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Valley Cabana Stroke and Turn Judge Certification Clinic

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Forms (DQ slip, relay take-off slip) Recommended stroke briefing. Material ... The coach claims that being out of cycle means that the swimmer clearly started ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Valley Cabana Stroke and Turn Judge Certification Clinic


1
Valley CabanaStroke and Turn Judge Certification
Clinic
  • Soren Soe
  • soren.soe_at_gonsoe.com
  • 21 May 2005

2
Stroke and Turn Officials Certification Clinic
  • Certification Requirements
  • Philosophy of Officiating
  • The Rules
  • Video
  • Common Infractions
  • Rules Specific to our Cabana League
  • Assignment and Jurisdiction of Officials
  • Stroke Turn Procedures
  • In Water Demonstration

3
Handouts and Forms
  • A CD with
  • index.html with links to all material
  • This presentation
  • Valley Cabana Stroke and Turn Bylaws
  • USA Swimming Rules and Regulations
  • Test and answer sheet
  • Forms (DQ slip, relay take-off slip)
  • Recommended stroke briefing
  • Material is also available at
  • http//www.oaktreesharks.us/officials

4
ST Certification Requirements
  • New Judges
  • Attend training clinic
  • View video
  • Complete written test
  • Complete one training session with certified ST
    judge
  • Satisfactorily work an additional session (with
    with an assigned ST judge) and make calls
  • Returning Judges
  • Attend training clinic
  • View video
  • or
  • Complete written test
  • View video

5
Philosophy of Officiating
  • All competitive swimming events held under USA
    Swimming sanction shall be conducted in
    accordance with the following rules which are
    designed to provide fair and equitable conditions
    of competition and promote uniformity in the
    sport so that no swimmer shall obtain unfair
    advantage over another.
  • Preamble to the USA-S Technical Rules

6
Fair and Equitable
  • Judging should be consistent among different
    officials at a meet
  • Judging should be consistent at different meets
  • All of the rules are enforced, we dont
    individually choose to enforce some rules and
    ignore others

7
Fair and Equitable Cont.d
  • The rules are enforced across all age groups and
    levels of ability
  • Note, we have 6/U and 7/8 rules that differ from
    USA swimming rules and are specific to our league
  • Officials should be neutral in their enforcement
    of the rules dont favor one team over another,
    dont favor one swimmer over another

8
Mental Traps
  • Advantage vs. disadvantage
  • The twice theory
  • We dont disqualify 8 unders
  • Dont ask me to judge my child

9
Rules of Thumb Contd
  • The benefit of the doubt ALWAYS goes to the
    swimmer
  • Ugly isn't (necessarily) illegal
  • Know the rules review the rules before meets
  • Call violations as seen dont guess or
    anticipate
  • Judge each lane equally
  • Experience, experience, experience

10
Officiating Swimming Video
  • Clear and consistent knowledge of the rules
  • Clarify proper interpretation of the rules as
    they pertain to the most common disqualification
    calls made
  • Following slides give representative, but not
    comprehensive examples of rules violations

Each team has two copies see head ST judge on
your team to borrow a copy for review
11
Butterfly Infractions
  • Not at or past vertical towards the breast after
    the start and after each turn
  • Head not up at 15 meters
  • Non-simultaneous pull or arm recovery
  • Need not be symmetrical
  • Arms not recovered over the surface of the water
  • The arm is anything above the wrist and below the
    shoulder
  • Looking for any part of the arm to break the
    water surface

12
Butterfly Contd
  • Upward or downward movements of the legs not
    simultaneous
  • Legs or feet alternate in relationship to each
    other
  • Legs and feet do not have to be on the same level
  • A scissors or breaststroke kicking movement
  • One hand or non-simultaneous touch at turns or
    finish

13
Backstroke Infractions
  • Toes curling over the gutter after the starting
    signal (before the starting signal is the
    starters responsibility)
  • Head not up at 15 meters
  • Shoulders not past vertical toward the back upon
    leaving the wall, during swim, and at finish
  • Shoulders may turn past vertical toward the
    breast during the turn
  • Failing to touch the wall at the turn
  • If the swimmer missed the wall, he or she may
    come back to touch the wall provided that the
    swimmers shoulder has not turned past vertical
    or reached the opposite end of the course
  • Non-continuous turning motion after shoulders
    turned past vertical towards the breast
  • Gliding or kicking independently of the
    continuous turning action is illegal
  • More than a single or simultaneous double arm
    pull is illegal

