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Australia

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Title: Australia


1
Australia
2
  • Part One The Land and the People of the Dreaming
  • The Land
  • 1. The natural environment of Australia

3
  • The continent of Australia lies between
    equatorial South East Asia and the Antarctic. It
    is the largest island in the world, and is also
    the smallest, flattest and driest continent in
    the world.

4
  • 2. The distinctive features of the land the
    Great Dividing Range and the Hreat Barrier Reef.

5
  • 3. The distivctive animals of the land the
    platypus(???), the kangaroo, the koala, the
    wombat(????)

6
II. The Peoples
  • 1. The Peoples of the Dreaming belong to over 500
    different groups or nations with different
    languages and cultures but they were bound
    together by their belief in the Dreaming.

7
  • 2. The Dreamtime is most often used to refer to
    the time before time, or the time of the
    creation of all things, while Dreaming refers
    to an individuals or groups set of beliefs or
    spirituality.

8
  • 3. It is based on the central principle that
    people who live on the continent have special
    responsibilities to the land --- that the land
    owns them and that they hold it in trust as the
    home of their creator.

9
III. The Impact of Colonization
  • 1. The concept of Terra Nullius the term is from
    Latin, which means a land that is owned by no
    one. The British declared the Australian
    continent Terra Nullius to justify their invasion
    of the indigenous peoples land

10
  • 2.The impact of colonization on the indigenous
    people
  • the indigenous people were dispossessed of the
    land they had lived on for tens of thousands of
    years

11
  • they were killed in violent skirmishes and
    massacres
  • they contracted the diseases brought by the white
    settlers and as a result, their population fell
    drastically.

12
IV. The policies of segregation, exclusion and
assimilation
  • 1. By the mid-1800s the government of violence
    changed to policies of segregation and exclusion.

13
  • 2. By the beginning of the 20th century the
    policy of protection had been replaced by the
    policy of assimilation.

14
  • It was founded on the belief that the white
    culture was progressive and superior while the
    indigenous culture was inferior.

15
  • 3. The double loss of traditional culture and
    exclusion from mainstream Australian society and
    culture led to Aboriginal people being labelled
    as lazy, stupid and drunken and dirty.

16
Part Two Religion in Australia Today
  • The Dreaming
  • The Dreaming means that people do not own the
    land the land owns the people who have
    responsibilities of guardianship towards it.

17
II. Protestantism
  • It is the most dominant form of religion in
    modern Australian society. It was the religion of
    governing colonial class in Australia.

18
  • It promotes values such as rationalism,
    individualism, hard work, worldly success and
    ascetism.

19
  • Though its values are paradoxical, they fit well
    with the principles of Capitalism, and support
    the development of capitalism.

20
III. Catholism
  • Australian Catholism was transported to the
    colony with the convicts. It has replaced the
    Anglicanism as the most demographic dominant
    reliogious group.

21
  • In the second half of the19th century, the
    Catholics from Ireland played an important role
    in establishing the working class culture in
    Australia and in creating unionism and the
    political party that represented the working
    class.

22
IV. Fundamentalism
  • It is basically a commitment to conservatism. It
    is often found in societies that are undergoing
    rapid changes, where Fundamentalists want to
    maintain or create what was the fundamental
    values of an earlier culture.

23
V. Anglicanism
  • It was the religion of the British colonizers as
    well as the convicts and free settlers. It was
    the dominant religion in Australia throughout the
    19th and most of the 20th centuries. It has lost
    its demographic supremacy to Catholicism.

24
VI. Secularism
  • There is a steady imcrease in the number of
    people who have no formal commitment to any
    religion. Most of the people do not attend church
    services regularly today.

25
  • However, Australia still can be seen as a
    religious society, instead of a secular society,
    as over three quarters of the Australian
    population is associated with some form of
    religion.

26
Part Three From Penal Colony to Free Migration
  • I. The beginning of the penal colony
  • 1. The first period of the colonization of
    Australia, lasting from 1788 to the 1830s, was
    based largely on the unfree labor of the
    convicts.

27
  • New South Wales, Tasmania ans Queensland were
    established as convict colonies Victoria and
    South Australia, established in 1830s, were
    settled as free, or non-convict, colonies.

28
  • Western Australia, established in 1828 as a free
    colony, turned to convict labor in 1850 and
    become a convict colony for 19 years until 1869.

29
  • Convict partnerships were not the only form of
    family of this era. There were also free
    families of people who came over with the
    transported convicts, families of soldiers or
    administrators of the colony or people who
    arrived as free settlers.

30
  • II. From convict transportation to
    freemigration
  • 1. By the early 1820s there was pressure from the
    majority of the free settlers in NSW to replace
    convict transportation with free migration and
    to establish a free market economy.

31
  • 2. The 1930s and 1840s formed the early years of
    the modern (non-convict) system of the Australian
    Political Economy.

