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RISKS TO COASTAL FISHERIES IN SUBSAHARAN AFRICA

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Rock lobster Low. Mangrove crab Low. 9/3/09. 20. Large Demersals moderate ... Enforcement of gear regulations. Spatial restrictions (i.e. marine sanctuaries) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: RISKS TO COASTAL FISHERIES IN SUBSAHARAN AFRICA


1
RISKS TO COASTAL FISHERIES IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
  • K.A. Koranteng
  • Marine Fisheries Research Division
  • P.O. Box BT-62,
  • Tema, GHANA
  • kwamek_at_africaonline.com.gh

2
INTRODUCTION
  • The rich living marine resources of the seas
    around Africa provide livelihood and employment
    for thousands of fishers, foreign exchange for
    governments and food security for the peoples in
    and out of the region.
  • In Ghana, it is estimated that about 10 of the
    population derive their livelihood from marine
    fisheries alone.

3
  • The fishery resources of the region are both
    locally important resident stocks and
    transboundary straddling and migratory stocks
  • With the exception of the tuna fishing fleet, all
    vessels operate in about the same area and target
    similar species. This generates conflict among
    the fleets, especially between the artisanal and
    the trawler fleets.

4
INTRODUCTION
  • The productivity of coastal waters is dependent
    on ocean processes like upwelling, the health of
    mangrove forests, coral reefs, and seagrass beds
    and the amount and quality of runoff from the
    rivers. The western side of SSA includes some of
    the important upwelling ecosystems in the world

5
  • On the eastern side of SSA the air temperature at
    sea level rarely falls below 20C and seawater
    temperature is usually between 20-30C. Ocean
    currents are an important feature that strongly
    influence the distribution of marine organisms
    and the availability of nutrients.

6
INTRODUCTION
  • The wealth of estuaries, deltas, coastal lagoons,
    and coral reefs also contribute significantly to
    the diversity of fish life in the region.
  • Fishing in coastal lagoons, estuaries and creeks
    is also an important economic activity.

7
INTRODUCTION
  • Fundamentally, the multiplicity of gears in the
    artisanal fisheries and the sophistication of
    certain industrial fisheries have lead to
    conflicts between the sectors and
    overexploitation of the fishery resources.

8
INTRODUCTION
  • In this presentation, the nature of coastal
    fisheries in sub-Saharan Africa and the major
    issues that affect them are discussed.
  • Key management interventions are proposed
    including areas for regional collaboration in
    research and management.

9
OVERVIEW OF COASTAL FISHERIES IN SUB-SAHARAN
AFRICA
  • The continental shelf in SSA varies considerably
    from area to area but is generally narrow,
    especially in the mid belt.
  • The Island States in the region are equally less
    endowed with continental shelf area.

10
  • Thus, throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, coastal
    fishing tends to be artisanal with up to 70
    percent of fish landings attributed to artisanal
    fishers in some countries.
  • The fisheries in the west African sub-region are
    characterized by the dominance of small pelagic
    species, that account for nearly 50 of total
    catches.
  • Small pelagic species include sardinellas, bonga,
    mackerels and anchovy.

11
  • There are also significant industrial (mainly
    demersal fisheries) involving both national and
    foreign fleets (mainly from EU, eastern Europe,
    Korea and Japan).
  • The most important exploited species include
    those of the families Sparidae, Sciaenidae,
    Lutjanidae and Penaeidae.
  • These resources are also exploited by both
    artisanal and industrial fisheries.

12
  • In the East Africa sub-Region the artisanal
    fishery catch is dominated by relatively limited
    number of specific groups, namely scavengers
    (rabbitfish, barracudas), small pelagic species
    crustacea (crabs and lobsters), and molluscs
    (oysters and octopus).