14
Breaststroke Infractions
  • Cycle must start with a pull, starting with a
    kick is illegal
  • Hands brought beyond the hip line, except for the
    first stroke after the start and after each turn
  • Head does not break the surface during each cycle
  • Arms not pulling in the same horizontal plane,
    including the first pull following each turn
  • Non-simultaneous pull
  • Elbows not remaining in contact with the water
    during the recovery (forward) portion of the
    stroke except for the last stroke before the
    turns and finish (does not apply to the backwards
    pull)

15
Tara Kirk in Women's 200m Breaststroke Santa
Clara 37th International Swim Meet
The elbows must stay wet during the recovery
phase of the arm pull
16
Breaststroke Infractions Contd
  • One hand or non-simultaneous touch at turns or
    finish
  • Not past vertical towards breast off wall
  • Not on the breast from the beginning of the first
    arm pull after the start and after each turn
  • Feet not turned outward during the propulsive
    phase of the kick
  • Non-simultaneous kick
  • A scissors, flutter, or butterfly kick

17
Breaststroke Kick
  • The position of the feet is key to judging the
    breaststroke kick
  • If the toes are pointed outward during the
    propulsive phase of the kick, it is a legal
    breaststroke kick
  • If the toes are pointed straight back or inwards,
    it is a butterfly kick
  • It is legal for the feet to break the surface of
    the water unless followed by a downward butterfly
    kick
  • It is a legal kick if the feet are following the
    hips as the knees pull them forward
  • It is not unusual for strong swimmers to push a
    wave of water under their bodies during the first
    pull which results in their legs rising up and
    down - this is legal

18
Freestyle Infractions
  • Head not up at 15 meters
  • Walking on or pushing off the bottom
  • Using the lane line or gutter for propulsion
  • Failing to touch the wall upon completion of each
    length
  • Swimmer may return to touch the wall if and only
    if next length has not been completed

19
IM Infractions
  • Strokes not swum in proper order
  • Proper order fly, back, breast, free
  • Violation of stroke and turn rules for each
    stroke
  • The stroke for each ¼ of the designated distance
    shall follow the prescribed rules for each stroke
  • The turns when changing from one stroke to
    another shall conform to the finish rule of the
    just completed stroke
  • The last ¼ of the race must be swum as something
    other than butterfly, backstroke, or breaststroke

20
Medley Relay Infractions
  • Strokes not swum in proper order
  • Proper order Back, Breast, Fly, Free
  • Violation of stroke and turn rules for each
    stroke
  • The last ¼ of the race must be swum as something
    other than butterfly, backstroke, or breaststroke
  • Early take-off

21
Freestyle Relay Infractions
  • Violation of freestyle stroke and turn rules
  • Early take-off

22
Additional Rules
  • A swimmer must start and finish in the same lane
  • Standing on the bottom during a freestyle race
    shall not disqualify a swimmer, but a swimmer
    must not leave the pool, or walk, or spring from
    the bottom. Standing on the bottom during any
    other stroke shall result in disqualification
  • Obstructing another swimmer by swimming across or
    otherwise interfering shall disqualify the
    offender
  • Grasping lane dividers to assist forward motion
    is not permitted

23
Rules Specific to our League
  • 6/Under Exceptions
  • This age group is only disqualified (DQ) for
    swimming an incorrect stroke more than 2/3 of one
    length of the pool to gain an unfair advantage
  • In order for a Championship meet record to be
    accepted, the swimmer must swim the stroke in
    accordance with the official USA Swimming Rules
    and must receive a Record Eligible slip

24
Rules Specific to our League
  • 7/8 Exceptions
  • This age group is only disqualified (DQ) for one
    hand touches (butterfly and breaststroke) at the
    finish and swimming an incorrect stroke more than
    2/3 of one length of the pool.
  • In order for a Championship meet record to be
    accepted, the swimmer must swim the stroke in
    accordance with the official USA Swimming Rules
    and must receive a Record Eligible slip.

