PPT – SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: e8a59-ZDc1Z


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation



The management of modern pilotage operations requires recognition of the risks ... Therefore, it is incumbent on pilotage organisations to ensure that adequate ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:101
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 41
Provided by: ampa3


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes


  • Management Systems for Pilotage Organisations
  • Rory Main
  • Fremantle Pilots

  • Introduction
  • Risks and Consequences
  • Formal Safety Management System
  • AS/NZ 43602004, OHSAH 18002, DNV (OHSMS 1997)
  • Management Perspectives
  • The organisation in relation to the
  • Justice Theory
  • Some theory to bring it all together
  • Human Factors
  • Pilot-Information Sharing

The Risk
  • The management of modern pilotage operations
    requires recognition of the risks involved
  • Manoeuvering ships in the confined waters of a
  • Risk to employees working on the ship, the wharf,
    the mooring boats and the tugs
  • Risk to the port infrastructure,
  • The financial risk (legal, insurance, reputation
    etc.) and
  • The environmental risks.
  • To minimise exposure to the consequences of an
    incident requires a systematic approach to
    implementing a Safety Management System.

The Consequence
  • The systemic approach taken by the courts places
    the onus of responsibility on the persons
    responsible for the systems in place that allowed
    the latent failures to occur. Therefore, it is
    incumbent on pilotage organisations to ensure
    that adequate Safety Management Systems are in
  • Where it is possible to guard against a
    foreseeable risk, which though perhaps not great,
    nevertheless cannot be called remote or fanciful,
    by adopting a means, which involves little
    difficulty or expense, the failure to adopt such
    means will in general be negligent.
  • Richard Robinson (Risk and Reliability
    Associates) oft uses a quote from Chief Justice
    Gibbs (High Court of Australia)

Safety Management System
  • Safety Management is defined as the systematic
    management of the risks associated with ...
    organisational activities to achieve high
    levels of safety performance. (UK CAA)
  • A Safety Management System is an explicit
    element of the corporate management
    responsibility which sets out a companys safety
    policy and defines how it intends to manage
    safety as an integral part of its overall
    business. (UK CAA)
  • A Safety Management System is an integrated set
    of work practices, beliefs and procedures for
    monitoring and improving the safety and health of
    all aspects of your operation. It recognizes the
    potential for errors and establishes robust
    defenses to ensure that errors do not result in
    incidents or accidents. (Civil Advisory Safety
    Authority Australia, advisory circular November
  • The ability of organisations and individuals to
    deal with risks and hazards so as to avoid damage
    or losses and yet still achieve their goals.
    (James Reason)

Formal SMS
  • Australian Standards 1. Policy, 2. Planning,
    3. Implementation Operation, 4. Checking
    Operation, 5. Management Review
  • Earl Warner's four P's 1. Principles
    (philosophy) 2. Policies 3. Procedures 4.
  • James Reason three C's 1. Commitment 2.
    Cognizance 3. Competence

Organisational Structure
Organisational Environment
Implementing a formal SMS
  • Policy
  • An Organization defines its policy through a
    policy statement appropriate to the organization
    and ensures commitment to its Management System.
  • Planning
  • An Organization formulates a plan to fulfill its
  • Implementation and Operation
  • For effective implementation, an Organization
    develops the capabilities and support mechanisms
    necessary to achieve its policy, objectives and
  • Checking and Corrective Action
  • An Organization measures, monitors and evaluates
    its performance.
  • Management Review
  • An Organization reviews and continually improves
    its management system, with the objective of
    improving its overall performance.
  • British OHSAS 18002

James Reason
  • Organisational accidents are latent conditions
    that combine adversely with local triggering
    conditions and with active failures to produce an
  • There is an increasing commercial cost of
    accidents and incidents and their effect on
    company profits and financial viability, as well
    as the social and environmental impact of
  • Consequently prevention and error management
    programs based on system safety and human factors
    concepts, not only improve safety within the
    workforce but are commercially attractive.

