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The Anthropology of Language: An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology

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Phonemics. analyze arrangements of sounds. identify groupings ... Using Phonetics & Phonemics. working with your conversation partners: map phonemic contrasts ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Anthropology of Language: An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology


1
The Anthropology of Language An Introduction to
Linguistic Anthropology
Chapter 3The Sounds of Language
2
Which of the following is key to learning
languages?
  • Learn the basics of sound production
  • Learn all possible slangs in a language
  • Learn which language is superior
  • Learn all objects in the language
  • All are correct

3
The Sounds of Language
  • Sounds
  • Phonology
  • Phonetics Phonemics
  • Phonetic Charts Symbols
  • Consonants
  • Vowels
  • Suprasegmentals
  • Phonemics
  • Phonemes
  • Minimal pair
  • Allophones
  • Etics Emics...

4
Phonetics
  • Acoustic
  • physical properties of sound, sound waves,
  • Auditory
  • perception of sounds, psychological reality
  • Articulatory
  • pronunciation of sounds, articulation
  • also known as descriptive phonetics.

5
Producing Speech Sounds
  • lungs
  • oral nasal cavities
  • larynx vocal cords
  • voicing
  • velum (soft palate) mouth closed m, n
    mouth open õ?

6
Writing Speech Sounds
  • Phonetic Charts Symbols
  • Spelling vs phonetic transcription
  • cat (English)
  • ciel (French)
  • cizi (Czech)
  • ghoti
  • Phonetic charts
  • I.P.A.
  • Pike.

7
Phonetic Charting
  • Mapping the sounds of a language
  • Helps you to analyze and pronounce sounds...
  • Helps you to analyze sound systems...
  • and to see patterns
  • Guides you in understanding accents.

8
Consonants Place
  • From front to back

bilabial p, b, m
labiodental f, v
(inter)dental ?, ?
alveolar t, d, s, z, n, l, ?
alveopalatal (palatal-alveolar
postalveolar) ?, ?, ñ.
9
Consonants Place (continued)
  • Front to back

retroflex ?, ?
velar k, g, x, ?, ?
uvular ? (French r)
pharyngeal ? (Arabic ain)
glottal ?, h .
10
Which of the following has NO effect on speech
production?
  • Larynx
  • Ear canal
  • Tongue
  • Nasal cavity
  • Lungs
  • Velum

11
Consonants Manner
  • Stops (plosives) t, d, !, ?
  • Aspirated th, dh
  • Fricatives s, z
  • Affricates t?, d?
  • Taps Trills
  • Taps / flaps ?
  • Trills r
  • Nasals n
  • Approximants l, ?, j, w .

12
Creating a Language Consonants
  • Your language will need some consonants
  • Begin by choosing 8 to 12 consonants to use
  • These can be as complex as you wish
  • Be sure you can pronounce each one
  • Try to use phonetic symbols (use the IPA handout)

13
Vowels Place
  • part of tongue raised
  • front, center, back
  • height of tongue
  • high, mid, low

i u e o a
14
Vowels Manner
  • rounded
  • u, o - back (e.g. most English back vowels)
  • y, ø - front (e.g., French, German, Danish)
  • unrounded
  • i, e - front (e.g. all English front vowels)
  • ?, ? - back (e.g., Turkish, Native Am.
    langs)
  • tense/lax (close/open)
  • i vs I .

15
Charting Vowels
16
Creating a Language Vowels
  • Your language will also need some vowels
  • Choose between 4 and 6 vowels to use
  • be sure you can pronounce them
  • These should be simple vowels
  • Try using the phonetic symbols (use the I.PA. see
    handout)

17
Phones and Phonemes
  • phone
  • smallest identifiable unit of sound in a language
  • more easily identified by outsiders
  • phoneme
  • smallest contrastive unit of sound in a language
  • heard as a single sound by insiders
  • Contrasts are not predictable.

18
Phonology
  • Sounds and their arrangements
  • Phonetics Phonemics
  • Phonetics
  • identify describe sounds in detail (phones)
  • Phonemics
  • analyze arrangements of sounds
  • identify groupings of sounds (phonemes)
  • Examples
  • English pill vs spill -- ph p /p/
  • Hindi ph?l (fruit) vs p?l (minute) -- ph
    p /ph / /p/ .

19
allophones of a phoneme
  • are heard as the same sound by native speakers
  • are usually complementary to one another
  • we say they are in complementary distribution
  • because the variation is usually conditioned by
    neighboring sounds,
  • we can also call this conditioned variation.

20
Practice with Allophones English /p/
  • See W/R pp. 42-43 (3.3a English)
  • p? (aspirated) p? ? t
  • p (unaspirated) s p ? t
  • p? (unreleased) s ? p?
  • /p/

p? / ___
p / s___
p? / ___
what about t and k in English?
21
Phonemes vs. Allophones Review
  • allophones
  • non-contrastive
  • predictable distribution
  • p??n and sp?n
  • phonemes
  • contrastive
  • non-predictable distribution
  • p??n vs t??n.

22
Etics vs. Emics
  • Ken Pike, 1950s
  • A core concept in anthropology
  • Etics
  • outside, cross-cultural /comparative
  • absolute, objective
  • a step to emic analysis
  • Emics
  • inside, culture-specific
  • relative, subjective
  • a goal of emic analysis.

23
Using Phonetics Phonemics
  • working with your conversation partners
  • map phonemic contrasts
  • compare phonological systems
  • use your understanding of phonemes allophones
    to assist with accent reduction (or to pronounce
    your CPs language better)
  • See Workbook/Reader p. 49.

24
Using Phonetics Phonemics
  • Creating your language
  • Assume each of your sounds is a phoneme
  • Now create a pair of allophones for one phoneme
  • Choose one phoneme and create a variant
  • OR
  • Convert two phonemes into allophones of one
  • Your allophones should resemble each other
  • same manner or place of production, e.g.
  • Create a rule to describe the distribution of the
    two allophones.
  • beginning vs end of a word?
  • following certain sounds?
  • preceding certain sounds?
  • See Workbook/Reader pp 41 (3.3) and 42.

25
Next
  • Words and Sentences
  • Read
  • Textbook Chapter 4
  • Workbook/Reader
  • Adams (p. 50)
  • Prepare to do
  • Practice with Languages 4.1-4.15 (W/R pp. 53-67)
  • Language Creating (W/R p. 69)
  • Conversation Partnering (W/R p. 69)
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