13
OVERVIEW OF COASTAL FISHERIES
Landings from Western Indian Ocean
14
OVERVIEW OF COASTAL FISHERIES
  • Landings from Eastern
    Atlantic

15
  • Overexploitation of fishery resources was
    identified by all eleven countries that
    participated in the first phase of the African
    Process, as being amongst the top five GIWA
    issues in terms of their impacts on the coastal
    zone and the livelihood of coastal communities.
  • Catch Per Unit Effort (CPUE) exceeds sustainable
    yields in many countries while species diversity
    and average body lengths of the most important
    fish species have declined.

16
  • In the Gulf of Guinea, for example, the most
    significant changes in the abundance of fish
    species in the last three decades are
  • Fluctuations in abundance of sardinella species
  • Dramatic increase and subsequent decline in
    abundance of triggerfish (Balistes capriscus)
  • Recent discovery of large quantities of live
    scallops (Chlamys purpuratus and Pecten jacobeus
    ) in coastal waters
  • Increase in abundance of tiger prawns (Penaeus
    monodon) in coastal waters

17
OVERVIEW OF COASTAL FISHERIES
  • Changes in status and diversity of species in
    sub-Saharan Africa have been attributed to both
    natural and anthropogenic factors as well as
    nearshore biophysical processes.
  • The story of overexploitation of coastal
    resources is the same throughout SSA

18
STATUS OF TARGET SPECIES (GHANA _
WEST AFRICA)
 

19
Mozambique, eastern Africa
  • Shallow-water prawns Intensive
  • Mundle prawns Intensive
  • Deep-water prawns Moderate
  • Deep-water Lobster Intensive
  • Crayfish Moderate
  • Deep-water crab Moderate
  • Rock lobster Low
  • Mangrove crab Low

20
  • Large Demersals moderate
  • Large pelagics Very low
  • Sharks Low
  • Small demersals Low
  • Small pelagics Low
  • Deep-water fish Low
  •  

21
MAJOR ISSUES THAT AFFECT COASTAL FISHERIES IN
SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
  • Fishery Related
  • Overfishing
  • Use of destructive fishing gears and practices
  • Small and large-scale fisheries conflicts
  • Post-harvest losses

22
  • The underlying cause of over-exploitation by
    artisanal fishers, is poverty.
  • For industrial fisheries, overcapitalisation is
    the primary cause of over-exploitation.

23
MAJOR ISSUES…..
  • Infrastructure and capacity for management …
  • Inadequate information/research support for
    management
  • Limited personnel (brain drain) and technical
    capabilities
  • Limited resources/funding

  • Lack of institutional coordination/collaboration

24
  • MAJOR ISSUES…..
  • Policy
  • Inadequate policy and legal framework
  • Insufficient/ineffective law enforcement
  •  

25
MAJOR ISSUES…..
  • Nearshore forcing factors and productivity of
    coastal waters
  • Siltation / sedimentation of coastal lagoons
  • Coastal erosion and effect on landing sites of
    artisanal fishers
  • Habitat degradation/destruction (coral reefs)
  • Mangrove clearing for urbanisation and food
    production
  • Damming of rivers and reduction of fiver
    discharge
  •  

26
MAJOR ISSUES …..
  • Pollution (Land-based sources and marine)
  • Industrial pollution
  • Agrochemical loading
  • Domestic/sewage pollution
  • Oil spills
  •  

27
Pollution …..
  • Pollution from oil and gas exploration is a
    potential danger for coastal fisheries. E.G. In
    Nigeria oil is produced from the Niger Delta
    (over 90 oil fields, about 6,200 km of flowlines
    and pipelines spread over 30,000 km2 of the
    Delta).

28
Pollution …..
  • Pollution from land-based sources,
    agrochemicals and the use of harmful fishing
    methods have been identified as factors that
    adversely affect coastal fisheries, especially in
    lagoons, estuaries and on coral reefs.

29
MAJOR ISSUES …..
  • Physical alteration and modification of coastal
    habitats including coastal erosion is a potential
    source of danger for coastal fisheries.
  • Over-fishing in coral reef habitats causes reef
    degradation and adversely affect productivity and
    biodiversity.