Safety Data Sources
Definition of Justice
  • John Rawls describes Justice as a persons
    legitimate expectation of a just
    outcomeThere are definitely many outcomes
    and what makes one of these just is that it has
    been achieved by actually carrying out a just
    scheme of co-operation ... it is the result which
    has arisen when everyone receives that to which
    he is entitled given his and others actions
    guided by their legitimate expectations and their
    obligations to one another.
  • (Rawls, 1998, p.52)

Outline of Justice
  • If the outcomes and the inputs fit, the person
    will certainly feel a sense of balance However,
    a discrepancy will lead to perception of
    injustice. (Beugre, 1998, p.xiii).
  • Distributive Justice individual rewards and
    company outcomes,
  • Procedural Justice voice and the rule-oriented
  • Interactional Justice dignity and relationship,
  • Systemic Justice ethical climate.
  • In the study of Justice, Beugre states that what
    is important is not reality itself, but the
    subjects perceptions of reality. (1998, p.60).
    An individuals perception of reality is dependent
    of several factors, including
  • The Demographic Variables of gender, tenure,
    level of education and occupational status,
  • Cognitive Variables, such as causal attributions
    and self serving bias, and
  • Personality Variables like negative affective and
    hostile attributional bias.

Justice Defined
  • Distributive Justice
  • There is seldom an objective standard of
    righteousness people render a distributive
    justice judgement on whether they perceive the
    outcome as appropriate, moral or ethical. (Folger
    and Cropanzano, 1998, p.xxi).
  • Procedural Justice
  • Procedural justice refers to the fairness of
    rules and procedures by which assets and rewards
    are allocated. (Beugre, 1998, p.21).
  • A fair organisation is one characterized by
    procedures that ensure such things as voice, due
    process, advance notice and so forth. (Beugre,
    1998, p.23).
  • People seek control over decisions because they
    are fundamentally concerned with their outcomes.
    (Lind Tyler, 1988, p.222).
  • Interactional Justice
  • Interactional justice describes how perceptions
    of individual interactions affect organisational
  • The focus is on how fairly those in authority
    treat those who are subject to their authority.
    Folger and Cropanzano describe interactional
    justice as separate to procedural justice whilst
    being inextricably interwoven in the joint impact
    of distributive and procedural justice.
  • Research has found that individuals will be far
    more tolerant of an unfavourable outcome when an
    adequate justification is provided. (Folger and
    Cropanzano, 1998, p.xxiv).

Justice Defined (cont).
  • Systemic Justice
  • Systemic justice represents a global assessment
    of the degree to which the organisation itself is
    fair. (Bies and Tripp, 1995)
  • Justice Processes
  • Greenberg developed the following list of process
    characteristics that are applied in determining
    the level of perceived procedural justice
  • Allow opportunities to select the decision
    making agent,
  • Follow consistent rules,
  • Are based on accurate information,
  • Identify the structure of decision making
  • Employ safeguards against bias,
  • Allow for appeals to be heard,
  • Provide for opportunities for changes to be
    made in procedures, and
  • Are based on prevailing moral and ethical
  • (1987, p.15)

Justice Theory
Implementing the SMS
  • CAP 730 Safety Management Systems for Air Traffic
    Management A Guide to Implementation.
  • James Reason Human Factors Aspects of Safety
    Management Systems. University of Manchester
  • Bureau of Air Safety Investigation (UK) An
    Evaluation of the BASI-Indicate Safety Program
  • Occupational Health and Safety Management
    Systems-Guidance OHSAS 18002

Learning is not compulsory but neither is
survival. W. Edwards Deming
Pilot-Information Management System
  • Sharing information between Pilotage Organisations

  • Global
  • To provide a platform for Pilots to share
    detailed ship information, incidents or near miss
    risk events.
  • Port specific
  • To provide timely information to pilots in each
    port on ship incidents, hazards and risk events
    related to the Port.
  • To allow pilots to record specific details on
    ship handling characteristics for their port.
  • To assist pilots create reports for different
    entities from a single data entry point.
  • To provide data to support the pilotage
    organisation's Safety Management System.

Strategic Plan
  • To establish a reporting process which sends
    summary reports to specific persons (e.g. monthly
    summaries of risk events to be emailed to pilots
    in the port or region).
  • To provide a Microsoft Access database which
    links to the Port specific information on the
    PIMS website.
  • To establish a high level of security for the
    site and provide secure data transmission
  • To develop a manoeuvre assessment system for
    pilot groups to gather information to share
    between the pilots of the port.
  • To keep the costs of implementing the site to a
  • To allow access to information for Pilots using
    portable Internet access technology (WAP).

Customer Focus
  • The data stored for the Port can be pulled from
    the site into the PIMS database. This allows the
    Pilotage organisation to analyse data and
    generate reports as part of their Safety
    Management System.
  • The site can be customised for each Port. The
    forms and reports can be tailored to the needs of
    each Port.
  • Varying levels of access to the site are provided
    to ensure data integrity.

