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Dr' Dirts analysis of forest site quality in Essex County'

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For the soil fertility map; ... Cover type Soil properties. White Pine: Well-drained, moderately deep, moderately fertile, sandy soil ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dr' Dirts analysis of forest site quality in Essex County'


1
Dr. Dirts analysis of forest site quality in
Essex County.
2
Who is Dr. Dirt?
  • Dr. Philip Craul, Emeritus Prof of Soils
  • Forest and Urban Soils Expert
  • Was given the task to map lands suitable for
    forest management in Essex County in the Eastern
    Adirondacks.
  • Funded by Economic Development organizations to
    attract forest industry
  • Here are the lands good for forest mgt!
  • 1986 one of the first raster GIS analyses
    carried out in NY

3
Essex County
Essex
  • 1.167 x 106 acres
  • 92 forested
  • gt50 in preserve

4
Criteria for Analysis
  • Find forested areas that were
  • Highly productive from a forest or biological
    point of view Good Site
  • Economically feasible from a land owner or
    forestry contractor point of view
  • In locations that minimize impact on people,
    historic sites, and the environment in general.

5
Soils Problem
  • Soils data, or lack thereof, was a major problem
  • After all, that is what trees grow in and so
    soils have to be important
  • The cost of moving logs from the stump to all
    weather roads also depends on the roads and hence
    soil
  • This was a BIG PROBLEM! ?

6
Soil layers Needed
  • FOR VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THE PROBLEM needed
  • Drainage class
  • Organic layer thickness
  • Soil depth
  • Soil texture
  • Stoniness

7
Productivity Criteria
  • Drainage Class
  • affects water and air supply
  • Partially controls rooting depth
  • Influenced by
  • Texture --- Parent Material, Soil formation
  • Density ------ Parent Material
  • Pans ---------- Soil Formation

8
Productivity Criteria
  • Organic Layer thickness
  • affects
  • fertility
  • Influenced by
  • pH
  • Nutrient availability
  • Vegetative cover type

9
Productivity Criteria
  • Soil Depth
  • Affects
  • rooting depth
  • Drainage
  • Windthrow hazard
  • Water storage
  • Fertility
  • Influenced by
  • Parent material
  • Topography
  • Weathering
  • Deposition

10
Productivity Criteria
  • Texture
  • Affects
  • Fertility
  • Drainage
  • Aeration
  • Water supply
  • Influenced by
  • Parent material
  • Mode of soil formation

11
Productivity Criteria
  • Stoniness
  • Affects
  • Ease of root penetration
  • Water flow
  • Fertility
  • Influenced by
  • Parent Material
  • Topographic position

12
Productivity Summary
13
For the soil fertility map
  • Dr. Dirt had to look at the landscape and use his
    expertise to estimate fertility from
  • Topography topographic position
  • Parent material
  • Cover type

14
Aside
  • This was a classic Expert system application
    although it was done with wetware and not
    software
  • Years later Dr. Dirt did something similar for
    DOD using software (AI) to predict tractability
    -- he got 80 accuracy overall and 90 accuracy
    if they stayed out of flood plains.
  • And that is where the interest in shape of
    Country analysis came from.

15
Steps
  • Estimate some soil properties from
  • Remotely sensed data ?cover type
  • Based on fact that different species are more
    competitive on different soils
  • Topographic maps ?Topographic position
  • Ridge, valley bottom, concave or convex slope,
    top or bottom of slope, etc.

16
Cover type ? Soil properties
  • White Pine Well-drained, moderately deep,
    moderately fertile, sandy soil
  • Walnut Well drained, very fertile loam
  • Sugar Maple Moderately well drained, moderately
    deep, fertile silt loam
  • Hemlock Somewhat poorly drained, acid, loamy to
    sandy
  • Norway Spruce somewhat poorly to poorly drained,
    shallow, poor fertility soils.