25
Placement and Rotation of Officials
  • Determined by head ST judge
  • I recommend end judges
  • Dependent upon pool configuration
  • Dependent upon the number of officials available
  • Generally rotate clockwise after a defined number
    of events

26
Jurisdiction of Officials
  • Determined by head judge
  • End judges only
  • End to middle of pool
  • Side judges only
  • End to middle of pool
  • Equal time should be spent observing each of the
    swimmers within your jurisdiction
  • If one or more lanes are empty, an equal amount
    of time should be spent on the empty lane(s)
  • Your full attention should be on the swimmers
    when they are within your jurisdiction

27
Disqualifications
  • If youre hesitant in making a call, then it is
    probably too close to make
  • The benefit of the doubt goes to the swimmer
  • After observing a DQ, continue to observe all the
    swimmers in your jurisdiction

28
Disqualification Reports
  • Event , Heat , Lane
  • Confirmed name of swimmer and team
  • Violation
  • Note Most, but not all, violations are listed on
    the DQ slips
  • Your name (Judge)

29
Disqualification Reports Contd
  • Be prepared to answer three questions
  • What was your jurisdiction?
  • What did you see?
  • Use proper terminology
  • Which rule was violated?
  • Questions from parents/coaches should be directed
    to the meet director
  • Do not become involved in deck squabble

30
Talking with the Swimmer
  • If opportunity allows, you may speak with a
    swimmer, follow these general guidelines
  • Wait until the end of the race
  • Move out of the way so you are not holding up the
    progress of the meet
  • Inform the swimmer of the violation, dont coach
  • Dont touch the swimmer
  • Age-group swimmers
  • Get down to eye level
  • Good, bad, good

31
Relay Takeoff Judging
  • Dual confirmation is almost always used
  • Referee or chief judge will assign positions
  • When the toes of the outgoing swimmer leave the
    blocks (wall for in water starts), look down to
    see if the incoming swimmer has touched
  • If you observe an early takeoff, mark accordingly
    the swimmer and lane number

32
Relay Takeoff Judging Cont.d
  • The head judge will compare your observations
    with those of the second takeoff official only
    if both agree as to the same swimmer taking off
    early is it a DQ
  • All relay takeoff slips should be turned in to
    the referee/head judge as part of the official
    record
  • The head judge usually collects the takeoff slips

33
Judging Swimmers with Physical Disabilities
  • Judge, in accordance with USA Swimming rules, any
    part of the body that is used
  • Do not judge a part of the body that cannot be
    used
  • Base your judgment on the actual rule, not the
    swimmers technique

34
Remember!
  • The swimmer always receives the benefit of the
    doubt
  • Call what you see, not what you dont see
  • Links to all material can be found at
  • http//www.oaktreesharks.us/officials
  • Please email questions/comments to
  • soren.soe_at_gonsoe.com

35
Thank you!
36
Breaststroke Situation
  • In a breaststroke turn, the swimmer touches with
    his left hand and then touches immediately after
    with his right hand. The turn judge raises a
    hand, signaling a disqualification. The coach
    argues that the turn is legal because both hands
    were on the wall at the same time. Does the
    disqualification stand?
  • Recommended Resolution Yes, the rule is very
    clear. USA Swimming Rules and Regulations states,
    At each turn, the touch shall be made with both
    hands simultaneously.... Therefore, the hands
    must touch at the same time, not one after the
    other.
  • Applicable Rules 101.1.4

37
Breaststroke Situation
  • While swimming the breaststroke, a swimmer
    touches the wall at the turn with both hands at
    the same time. However, the swimmers left hand
    was at the top of the wall while his right hand
    touched well below the surface of the water. The
    turn judge raised her hand and the swimmer was
    disqualified. Was the call correct?
  • Recommended Resolution No, the call was not
    correct. The breaststroke turn rule states that
    the touch shall be made with both hands
    simultaneously at, above, or below the water
    surface. This allows the swimmers hands to be on
    different levels when they touch the wall. They
    still need to touch the wall at the same time.
    The same is true for the touch at the finish of
    the race.
  • Applicable Rules 101.1.4, 101.1.5

38
Breaststroke Situation
  • During the breaststroke, Bob was disqualified for
    a simultaneous touch with one hand under the
    water and one hand above the water but not in
    line with the water surface. He was on the breast
    at the finish. Is this a valid DQ?
  • Recommended Resolution Bob should not have been
    disqualified and the DQ should be overturned. The
    touch may be made with both hands simultaneously
    at, above, or below the water surface.
  • Applicable Rules 101.1.3

