  • Construct/analyze the project network.
  • Prepare the project proposal.

Executing Process
Coordinating people and other resources to carry
out the plan
  • Project Plan Execution
  • Scope Verification
  • Quality Assurance
  • Team Development
  • Information Distribution
  • Solicitation
  • Source Selection
  • Contract Administration
  • Identify and organize the project team.
  • Establish team operating rules.
  • Level project resources.
  • Schedule work packages.
  • Document work packages.

Controlling Process
Ensuring that project objectives are met by
monitoring and measuring progress and taking
corrective measures when necessary
  • Overall Change Control
  • Scope Change Control
  • Schedule Control
  • Cost Control
  • Quality Control
  • Performance Reporting
  • Risk Response Control
  • Establish progress reporting systems.
  • Install change control tools/process.
  • Define problem-escalation process.
  • Monitor project progress versus plan.
  • Revise project plans.

Close out the project
  • Formalizing acceptance of the project or phase
    and bringing it to an orderly end
  • Contract Close-out
  • Obtain client acceptance.
  • Install project deliverables.
  • Administrative Closure
  • Complete project documentation.
  • Complete post-implementation audit.
  • Lessons learned
  • Issues final project report.

Phases of the Project Management
  • Level of Activity and Overlap of Process Groups
    Over Time

Project Processes Their Integration
  • Project Management Processes (Principles of
    Project Management)
  • Initiating processes (Defining)
  • Planning processes
  • Executing processes
  • Monitoring controlling processes
  • Closing processes
  • System Development Processes
  • Inception phase
  • Elaboration phase
  • Construction phase
  • Transition phase
  • Integrating IT Project Processes
  • PM/IT project integration tactics

Initiating the Project
Initiating the Project
  • Define scope
  • Document Project Risks, Assumptions, and
  • Identify and Perform Stakeholder Analysis
  • Develop Project Charter
  • Obtain Project Charter Approval
  • Deliverables
  • Project charter
  • Statement of work (SOW)

Preliminary Scope
  • Project objectives
  • Product description
  • Objectives
  • Deliverables
  • Constraints
  • Assumptions
  • Project acceptance criteria

Interactions / Stakeholders
As a PM, who do you interact with? Project
  • External people
  • Project sponsor
  • Executives
  • Customers
  • Contractors
  • Functional managers
  • Team
  • Architects
  • System Engineers
  • Designers
  • Developers
  • Testers
  • Documenters

Software System Stakeholders
  • Each stakeholder has different concerns

Stakeholder Triad
  • Function Representative
  • The business person
  • Or SME Subject Matter Expert
  • Executive Sponsor
  • Projects visionary champion
  • Also the General, Fall Guy, and Minesweeper
  • Not the PM, Santa Claus, or the Tech Guy
  • Project Manager
  • The Linchpin
  • Must be multi-lingual

Define the Project
  • There is a need for clear understanding of
    exactly what is to be done. Project definition
    starts with the Conditions of Satisfaction
    document based on conversation with the customer.
  • Project Overview Statement aka Charter is
    generated from the Conditions of Satisfaction
  • The Project Overview Statement clearly states
    what is to be done.
  • Once the Project Overview Statement is approved,
    the scoping phase is complete.
  • In most cases the Project Overview Statement, the
    Statement of Work, and Project Charter are the
    same. We will use them interchangeably.

Project Charter
  • The Conditions of Satisfaction statement provides
    the input we need to generate the Charter.
  • The Charter is a short document that concisely
    states what is to be done in the project, why it
    is to be done, and what business value it will
    provide to the organization when completed.
  • The main purpose of the Charter is to secure
    senior management approval and the resources
    needed to develop a detailed project plan.
  • It will be reviewed by the managers who are
    responsible for setting priorities and deciding
    what projects to support. It is also a general
    statement, it is not detailed technical statement.

Project Charter
  • A high-level project description
  • Business need, product, assumptions
  • Often precedes SOW
  • Often 2-4 pages (can be longer)

Project Charter
  • Typical outline
  • Overview
  • Business need
  • Problem/opportunity
  • Objectives
  • Project goal
  • Method or approach
  • General scope of work
  • Success criteria
  • Rough schedule budget
  • Roles responsibilities
  • Assumptions, risks, obstacles

Statement of Work (SOW)
  • A description of the work required for the
    project normally this is used when the project
    is being contracted out, but most of this is part
    of the Project Overview or Charter
  • Sets the boundary conditions
  • SOW vs. CSOW (Contract SOW)
  • Latter uses legal language as part of a
    competitive bidding scenario
  • Can be used in the final contract be careful,
    be specific, be clear
  • Typically done after approval (after Go)
  • Can be multiple versions
  • List of deliverables for an RFP
  • More detailed within final RFP
  • Binding version from contract

SOW Template
S.M.A.R.T. characteristics for Goal
  • Dorans S.M.A.R.T. characteristics provide the
    criteria for a goal statement
  • Specific Be specific in targeting and objective.
  • Measurable Establish measurable indicator(s) of
  • Assignable Make the object assignable to one
    person for completion.
  • Realistic State what can realistically be done
    with available resources.
  • Time-related State when the objective can be
    achieved that is, duration

The Project Definition Statement PDS
  • Just as the customer and the project manager
    benefit from the Charter, the project manager and
    project team can benefit from a closely related
    document, which we call the Project Definition
    Statement (PDS).
  • The PDS uses the same form as the Charter but
    incorporates considerably more detail. The
    detailed information provided in the PDS is for
    the use of the project manager and the project

Project Management Tools
Project Management Tools
  • There are many tools available
  • MS-Project is an example of these tools
  • Basic requirements
  • Develop a Work Breakdown Structure
  • Build network diagram (aka PERT chart)
  • Build Gantt chart
  • Assign resources
  • Calculate critical path
  • What is the difference between critical path and
    critical chain?
  • Critical chain also manages buffer activity
    durations and resources

PM Tools Software
  • Low-end
  • Basic features, tasks management, charting
  • MS Excel, Milestones Simplicity
  • Mid-market
  • Handle larger projects, multiple projects,
    analysis tools
  • MS Project (approx. 50 of market)
  • High-end
  • Very large projects, specialized needs,
  • AMS Realtime
  • Primavera Project Manager

Work Breakdown Structure
  • Breaks project into a hierarchy.
  • Creates a clear project structure.
  • Avoids risk of missing project elements.
  • Enables clarity of high level planning.

Tools Gantt Chart
Tools Network Diagram
Next Class
  • Topic
  • Project Planning
  • The Project Management Plan
  • Scope Management
  • Creating the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
  • Reading
  • PMP Study Guide Chapters 3-4
  • Other texts on Reading List page
  • Assignment
  • Paper summary and analysis of why projects fail