22.033 Mission to Mars - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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22.033 Mission to Mars

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Ascent Vehicle and Cargo is landed on the Mars surface near Large Scale ISRU plant ... First Ascent Vehicle is used to send crew to LMO ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 22.033 Mission to Mars


1
22.033 Mission to Mars
  • Presentation of proposed mission plan
  • http//web.mit.edu/22.033/www/

2
Introduction
  • Team Members
  • Dr. Andrew Kadak Vasek Dostal
  • Kalina Galabova Knut Gezelius
  • John Koser Joe Palaia
  • Nilchiani Roshanak
  • Eugene Shwageraus Pete Yarsky

3
Overview
  • Statement of Purpose
  • To form a plan for a series of Mars missions
    utilizing nuclear energy, which, through
    technological verification, will allow subsequent
    capability expansion and finally for a manned
    mission to Mars.

4
Requirements and Constraints
  • Demonstrate feasibility of nuclear powered space
    propulsion
  • Allow safe transport of humans to and from Mars
  • Expand the scientific capacity of individual
    missions
  • Reduce astronauts radiation exposure
  • Deployable by near term
  • The technology is transformational

5
Mission Objectives
  • Total of 4 missions are planned.
  • Manned missions will be scheduled to reduce
    exposure in CGR

6
Mission 1
  • Nuclear Powered (100200 kWe) Mars
    Telecommunications Satellite

7
M1 Objectives
  • High data rate communication
  • Increase the science yield (data storage)
  • Validate space nuclear reactor technology
  • Validate reactor powered propulsion technology
    for Earth-Mars transfer.
  • Provide a platform for high power Mars orbit
    experiments (active radar)
  • Provide real-time orbital video and high
    resolution pictures

8
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9
Mission 2
  • Nuclear Powered Mars Surface Lander with In-Situ
    Resource Utilization, Sample Return, and
    Demonstration of the Mars Transfer System

10
M2 Objectives
  • Demonstrate LEO to LMO transfer
  • Demonstrate surface reactor operation
  • Validate ISRU
  • Demonstrate rover refueling operations
  • Provide surface data link to satellite
  • Fuel a sample capsule assent rocket
  • Launch a sample capsule to LMO
  • Demonstrate automated Mars orbital rendezvous
  • Return selected samples to Earth (ISS)

11
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12
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13
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14
Mission 3
  • Manned Mission Precursor
  • Development and Demonstrate Infrastructure to
    prepare for arrival of the human crew.

15
M3 Objectives
  • Define a robust planetary surface exploration
    capacity capable of safelyand productively
    supporting crews on the surface of Mars for 500
    to 600 dayseach mission
  • Define a capability to be able to live off the
    land
  • Ensure Infrastructure is operational before a
    crew is committed to the site

16
M3 Phase 1
  • Launch a full scale NP ISRU Plant
  • Demonstrate Large Scale ISRU on Mars

17
M3 Phase 2
  • Launch Crew Habitat Module into LEO after
    successfully completing Phase 1.

18
M3 Phase 3
  • Dock Habitat with ISS
  • Test Habitat Functionality at the ISS

19
M3 Phase 4
  • Ascent Vehicle and Cargo is landed on the Mars
    surface near Large Scale ISRU plant

20
M3 Phase 5
  • Power Systems and Rovers are Deployed
  • Production of Propellant and Oxidizer Begins
  • Ascent Vehicle Fueled

21
M3 Phase 6
  • Unmanned Surface Habitat landed on Mars

22
M4 Objectives
  • Land people on Mars and return them safely to
    Earth.
  • Effectively perform useful work on the surface of
    Mars.
  • Support people on Mars for 2 years or more
    without resupply.
  • Support people away from Earth for periods of
    time consistent with Marsmission durations (2 to
    3 years)
  • Identify space transportation and surfacesystems
    consistent with objectives at affordable cost.

23
M4 Phase 1
  • MTS deployed to Mars with Human Crew, Habitat,
    Second Ascent Vehicle, and Ground Rover

24
M4 Phase 2
  • Human Crew lands on surface and positions habitats

25
M4 Phase 3
  • Pressurized Rover docks with habitat

26
M4 Phase 4
  • First Ascent Vehicle is used to send crew to LMO
  • Second Ascent Vehicle is fueled and remains on
    Mars

27
M4 Phase 5
  • Ascent Vehicle and human crew rendezvous with MTS
    for return trip to Earth

28
M4 Phase 6
  • Crew returns to Earth
  • Habitat and ISRU infrastructure and a fully
    fueled ascent vehicle are on Mars to support
    further, larger manned missions

29
TechnologyFission Options
Option T/W Power MW Isp sec Thrust kN Technology status
Nuclear thermal rocket/ Bimodal (NTR) 6-10 500-5000 900-1200 100-1000 Mature
Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) 6-10 500-5000 900-1200 100-1000 Mature
Particle-Bed/Vapor Core/Liquid Core 5-30 lt5000 800-1500 10-1000 Materials and Radioactivity Release Concerns
Fission fragment rocket gt10 lt10000 1000-1e6 3000 Same as above
30
TechnologyExotic Options
Option Energy source Isp sec Thrust Technology Concerns
Radioisotope powered Radioactive isotope decay heat 700-800 1 - 2 N Materials cost and availability, low power
Nuclear Pulse Rocket (ORION) fission 2000-3000 Mature but forbidden by international treaties.
Inertial/Magnetic/Electric confinement fusion (ICF)/(MFC)/(EFC) fusion 20,000 10,000 kN require substantial development effort
Antimatter Propulsion Concepts matter-antimatter annihilation 1,000-100,000 uncertain, potentially deployable in a distant future
31
Epilogue
  • In Conclusion
  • 4 Missions planned to be completed before 2020
  • Each mission builds off technology demonstrated
    in previous missions
  • Essential Infrastructure is developed and
    deployed on Mars to support further human
    exploration
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