Introduction to Personality and Individual Differences - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 18
About This Presentation

Introduction to Personality and Individual Differences


Describe your best friend to the person sitting next to you ... Thesis, Antithesis, Synthesis. Dominant paradigm. A paradigm shift. Module Information ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:164
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 19
Provided by: hopeliv


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Introduction to Personality and Individual Differences

Introduction to Personality and Individual
Think about personality
  • Describe your best friend to the person sitting
    next to you
  • Think about yourself and whether you are always
    the same person
  • With each of your friends?
  • With your family?
  • In different situations
  • At a party
  • At a job interview

Personality is not a new concept
  • Indian Ayurvedic body types
  • Pisa
  • Vata
  • kapha
  • Ancient Greece
  • 4 humors
  • Choleric
  • Melancholic
  • Sanguine
  • phelgmatic
  • Gideons army

Recent History
  • 1796 Galls phrenology reading bumps on the
    skull was supposed to indicate ones personality
  • Gall 1758-1828
  • Impact on modern psychology
  • Terry Pratchet Reverse Phrenology.
  • The first modern measure for personality was the
    Woodworth personal data sheet 1917
  • The army alpha test of intelligence widely used
    in USA in 1920s

What is personality psychology?
  • It is not that there are good and bad ones!
  • Personality psychology aims to
  • Understand aspects of human nature
  • Understand uniqueness - individual differences
  • Predict behaviours
  • Consistency across time
  • Consistency across different situations
  • How well will a particular individual perform at
    a task?
  • E.g., Time of day issues, and interactions with
  • Understand when and how things go wrong
  • Clinical psychology
  • Therapeutic context application

Cognitive abilities and personality
  • To what extent is intelligence part of
  • To what extent is creativity part of

Research approaches 1
  • Three reasons for studying personality
  • To gain scientific understanding
  • To assess people
  • To change people

Research approaches 2
  • Observation is the start of all personality
    theory formation
  • Self and others behavioural patterns
  • Inductive versus deductive approaches
  • Idiographic versus nomothetic approaches
  • Clinical/case study approach
  • Experimental approach
  • Biological/genetic approach

Determinants of personality
  • Genetic and constitutional determinants
  • e.g., William Sheldon
  • Cultural determinants
  • Social class determinants
  • Familial determinants
  • Other determinants

Sheldons Somatypes
Controversies/issues in personality psychology
  • To what extent is there a core personality that
    is consistent across situations and time?
  • Are we chameleons driven by situations (external)
  • Or do our internal drives and biases create
    dispositions that are consistent?
  • What is the self?
  • E.g., One self or many different selves?
  • To what extent am I created by the environment
    versus biology/genetics/evolution
  • The nature-nurture debate
  • The role of culture in the determination of
    personality/behavioural traits
  • Is personality conscious or unconscious?
  • What is the unconscious?

Considerations about each theory of personality
  • Purpose of the theory
  • Explanation of personality
  • Nature versus nurture
  • Positivity versus Negativity
  • Structure of Personality
  • Homeostasis versus heterostasis
  • Holism versus elementalism
  • Evidence?

There is no such thing as a Personality
  • Very few (if any) Psychologists would list their
    area as being Personality.
  • Instead what you have is
  • Cognitive Psychologists
  • Psychoanalysts
  • Trait Psychologists
  • Humanistic Psychologists
  • Behaviourists
  • whos theories are applicable in explaining
    personality among other things.

What is a paradigm?
  • Thomas Kuhns observations about science
  • Paradigms are accepted examples of actual
    scientific practice examples which include law,
    theory, application and instrumentation together
    provide models from which spring particular
    coherent traditions of scientific research
  • Agreed definitions, methodology aims
  • New paradigms develop
  • Thesis, Antithesis, Synthesis
  • Dominant paradigm
  • A paradigm shift

Module Information
This is the link/web-address for the Psychology
Department Website http//
This is the link/web-address for the Human
Development, Personality and Individual
Differences section of the Psychology Department
Website http//
Lecturers teaching on this course
  • Cathal OSiouchru
  • (module leader please direct any general
    questions about the course to Cathal / GLB 110)
  • Prof. Minna Lyons
  • Keith Morgan
  • Dr. Simon Davies

Important to read around the course
  • Journals
  • Textbooks
  • As a last resort - The Web
  • Finding that information
  • What do we have in stock?
  • http//
  • What to do if a book you want is already out?
  • http//
  • http//

The coursework for P ID
  • Assignment Weighting Word
  • Assignment 1 The Essay (1st Semester Done!)
  • Assignment 2 The Case Study (2nd Semester)
  • All the information about the coursework is
    available here
  • Insert link here
  • Assignment 3 The Exam
  • The written examination will take place during
    the May examination period. The exam will last
    for two hours and you will be required to answer
    two Questions. The exam paper will comprise of
    two sections and will be required to answer one
    question from each section. You must not answer a
    question on an area that you have previously
    covered in either assignment 1 or 2.
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)