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Dover Castle

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Title: Dover Castle


1
Dover Castle
  • A virtual tour

2
Dover Castle
  • Through the keyhole
  • Besiege the castle!
  • Whats my job?

3
Dover Castle
  • Through the keyhole

4
Dover Castle
  • Besiege the Castle!

5
Mission Impossible!
  • In 1216 Prince Louis of France invaded England.
    All of south east England fell to his armies,
    only Dover and Windsor held out. Imagine you are
    a spy working for the Prince. Disguised as a
    medieval tradesman you manage to penetrate the
    Castles outer defences. Your mission is to find
    out how Dover Castle is defended and report back
    to Prince Louis without being captured by its
    constable Hubert de Burgh. Good luck!

6
Coltons Gateway
7
Coltons Gateway
8
Coltons Gateway arrow loop
9
Palace Gateway
10
Palace Gateway drawbridge
11
Palace Gateway drawbridge
12
Henry IIs Keep
13
Keep stairs into forebuilding
14
Entrance to the forebuilding
15
Wall at the entrance to the forebuilding
16
Looking down the stairs from the entrance to the
forebuilding
17
Inside the entrance to the forebuilding
18
Detail of the arch above the lower chapel
19
Detail of zig-zag stonework inside the chapel
20
Steps to the drawbridge
21
Detail of wall alongside the steps
22
Stairs over drawbridge pit
23
Top of main staircase looking down into
forebuilding
24
Supports for the drawbridge and slots for the
counter-weights
25
Bottom of the drawbridge pit
26
Top of the stairs at the entrance to the well room
27
Well
28
Inside the well
29
Lead pipes
30
The Great Hall
31
Windows inside the Great Hall
32
Doorway to spiral staircase
33
Spiral staircase to the roof
34
Roof
35
View from the roof top
36
Dover Castle
  • Mission completed!
  • Now you have to get out again!

37
Portcullis
38
Portcullis
39
Portcullis groove
40
Murder holes
41
? Factoids
  • Draw-bar hole deep hole cut into the sides (or
    jambs) of the door into which a stout wooden beam
    could be thrust to secure the door.

42
Draw bar slots
43
? Factoids
  • Drawbridges were heavy wooden platforms that
    spanned a pit or moat between the approach and
    the gateway. They were lifted using winding gear
    known as a windlass or massive counter-weights.

44
? Factoids
  • Arrow Loops
  • The only holes in the outer walls were arrow
    loops. They were too small for soldiers to climb
    through (especially in chain mail).
  • There were three types the single slit, the
    cross slit and the gun loop. The cross slit was
    designed for crossbows.

45
? Factoids
  • Defending the gateway
  • The gateway would have been defended with a
    drawbridge and/or a portcullis. Look for grooves
    in the walls to show where they descended.
  • Inside the gateway, above the heads of the enemy
    murder holes could be unplugged and stones or hot
    liquids such as tar poured down on the
    unfortunate attackers.

46
? Factoids
  • Henry IIs Keep
  • The keep was begun in 1180 by the kings
    architect, Maurice the Engineer. The total cost
    was 7,000 (nearly ¾ of the kings annual
    income!)
  • In 1185 work begun on the walls around the
    castle. There are two rings of curtain walls and
    this was the first time such imposing defences
    had been used in the West.

47
? Factoids
  • Draw-bars
  • Look out for square shaped holes either side of
    doorways. This one is at the entrance to the
    forebuilding and there are more inside the
    entrance to the keep itself.
  • Graffiti
  • The Keep is covered with Graffiti. Much of it
    was carved by French prisoners of war when the
    Keep was used as a prison during the Napoleonic
    Wars.

48
? Factoids
  • The forebuilding
  • The forebuilding comprises three massive towers.
    Inside it used to be open to the sky so the
    defending soldiers could rain arrows and missiles
    on their attackers from above.

49
Plan of the keep at Dover
50
? Factoids
  • Walls
  • The massive width of the walls in Dover Castle
    can be judged by measuring the distance between
    the inner and outer wall surfaces (or skins).
  • The walls at Dover are between 5.2 and 6.4 metres
    thick!