30
Mitigating Factors
  • Important management interventions that would
    address some of the risk factors are summarised
    below

31
Mitigating Factors…..
  • Limited entry and effort reduction
  • Zoning of fishery waters
  • Establishment of marine protected areas
  • Restructuring of relevant policy and regulatory
    frameworks
  • Redirection of systems of subsidies/support
  • Enhancement of alternative livelihood and
    occupational mobility

32
Mitigating Factors…..
  • Spatial and temporal restrictions on certain
    fishing gears
  • Technological control/limitations
  • Enforcement of gear regulations
  • Spatial restrictions (i.e. marine sanctuaries)
  • Temporal restrictions (i.e. seasonal closures)

33
  • Institutional strengthening/upgrading
  • Upgrading of technical personnel and facilities
  • Improvement of financial capability and mandates
    of organizations
  • Enhancement of research and information
  • Establishment of appropriate fisheries management
    reference points
  • Initiation of policy and institutional studies

34
  • Projects proposed in the GEF-MSP/ African
    Process for sub-Saharan Africa
  •  
  • Assessment and Mitigation of the Ecological and
    Socio-economic Impacts of Destructive Fishing
    Practices
  • Mariculture Development (Plymouth university
    experiment with Red snapper)

35
GEF-MSP Fisheries Projects ….
  • Impact of Global Climate Change on Key Marine and
    Coastal Ecosystems
  • Strengthening Management and Monitoring, Control
    and Surveillance (MCS) Capacity of Fisheries
    Management Organisations

36
  • Regional Cooperative Efforts for Joint
    Management of Fisheries in Sub-Saharan Africa

37
Regional Seas Conventions (UNEP)
  • Abidjan Convention for Co-operation in the
    Protection, Management and Development of the
    Marine and Coastal Environment of the West and
    Central African Region
  • - 23 Countries, 1981

38
  • Nairobi Convention for the Protection,
    Management and Development of the Marine and
    Coastal Environment of the Eastern African Region
  • 4 Mainland Countries and 4 Island States, 1985

39
  • The Regional Seas Conventions bring the
    countries together for the purpose of marine
    environmental protection and management.
  • The work programmes of these two Conventions
    include significant measures to combat coastal
    environmental degradation and overexploitation of
    fishery resources, especially in coastal waters.

40
Large Marine Ecosystems (GEF/UNEP/UNDP/UNIDO/US-NO
AA)
  • Canary Current LME project (under preparation)
  • Guinea Current LME project (PDF-B phase after
    pilot GOG-LME project)
  • Benguela Current LME project (under
    implementation)
  • Western Indian Ocean LBA Project (Recently
    approved for implementation)

41
Fisheries-related activities in the LME projects
include
  • Trawl survey and related data analyses and
    database development
  • Strategic policy and management planning for
    coastal fisheries

42
  • Regional strategies for resources rehabilitation
    through comparative analyses
  • Training, workshops and networking activities in
    stock assessment, community and fisheries policy
    analyses and planning

43
CONCLUSION
  • Fisheries in SSA are both artisanal and
    industrial
  • Local (costal countries) and distant water fleets
    are involved in the fisheries

44
  • Risk factors include
  • over-exploitation of resources,
  • pollution,
  • use of unapproved fishing methods
  • Small and large-scale fisheries conflicts
  • Post-harvest losses

45
  • Physical alteration and modification of coastal
    habitats (including destruction of mangroves and
    coral reefs)
  • Limited human, and institutional capacity for
    resources management

46
  • The fishery resources are both localised and
    widely-distributed.
  • Significant stake of International fishing fleets
    implies problems are transboundary in nature,
    hence international collaboration required for
    management and mitigation.

47
  • Initiatives within the Regional Seas Conventions,
    Large marine Ecosystems and African Process are a
    step in the right direction
  • … but more commitment for management required
    from both national governments and donor community

48
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
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