17
Other layers
  • Were derived from looking at topographic maps,
    aerial photos, and satellite images of landcover.
  • Craul then estimated the other criteria
  • Which were…

18
Soil Productivity
Layers and weights
  • Drainage class
  • Organic layer thickness
  • Soil depth
  • Texture
  • Profile type
  • Stoniness

19
Soil Productivity
Layers and weights
  • Drainage class 10
  • Organic layer thickness 10
  • Soil depth 5
  • Texture 10
  • Profile type 5
  • Stoniness 5
  • TOTAL WEIGHT 45

20
The other two requirements
  • Find forested areas that were
  • Highly productive from a forest or biological
    point of view Good Site Got that!
  • Economically feasible from a land owner or
    forestry contractor point of view
  • Located to minimize impact on people, historic
    sites, and the environment in general.
  • The last 2 were combined into Economic Site
    Criteria

21
Layers Forest Management
  • Cover type forest or not
  • Pretty obvious here
  • Distance to all weather roads
  • Skidding costs, needs for new roads
  • Plan compatible
  • Zoning are forest operations permitted
  • Surface Stoniness
  • Operational costs and ease of reproduction of
    forest
  • Slope
  • Harvest technology

22
Layers Forest Management
  • Cover type forest or not
  • Pretty obvious here
  • Distance to all weather roads
  • Skidding costs, needs for new roads
  • Plan compatible
  • Zoning are forest operations permitted
  • Surface Stoniness
  • Operational costs and ease of reproduction of
    forest
  • Slope
  • Harvest technology

Buffer
Reclass LU
Reclass Soil
Surface
23
Cultural/environmental
  • Historical/ Cultural Impact
  • Buffers around specific sites ( hamlets,
    historic sites, campgrounds, etc.
  • Environmental Impact
  • Buffers or polys eliminating
  • areas of high soil erodibility,
  • wetlands or soggy areas,
  • buffers around water, streams.

24
Economic Layer Ratings
  • Land type 10
  • Distance to roads 10
  • Plan compatibility 5
  • Historic/cultural 5
  • Environmental Impact 5
  • Adjacent compatible 5
  • Stoniness 5
  • Slope Class 5
  • TOTAL 50

25
Process
  • Pretty simple similar to site selection
  • Combined all Productivity layers by weights
  • Combined all Economic layers by weights
  • 47 productivity, 53 Economics

26
Actually…
  • The process was more complex than indicated.
  • Each of the factors was given a sub-weight such
    that max value was good and minimum value was
    not good
  • Then summed and stretched into 5 classes

27
Final Analysis Step
  • Get rid of areas
  • Elevation gt2500 feet (Preserve law, no
    harvesting
  • Preserve lands cant do much of anything on
    them
  • Lakes
  • Make 5 Classes of feasibility
  • Most feasible
  • to
  • Least feasible

28
And the result
  • Layer showing biological productivity
  • Layer showing Economic feasibility
  • Remember that
  • Highly productive lands that were distant from
    the road network were NOT suitable for management
  • Less productive lands next to road WERE suitable
    for management

29
Final map showing
  • 5 Classes of feasibility (examples)
  • Most feasible (highly productive, near road)
  • to
  • Least feasible (not productive, far from road)
  • Areas not available

30
So
  • Add economics and productivity
  • With the classes of elements going from
    unsuitable to suitable the areas with high values
    were the most suitable
  • OK, have a map Now what
  • Validate!

31
Validation
  • Made the map weighting Economics 50 to Forest
    Productivity 45
  • Showed it to a number of people who were in the
    the business of forest management and/or the
    contracting business.
  • They said No Good!
  • Because not enough weight was given to the
    economic factors
  • Back to the drawing board!

32
Bummer!
33
Not to worry!
34

Try just weighting Econ x 2
35
So Now
  • Forest Productivity 45
  • Economics 100
  • Total 145

36
When that was done
  • Everyone was happy with the result! The Econ
    Develop folks were happy with the map as a way to
    attract forestry businesses
  • Even the DEC! Who said they could use the map to
    AVOID adding highly productive land to the
    Adirondack Park and thus avoid damage to the
    economy of the county.

37
Next
  • Several of us put together a proposal to create a
    forest soils map for the entire 10 million acres
    of the area north of the Mohawk River so that a
    similar analysis could be done for the whole
    area.
  • When we figured it would cost someone about 2
    million in 1987 dollars we dropped it.
  • To do it now would cost 5 or 6 million!

38
???
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