32
  • 3. Wakefield Scheme
  • It was devised by Edward Wakefield, a convict and
    theorist on colonization, to solve the problem of
    labor shortage in colonial Australia

33
  • His proposal on the development of colonial
    Australia was that land should not be freely and
    cheaply available.

34
  • It should be sold at suffient price to ensure
    that only men of capital could afford it. The
    money earned from selling land should be used to
    assist selected migrants to Australia.

35
  • Part Four Australia as a Liberal Democratic
    Society
  • I. Difference as the central value of the
    Australian society

36
  • Ausrtalians understand and conduct life upon a
    basic commitment to difference. The emphasis is
    upon the principle that there are different ways
    if thinking and knowing about the world there is
    neither absolute truth nor one single way to run
    the country.

37
  • II. The formation of Australian political system
  • 1. The Washminsterform of polity

38
  • It is a mixture of the U S. Washington system of
    government and the British Westminster system.
    This means that the political structure of the
    government is based on a Federation of State with
    a three tier system of government.

39
  • 2. The three-tier system of the Australian
    government
  • The Australian federation has three tiers in its
    government system at the federal level, there
    are the Australian Parliamant and the government.

40
  • In the second tier are the state governments and
    their legislatures. In the third tier are the
    local government bodies at the city, town and
    shire levels.

41
  • 3. The advantages of the pluralist form of
    government
  • 1) It enables the citizens to exercise their
    political right to choose their own government

42
  • 2) It secures transparency and accountability of
    the government
  • 3) It provides for an alternative government
    which can competently take over the state affairs
    should any government collapase

43
  • 4) The citizens can exert their power through
    major interest groups.
  • 4. The Constitutional Crisis of 1975

44
  • It was caused by the dismissal of the Whitlam
    government by the Governor-General, which was
    elected by people.

45
  • When the Senate refused to pass the Supply Bill
    granting money for the operation of the
    government, Sir John Kerr, the Governor- General
    dismissed the Whitlam government.

46
  • This dismissal was generally interpreted as a
    flouting of the uncodified conventions of
    government and caused political and popular
    animosity.

47
  • 5.Whistle-blowers they are often experts in both
    senior and lower levels of bureaucracies. They
    discover in their branch of the organization some
    problems of corruption and inefficiency and try
    to expose them.

48
  • 6.The relations between Ministers and Heads of
    Department
  • Theoretically speaking, the public servants
    should be under the authority of the elected
    ministers

49
  • The Minister is responsible for making policies,
    and the Head of Department is responsible for
    implementing the policies.

50
  • As the Head of Department tends to be an expert
    specialist who has been working in the area for a
    long time, the minister is often in danger of
    being influenced by the adminstrative expertise
    of the Head of Department.

51
  • 7. Reasons for the increase of the government
    role in Australian political economy before
    1980s
  • 1) the expansion of education, health and social
    welfare services

52
  • 2) the introduction of social security
    programmes
  • 3) the increase in government regulations of
    business and finance and the supply of labor

53
  • 4) the intriduction of a more complex system of
    justice and law and order.
  • 8. Political economic changes in the shift to
    economic rationalism

54
  • 1) financial regulations 2) the privatization
    and corporationization of public service 3) the
    end of centralized wage fixing system 4) cuts in
    the size of the public sector and the sale of
    public assets.

55
Part Five From Racism to Multiculturalism
  • I. Ethnicity and inequality
  • 1. In mid-19th century migrants were
    predominantly British, and those who benefited
    from assisted migration were almost all from
    Britain.

56
  • 2. By the 1870s, the Chinese constituted the
    third largest group in Australia, after the
    Britsh (including the Irish) and Germans. Chinese
    migrants were subjected to racism at many levels.
    (target of physical attacks)

57
  • 3. Pacific Islanders experienced a differnet
    history of racism in Australia. They were
    kidnapped by the Blackbirders and sold as
    indentured laborers to work in the sugar
    industry.

58
  • The Pacific Island Laborers Act of 1901 was part
    of instituional discrimination the White
    Australia Policy.

59
  • 4.The White Australia Policy it was officially
    adopted by the Commonwealth of Ausrtalia in 1901,
    in the Immigration Restriction Act. It was made
    to stop Chinese and other non-British migrants
    from entering and settling down in Australia.

60
  • This was mainly achieved through a dictation test
    in a European language. The White Australia
    Policy was officially abolished in 1973.

61
II. Multiculturalism from 1973
  • 1. It was adopted in 1973. It was comprised of
    three areas of policy Cultural Identity, which
    means the right to express and share ones
    cultural heritage

62
  • Social Justice, thr right to equal treatment and
    opportunites and Economic Efficiency, the need
    to maintain and develop the skills of all
    Australians regardless of their backgrounds.

63
  • 2. Freedom Rides
  • In the mid-1960s, an aboriginal university
    student led a group of white university students
    to the outback of Australia to demonstrate
    against racial segregation.

64
  • Their activities helped to raise the public
    awareness of racism and segregation in Ausralian
    society, and demonstrated the need for social
    change.

