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Science Payload Section

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Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: ... Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera: Interplanetary cruise through primary mission: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Science Payload Section


1
Science Payload Section
  • Delicious Science brought to us from the Mars
    Global Surveyor.

2
The Mars Global Surveyor Spacecraft
  • Two solar panels
  • Angular Momentum Management Plan The spacecraft
    uses three reaction wheels, or "flywheels to
    control motion.
  • High Gain Antenna
  • http//mars.jpl.nasa.gov/mgs/movpics/anim/mgs-beta
    .mpg

3
Instruments on Mars Global Surveyor
  • MOC
  • MOLA
  • TES
  • Magnetometer
  • Mars Relay System (Antenna)
  • USO

4
Principal Investigators
  • MOC Michael Malin, PI
  • MOLA David Smith, PI
  • TES Phil Christensen, PI
  • Magnetometer Mario Acuna, PI
  • Radio Science Leonard Tyler, Team Leader

5
MOC
  • The Mars Orbiter Camera takes pictures that help
    us learn about Mars.
  • Primary Mission Objective To map the surface of
    Mars photographically with narrow-angle camera
    shots.

6
MOC
  • MOC reselected for MGS after failure of Mars
    Observer
  • 2 weeks spent making gravity model of Mars
  • 9 days spent to calibrate camera and determine
    focus and photometric properties.
  • Four phase plan
  • 1) Aerobreaking to elliptical orbit
  • 2) four weeks of observations from elliptical
    orbit
  • 3) 10 weeks observing after 2 week break due to
    solar conjunction
  • 4) 6 months of more aerobraking to enter
    circular orbit
  • 4/3/1999-1/31/2001 Primary Mission achieved

7
MOC Images
  • Daily global maps
  • Global weather and variable feature monitoring
  • 7.5 km/pixel resolution, red and blue wide-angle
    cameras
  • Narrow-angle images
  • Geology, geomorphology, and variable feature
    monitoring
  • 1.5 12 m/pixel resolution
  • Context frames
  • Wide angle frames acquired with 50 of narrow
    angle images to locate high resolution view
  • 240 m/pixel resolution, typically red,
    occasionally blue frames
  • Wide-angle images
  • Regional monitoring of variable and seasonal
    features
  • 240 960 m/pixel resolution, red or blue
    wide-angle images

8
MOC
  • By photographing the planets surface, we have a
    much better idea what the surface of Mars looks
    like. We can also monitor weather patterns and
    geological changes on the planets surface.

9
MOLA(Mars orbiter Laser Altimeter)
  • Primary objective
  • To determine globally the topography of Mars at a
    level suitable for addressing problems in geology
    and geophysics.

10
MOLA
  • Secondary objectives
  • To characterize the 1064-nm wavelength surface
    reflectivity of Mars to contribute to analyses of
    global surface minerology and seasonal albedo
    changes.
  • To assist in addressing problems in atmospheric
    circulation.
  • To provide geodetic control and topographic
    context for the assessment of possible future
    Mars landing sites.
  • To measure the heights of atmospheric reflections
    to help us better understand the three
    dimensional structure of the Martian atmosphere.
  • To attempt to measure the time-varying topography
    of the Martian polar caps.

11
MOLA
  • Utilizes a spacecraft-fixed (XYZ) coordinate
    system.
  • Designed by the Laser Remote Sensing Branch of
    the Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics of NASAs
    Goddard Space Flight Center.
  • Internal Instruments
  • Laser transmitter
  • Collecting mirror (50-cm parabolic)
  • Detector (SiAPD)
  • Microprocessor
  • 0.5 m. Telescope
  • TIU (Time interval unit) temperature-controlled
    quartz crystal oscillator

12
MOLA
  • Absolute accuracy of approximately 30 m.
  • Vertical positional accuracy of 1m.
  • Horizontal positional accuracy of 100m with
    respect to Mars center of mass.
  • Used to map topographic model of Mars based on
    333,689,830 MOLA surface measurements.
  • Used to determine best-fit ellipsoid for Mars.
  • Current global topographic grid has a resolution
    of 1/64º in latitude by 1/32º in longitude. (1 x
    2 km² at the equator)

13
MOLA
  • The MOLA lets us map the complex topography of
    Mars with incredible detail.

14
The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES)
investigation on Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) is
aimed at determining
TES
  • (1) The composition of surface minerals, rocks,
    and ices
  • (2) The temperature and dynamics of the
    atmosphere
  • (3) The properties of the atmospheric aerosols
    and clouds
  • (4) The nature of the polar regions
  • (5) The thermo-physical properties of the surface
    materials

15
The Thermal Emissions Spectrometer (TES) meets
its scientific objectives using these
instruments
  • TES
  • An Infrared (5.8- to 50-m) Interferometric
    Spectrometer
  • A Broadband Thermal (5.1- to 150-m) Radiometer
  • A Visible/Near-IR (0.3- to 2.9-m) Radiometer

16
Facts about the TES
  • TES
  • Globally maps surface mineralogy at spatial
    resolution of 3 km.
  • Weighs 14.47 kg
  • Consumes 10.6 W when operating
  • Is 23.6 cm by 35.5 cm by 40.0 cm in size

17
TES
  • By analyzing the infrared radiation coming from
    Mars, the TES can help us map the mineral
    composition of the surface.