51
? Factoids
  • Spiral stairs
  • Spiral stairs were deliberately turned in a
    clockwise direction. This meant it was easier for
    the defender to wield a sword or axe in his right
    hand as he came down the stairs towards his enemy.

52
? Factoids
  • Well shaft
  • The well shaft is 122 metres deep!
  • The opening to the shaft is on the second floor
    to keep the water supply away from attackers in
    the lower areas of the castle. Besieging armies
    tended to put dead animals down wells to pollute
    the water supply.
  • Two lead pipes can still be seen, taking water to
    other parts of the castle. Funnily enough lead is
    also poisonous!

53
? Factoids
  • Hubert de Burgh
  • A man who had many roles civil servant, soldier
    and guardian of Dover Castle. He served under
    Richard I, John and Henry III. In 1215 he became
    justiciar (chief minister) to the king and was
    one of the most powerful men in Britain after the
    king. When the French began to besiege Dover, he
    reportedly cried, I beseech you by the blood of
    Christ allow me to hang, rather than give up the
    castle to any Frenchman, for it is the key of
    England!

54
Examples of Castle Graffiti
55
Graffiti
56
Graffiti
57
Graffiti
58
Graffiti
59
? Factoids
  • Stone
  • There were several types of stone used for the
    castle. The best quality was Caen stone, a pure
    white sandstone brought especially from Normandy.
  • Flint and Kentish ragstone were used for general
    building work and may have been dressed with lime
    mortar.

60
? Factoids
Caen stone
61
? Factoids
Flint Ragstone
62
? Factoids
  • Stairs into the keep
  • Originally the stairs were slightly higher. You
    can see evidence along the side of the walls.The
    wooden stairs you see today over the drawbridge
    pit are modern.

63
? Factoids
  • Forebuilding stairs
  • Originally these stairs went straight down to
    the ground and didnt turn a right angle as they
    do now.

64
? Factoids
  • Roof
  • The roof was strengthened to take the weight of
    heavy artillery placed here during the Napoleonic
    Wars.
  • The crenellations you can see are sections of
    masonry approximately the height of a man with
    spaces in between (merlons) for shooting arrows
    (crenels)

65
? Factoids
  • Maurice the Engineer
  • Maurice the Engineer (or mason) was responsible
    for designing the Keep and concentric walls. He
    worked directly for Henry II and was commissioned
    to work on numerous buildings, including the keep
    at Newcastle upon Tyne which is similar in some
    respects to Dover.

66
? Factoids
  • Prince Louis of France
  • Son of the fabled French king, Philip Augstus
    and eventual Louis VIII, he came to England in
    1216 following the sudden death of King John in
    the hope of claiming the crown for his father.

67
? Factoids
  • Henry II (1154-1189)
  • Father of Richard the Lionheart and King John,
    and husband of Eleanor of Aquitaine, he was the
    first of the Plantagenet Kings and one of
    medieval Englands most able rulers. During his
    reign he built or improved nearly 90 castles!

68
Henry II
69
Newcastle upon Tyne Castle
70
Dover Castle
  • Whats my job?

71
At work in Dover Castle
  • Can you identify the trades and professions of
    these medieval people from the tools and objects
    theyve left behind?

72
?
73
A barber-surgeons work bench.Can you spot the
fingers?
74
Ouch!
75
?
76
A glaziers work bench.Where would you have seen
stained glass like this?
77
?
78
A carpenters workbench. What are each of the
tools for?
79
?
80
A masons work bench. Where might this stone have
gone?
81
?
82
Not a workbench a medieval loo or garderobe!
83
Dover Castle
  • Well done!

84
Through the keyhole!
Level One
85
garderobe
Level One
86
Through the keyhole!
Level Two
87
Chapel of Thomas Becket
Level Two
88
Through the keyhole!
Level Three
89
Great Chamber
Level Three
90
Through the keyhole!
Level Four
91
The Royal Bedchamber
Level Four
92
Through the keyhole!
Level Five
93
The Keep oven
Level Five
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