39
Breaststroke Situation
  • To get further distance out of her breaststroke
    pulls, a young swimmers hands are brought all
    the way down to his legs on each pull. Is this
    legal?
  • Recommended Resolution It is not legal. The
    hands shall not be brought beyond the hipline,
    except during the first stroke after the start
    and each turn.
  • Applicable Rules 101.1.2

40
Breaststroke Situation
  • Although a breaststrokers head breaks the
    surface of the water during each cycle, she was
    disqualified for not taking a breath during each
    cycle. Is this a valid DQ?
  • Recommended Resolution There is no requirement
    to breathe at any specific point of any swim. The
    rulebook states, some part of the swimmers head
    shall break the surface of the water at least
    once during each complete cycle of one arm stroke
    and one leg kick, in that order, except after the
    start and each turn the swimmer may take one arm
    stroke completely back to the legs and one leg
    kick while wholly submerged. There should be no
    disqualification
  • Applicable Rules 101.1.2

41
Butterfly Situation
  • A swimmer in butterfly moves too close to a lane
    line. During the recovery portion of an arm
    stroke the swimmers right arm hits the lane line
    causing the right arm to trail the left arm over
    and into the water (alternating action). However,
    the swimmer then pulls both arms back
    simultaneously during the propulsive portion of
    the arm stroke. The stroke judge signals a
    disqualification. Is this a valid DQ?
  • Recommended Resolution This was a correct call.
    In the butterfly both arms must be brought
    forward over the water and pulled back
    simultaneously. In this case, the swimmers arms
    were not brought forward over the water
    simultaneously. The fact that the lane line
    prevented the swimmer from recovering both arms
    simultaneously is not germane to the judging of
    the stroke.
  • Applicable Rules 101.2.2, 103.13.1

42
Breaststroke Situation
  • A swimmer is disqualified for swimming out of
    cycle. The stroke and turn judge indicates that
    the swimmer swam with simultaneous arm stroke and
    leg kick from the start of the race when the
    rules require the swimmer to swim with one arm
    stroke and one leg kick in that order. The coach
    claims that being out of cycle means that the
    swimmer clearly started the race with a leg kick
    prior to the first arm stroke and that swimming
    simultaneous arm stroke and kick is not a
    violation of 101.1.2. Should the DQ stand?
  • Recommended Resolution The usual occurrence of
    the cycle violation is at the beginning of the
    race when the swimmer begins with a leg kick
    rather than an arm stroke. However, the cycle
    rule does apply to the entire swim in that the
    swimmer cannot have two arm strokes without an
    intervening leg kick and vice-versa. During the
    breaststroke, the leg kick normally occurs during
    the recovery phase of the arm stroke. A referee
    would need more information on the actual
    sequence of each part of the kick and stroke to
    be sure that the swimmer had two consecutive legs
    kicks or arm strokes. With the above information,
    the DQ should not be allowed.
  • Applicable Rules 101.1.2, 101.1.3

43
Butterfly Situation
  • After the start of a butterfly event, a swimmer
    incorrectly believes that there has been a
    recall. He stands up but, realizing that no one
    else has stopped, he then resumes swimming. Is
    there a disqualification?
  • Recommended Resolution Yes. Any swimmer who
    stands up in a stroke other than freestyle will
    be disqualified.
  • Applicable Rules 102.10.5

44
Butterfly Situation
  • Near the finish in a butterfly race, a swimmer
    starts his final stroke and finds himself too
    close-to the wall to make a full recovery, so he
    ducks his head under and reaches forward
    simultaneously with both hands underwater from
    the breast to touch. Is this legal?
  • Recommended Resolution No, this is illegal
    according to USA Swimming Rules and Regulations.
    "Both arms must be brought forward over the
    water...."
  • Applicable Rules 101.2.2

45
Butterfly Situation
  • A swimmer in butterfly takes a simultaneous
    two-arm pull, kicks several times with her arms
    at her sides, brings both arms simultaneously
    forward over the water, keeps her arms stretched
    out in front of her for several kicks and then
    does another simultaneous two-arm pull. She
    repeats this process throughout the swim. Should
    she be disqualified?
  • Recommended Resolution There should be no
    disqualification. There is no rule requiring an
    arm stroke between leg kicks. The swimmer may
    kick as many times as desired between strokes as
    long as both legs kick simultaneously.
  • Applicable Rules 101.2.2, 101.2.3