65
New Zealand
  • Part One Land, People and History
  • I. Land

66
  • 1. Situated in the southwest Pacific Ocean, New
    Zealand is a large, long group of island, which
    is made up of two main land masses, the North
    Island and the South Island, separated by Cook
    Strait.

67
  • 2. New Zealand is in the southern temperate
    latitudes midway between the Equator and the
    South Pole. The capital city, Wellington, is the
    southernmost and windiest national capital city
    in the world. The climate is maritime.

68
  • 3.The North Island
  • It is one of the three parts of New Zealand. It
    is famous for spectacular volcanos and the
    thermal region. About three-quarters of New
    Zealands population live on the North Island.

69
II. People
  • 1. The Kiwi
  • The Kiwi is the name of one of the native birds
    in New Zealand. It is flightless. In colloquial
    English the Kiwi, capitalized, is also used to
    refer to a New Zealander.

70
  • 2. The Resource Management Act
  • It reflects New Zealanders environmental
    awareness. Under the Act, law governing land, air
    and water resources are combined together to
    ensure the sustainable management of natural
    resources.

71
  • It focuses on the effects of human activities on
    the whole environment as well. The Act came into
    force in 1991. With it, New Zealand leads the
    world in environmental legislation.

72
  • 3. Maoritanga
  • It is a the Maori word for Maori culture. It
    refers to all the elements of the rich cultural
    heritage of the indigenous people in New Zealand,
    including their language, customs and traditions.

73
Part Two Poplitical System, Education and Economy
  • I. Government
  • 1. The Parliament
  • Since 1950 Parliament has had a single chamber,
    the House of Representatives.

74
  • Its functions include passing laws, supervising
    the governments administration and receiving
    petitions from citizens with grievances.
    Currently there are 120 MPs, all elected by
    voters. Six of these are Maori MPs, who represent
    Maori voters only.

75
  • 2. New Zealand has no written constitution. The
    Constitution Act 1986 defines the relationship
    between the legislative (Parliament), executive
    (Government departments and agencies) and
    judicial (the courts) roles of government.

76
  • 3. For more than half a century, the two main
    parties in the House of Representatives have been
    the National Party (centre-right) and the Labor
    Party (centre-left).

77
  • 4.The Parliamentary election in 1996 was held for
    the first time under the proportional
    representation system known as MMPR (Mixed Member
    Proportional Representation?????????).

78
  • Under this new election system, each voter has
    two votes, the first one for a candidate in their
    electorate, the second one for a political party.

79
  • The second vote, when counted nationwide,
    decides the number of seats each party will take
    in Parliament.

80
  • MMPR offers an opportunity for a range of
    parties to gain seats by achieving at least 5 of
    the party vote.

81
  • Neither the National Party nor the Labor Party
    has held a majority of seats in Parliament since
    1996. Government has been a coalition of at least
    two parties.

82
  • 5.The Ombudsman (???????) is appointed by
    Parliament to investigate peoples complaints
    against government departments and local
    authorities, and to ensure that appropriate
    official imformation is freely available to the
    public under the Official Information Act.

83
II. Education
  • 1. Education in New Zealand is compulsory
    between the ages of 6 and 16, and tuition in
    state schools is free to New Zealand residents.

84
  • 2. An elected board of trustees governs each
    shchool. State schools charge fees to foreign
    students who are not New Zealand residents,
    except for exchange students.

85
  • 3. The largest school in New Zealand, the
    Correspondence School, provides distance
    education for students from early childhood
    upwards.

86
  • 4. State schools may be co-educational or
    single-sex, while private schools are often
    single-sex, and are usually connected to a
    religion.

87
  • 5. There are 9 universities in New Zealand. Any
    citizen or permanent resident may attend
    university when they are over 20, even if they
    have passed no exams.

88
  • 6.There are 23 polytechnics in New Zealand, which
    provide a range of vocational and academic
    courses that cover a large number of subjects at
    various levels up to degree level.

89
III. Economy
  • I. Agriculture
  • 1. New Zealand is a rugged country, with little
    flat, naturally arable land, and its reputation
    as the worlds largest farm has been the result
    of hard work.

90
  • 2. Forestry and Fishing
  • Forestry and fishing constitute new natural
    resource-based industries with exciting potential
    for further development.

91
  • Forests cover more than a quarter of New Zealand.
    Forest products are important earners of overseas
    funds. Australia, Japan and Korea are the largest
    customers.

92
  • New Zealands Exclusive Economic Zone extends 200
    nautical miles seaward from the low water mark
    around New Zealand and its offshore islands.

93
  • It is one of the largest fishing areas in the
    world. There are a rich variety of sea species in
    the zone, of which 100 have great commercial
    values.

94
  • 3. Energy Rivers, geothermal steam contribute to
    the supply of electricity Natural gas windmills
    to produce electricity.

95
  • 4. Overseas trade with less than 4 million
    people, the nations well-being depends largely
    on meeting international standards of quality and
    competitiveness, and doing business free of trade
    barriers.
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