  • The PIMS website is hosted by a reputable
  • Content Management Via Web Browser
  • Storage Management Via Web Browser
  • Search Engine Development Integration
  • SSL Security Implementation
  • Real Time E-commerce Transactional Sites
  • Automatically Generated Interactive E-mails
  • WAP Applications
  • The data will be backed up continually on a RAID
    server and daily on a back-up server.
  • Data will be stored off site each day
  • Each Port can down Port data at regular intervals

SSL Security
  • PIMS will implement SSL security late 2005 as
    part of the system roll-out if customers require
    SSL level of security
  • An SSL Certificate is an electronic file that
    uniquely identifies individuals and Web sites and
    enables encrypted communications. SSL
    Certificates serve as a kind of digital passport
    or credential. Typically, the signer of a SSL
    Certificate is a Certificate Authority.

Schematic of Pilot-Information site
Access Levels
  • Pilot Group This is the grouping of pilots into
    a Port Group. This sets the access to Port
    Specific information in the drop down tables
    (e.g. Berths, tugs, pilots).
  • Pilot allows individual access to read the Port
    Log and Ship pages and then enter an Incident.
    The pilot also will be able to alter the Incident
    report until the Port Administrator locks the
  • Duty Pilot allows a single login for each Port
    to correct, delete and enter new records in the
    Port Log and to enter new Ship records.
  • Port Administrator has full access to the Port
    Specific data for correcting and deleting (pilot,
    berth and tug) data. The Port Administrator can
    also correct ship records. The editing and
    locking of reports/records is completed by the
    Port Administrator.
  • Site Administrator full site access for data
    verification, correction and deletion when
    required. The Administrator ensures the site is
    managed and utilized appropriately.

(No Transcript)
Standard Site Logic
  • The site logic shows the initial level of
    functionality. The following description outlines
    the processes available on the standard access.
    The standard access provides for Port specific
    information to be accessed by the Pilots login.
  • The Port log displays the berths, tugs, pilots
    for the specific port. There is a specific login
    for each port that allows changes editing of the
    log. Pilots cannot view data for other ports.
  • The Ship Information displays data to all pilots.
    Most information can be updated by any pilot
    logged onto the site. The ship information can be
    accessed from the Port Log by clicking on the
    ships name on the log, otherwise the ship can be
    accessed from a search form that looks up the
    ships name (current and past names), IMO number,
    year built etc. The specific ship to view is
    selected from a list of results that meet the
    search criteria.
  • The Incident Reports are called from the Ship
    Information form or from a query on critical
    fields on the form (ship name, IMO number,
    incident type, date etc). The specific incident
    to view is selected from a list of results that
    meet the search criteria.
  • New vessel movements are entered on a form
    accessed on the Port Log.
  • New ships are entered when a ship is entered in
    the database when a search is unsuccessful.
  • New incidents are entered from the Ship
    Information form. This ensures the Pilot is
    entering the incident against the correct ship.

Alternative Site Logic
Alternative Site Logic
  • The following description outlines the process to
    review ship information and review incident/risk
    event reports.
  • The ship detail can be accessed from a search
    form that looks up the ships name (current and
    past names), IMO number, ship type and year
    built. The specific ship to view is selected from
    a list of results that meet the search criteria.
    The incident/risk event reports are called from
    the Ship Information form. The Ship Information
    displays data to all pilots.
  • The Risk Event reports will be accessed from a
    list that is generated from a search page. The
    search will set the criteria on which the Pilot
    wishes to search the database.
  • The specific report to view is selected from a
    list of results that meet the search criteria.
  • New ships can be entered onto the database when a
    ship search is unsuccessful.
  • New reports can be entered from the Risk
    Event/Ship Defect report form.

  • The site will allow access to Pilots from various
    Pilot Groups to review the tables as detailed
  • The Port Log will display Port specific detail to
    which the group belongs with all the drop down
    lists showing specific data for the port group.
  • The Ship form will be fully visible to all
  • The Incident form will be totally visible to all
    pilots in the Pilot Group that initiates the
  • However Pilots from other groups will only view
    the data down to the short note, as shown on the
    table below.
  • This ensures that sensitive detail which the
    pilot group wishes to remain confidential will
    not be viewed by other Pilot Groups.
  • The site administrator will review all incident
    reports to ensure the information posted for
    review is written in an appropriate language.

Pilot-Information dBase
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)