18
Magnetometer/Electron Reflectometer
Primary Goal of MAG/ER
  • To study the magnetic properties of Mars to gain
    insight into the interior of the planet and
    better understand the early history and evolution
    of Mars.

19
Magnetometer
  • Measured Mars magnetic field while MGS was at
    altitudes between 100 and 200 kilometers above
    the planets surface.
  • Discovered that Mars magnetic field is localized
    in small, particular areas of the crust, rather
    than being centralized.
  • Discovered differences between the way Mars
    reacts to solar wind and the way planets with
    strong magnetospheres interact with solar winds.

20
Magnetometer
  • Measuring the magnetic field of Mars tells us how
    its gravitational field varies, and shows us how
    different it is from Earths.

21
Mars Relay System (High Gain Antenna, used in
conjunction with USO)
  • Used to
  • Transmit messages from Mars rovers to Earth
  • Relay information from the Mars Global Surveyor
    itself back to Earth

22
High Gain Antenna
  • The data sent by the antenna can also be used to
    map variations in Mars gravity field and to
    determine the atmospheric pressure above specific
    locations on Mars.

23
USO
  • The USO (Ultra-stable oscillator) is a tiny
    device which acts as an electronic clock,
    allowing the spacecraft's radio to broadcast
    signals at an extremely precise frequency.
  • The scientists also analyze the electrical
    strength and "tone" of the transmissions received
    as the MGS is about to pass behind Mars, and can
    use these changes in tone to discover
    particularities of the atmosphere the signal is
    being transmitted through.

24
USO
  • The relay operates at a UHF frequency of 437.1
    megaHertz and can listen to stations on the
    Martian surface up to 5,000 km (3,125 miles) away
    from the MGS.
  • Of the six main instruments on the MGS, the Mars
    Relay is the only one not designed to take
    scientific measurements.
  • It is designed to collect data transmitted to
    from landers on the Martian surface, and transmit
    it to Earth.

25
References
  • Pertinent ArticlesMars Global Surveyor Thermal
    Emission Spectrometer experimenthttp//www.agu.o
    rg/journals/je/je0110/2000JE001370/0.htmlMars
    Orbiter Laser Altimeter Experiment summary after
    the first year of global mapping of
    Marshttp//www.agu.org/journals/je/je0110/2000JE
    001364/pdf/2000JE001364.pdfGlobal Distribution
    of Crustal Magnetization Discovered by the Mars
    Global Surveyor MAG/ER Experimenthttp//www.sci
    encemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/284/5415/790Mar
    s Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera
    Interplanetary cruise through primary
    missionhttp//www.agu.org/journals/je/je0110/200
    0JE001455/pdf/2000JE001455.pdfOthershttp//ads
    abs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode2000
    Sci...287.1788Zampdb_keyASTampdata_typeHTML
    ampformatamphigh45a2b5d64a28490http//adsabs
    .harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode1992JGR
    ....97.7781Zampdb_keyASTampdata_typeHTMLamp
    formatamphigh45a2b5d64a28490
  • Nasa Website http//mars.jpl.nasa.gov/mgs/
  • All pictures taken from NASA website

26
Science Objectives
  • Characterize the surface features and geological
    processes on Mars.
  • Determine the composition, distribution and
    physical properties of surface minerals, rocks
    and ice.
  • Determine the global topography, planet shape,
    and gravitational field.
  • Establish the nature of the magnetic field.
  • Monitor global weather and the thermal structure
    of the atmosphere.
  • Study interactions between Mars' surface and the
    atmosphere by monitoring surface features, polar
    caps, and dust and clouds as they migrate over a
    seasonal cycle.

27
TES on the Ground
  • Found hematite in Meridiani Planum.
  • Found that Martian volcanic activity is as
    diverse as Earths.
  • Found a new kind of surface material.

28
TES in the Air
  • Found annual cycles in atmospheric circulation.
  • Found that warm dust in the atmosphere prevents
    water-ice clouds.

29
MOLA Discoveries
  • Measured cloud heights and identified gravity
    waves in the atmosphere.
  • Found evidence for and information about water.

30
MOLA Maps
  • Produced the most accurate global topographic map
    of any planet.

31
MOC Discoveries
  • Observed repeated weather patterns over three
    northern hemisphere summers.
  • Found evidence for water flow over a long period
    of time.
  • Photographed new landforms suggesting recent
    underground water.
  • Did not find evidence for northern seas.

32
  • MOC found new craters

January 2004
February 2006
33

Dust devil
34
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