46
Butterfly Situation
  • A swimmer has a hard time bringing her arms
    completely out of the water during the recovery
    portion of the butterfly. Only half of her arm
    clears the water surface. The official on the
    turn end of the pool disqualifies her for not
    recovering her arms completely out of the water.
    The coach goes to the Referee and protests the
    call. Was the call proper?
  • Recommended Resolution No. Where the rule
    states, Both arms must be brought forward over
    the water and pulled back simultaneously, any
    part of the arm recovering over the water is
    sufficient for satisfying this rule.
  • Applicable Rules 101.2.2

47
Butterfly Situation
  • A swimmer likes to keep his feet separated while
    kicking to the surface of the water at the
    beginning of the butterfly. He was disqualified
    for not having his feet and legs together while
    he was doing the butterfly kick. Is this a valid
    disqualification?
  • Recommended Resolution No. The legs or the feet
    do not need to be on the same level.
  • Applicable Rules 101.2.3

48
Butterfly Situation
  • In the butterfly a swimmer approaching the finish
    takes a stroke, recovers and then dives for the
    wall doing a butterfly kick all the way in. As
    part of the dive, he submerges completely prior
    to touching the wall. Is this an infraction?
  • Recommended Resolution As long as the turn judge
    can clearly see the entire body of the swimmer is
    fully submerged, then the swimmer should be
    disqualified. The rules state that the swimmers
    head must break the surface of the water by the
    15-meter mark and must remain on the surface
    until the next turn or finish.
  • Applicable Rules 101.2.2

49
Butterfly Situation
  • A swimmer in the butterfly enters the water at
    the start and swims on her side without going
    past vertical toward the back. She performs a
    kick with both legs moving simultaneously without
    alternating but moving from side to side. The
    turn judge at the start end calls a
    disqualification stating that the swimmer did not
    perform a kick with an up and down motion. Should
    the DQ be accepted?
  • Recommended Resolution The DQ should not be
    accepted. The view of the kick as up and down is
    relative to the swimmers body.
  • Applicable Rules 101.2.2, 101.2.3

50
Backstroke Situation
  • A swimmer in backstroke who has gone past
    vertical with the shoulder makes the backstroke
    turn but fails to touch the wall and sculls back
    to touch. The turn judge reports this as a
    disqualification. Is this a valid DQ?
  • Recommended Resolution Yes.
  • Applicable Rules 101.3.3.

51
Backstroke Situation
  • During the backstroke a swimmer approaches the
    turn. When the swimmer moves past vertical
    towards the breast to make a flip turn, he finds
    himself in contact with the wall. With out doing
    a flip turn the swimmer leaves the wall past
    vertical towards the back. What action should the
    turn judge take?
  • Recommended Resolution No action is required.
    During the turn the shoulders may be turned past
    vertical toward the breast after which a
    continuous single arm pull or a continuous double
    arm pull may (not required) be used to execute
    the turn. As the turning action was continuous,
    there should be no disqualification.
  • Applicable Rules 101.3.3

52
Backstroke Situation
  • After passing under the flags and preparing for a
    turn during a 100-yard backstroke event, a
    swimmer turns past the vertical towards the
    breast and extends his arm while kicking. He does
    not take an arm pull but continues to kick into
    the wall then executes a flip turn, leaving the
    wall on his back. Should he be disqualified?
  • Recommended Resolution The swimmer should be
    disqualified for a non-continuous turning action.
    As there is no initiation of the turning action
    after the shoulders pass vertical, the turning
    action is not continuous. The fact that the
    swimmer was kicking has no bearing on the
    disqualification.
  • Applicable Rules 101.3.3

53
Freestyle Situation
  • A swimmer likes to swim the butterfly. He would
    like to do the butterfly during the freestyle
    event. An official tells his coach that he can
    swim butterfly, but he can¹t alter the stroke at
    any time during the race. Was this a correct
    statement made by the official?
  • Recommended Resolution No. In an event
    designated as freestyle the swimmer may swim any
    style. In a medley relay or an individual medley
    event, freestyle means any style other than
    butterfly, breaststroke or backstroke.
  • Applicable Rules 101.4.2
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