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SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY

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SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY. Why study science? Intellectual Curiosity. New info ... A guide to good science practice. Other methods: ... weird...') Experimental Design ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY


1
SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY
2
Why study science?
  • Intellectual Curiosity
  • New info may make old ideas obsolete
  • Knowledge for the sake of knowledge
  • Discovery of new worlds
  • Improve Standard of Living
  • Lead to new medical practices / advice
  • Development of new technology

3
The Scientific Method
  • Series of logical steps to follow in order to
    solve problems.
  • Gain, organize, and apply new knowledge.
  • A guide to good science practice.
  • Other methods
  • 1. Trial and Error (Maybe if we try it this
    way)
  • 2. No hypothesis (I wonder what will happen
    if)
  • 3. Accidental discovery (Oops, I did it again
    weird)

4
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5
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6
Experimental Design
  • The most difficult part of the scientific method
    is designing a good experiment to test your
    hypothesis.
  • Experiments usually test a cause and effect
    relationship.
  • What is the effect of fertilizer on plant growth?
  • Effect of an independent variable (input) on a
    dependent variable (output).
  • Independent Variable variable input to an
    experiment
  • How much fertilizer is added to the plants.
  • Dependent Variable measured output of an
    experiment
  • How much the plants grow in a certain amount of
    time.

7
Experimental Design
  • Sometimes this relationship is qualitative
  • based on observations that do not have numbers
  • Does fertilizer cause plants to grow taller?
  • Other times the relationship is quantitative
  • based on numerical data
  • How much taller does fertilizer cause plants to
    grow?
  • We only test the effect of ONE independent
    variable at a time. This allows us to isolate
    the effect.

8
Experimental Design
  • Experimental Setups
  • independent variable is applied at different
    levels
  • Levels how much of the independent variable
  • Plant 1 receives 1 scoop of fertilizer, Plant 2
    receives 2 scoops of fertilizer
  • Control Setup
  • independent variable is not applied
  • normal conditions
  • Plant 3 receives no fertilizer
  • Constants aspects of the experiment that are
    kept the same for all setups
  • all plants receive the same amount of soil,
    sunlight, water, temperature, time to grow

9
Experimental Design
  • Some experiments generate results that have
    recognizable patterns
  • The plants grew 3 centimeters plus an extra 2
    centimeters for every scoop of fertilizer added.
  • Scientists use mathematical equations to model
    the situation height 3 (2 x scoops)
  • Once a mathematical model is known, it can be
    used to predict future outcomes.
  • You will examine various mathematical models in
    the laboratory throughout this year.

10
Experimental Design - Summary
  • What is the independent variable?
  • the input to the experiment that we can set at
    different levels
  • What is the dependent variable?
  • the output of the experiment that we measure
  • How many independent variables should we test?
  • one at a time
  • What is a control?
  • setup without the independent variable
  • Why do we need a control?
  • compare data to a standard
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