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Adolescence and Puberty

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... when they don't because they don't know how or refuse to learn how to deal with children. ... Musical. Kinesthetic. Mathematical. Linguistic. Spatial ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Adolescence and Puberty


1
Adolescence and Puberty
  • I. Section One
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Physical Issues
  • Social Issues
  • Psychological Issues
  • II. Section Two
  • Puberty
  • Kohlberg and Gilligan

2
Adolescent Physical Issues
  • Physical Development
  • Growth is on average grow 2-3
  • inches a year.
  • Average height at age 11
  • Girls 4 feet, 10 inches
  • Boys 4 feet, 9 ½ inches
  • In America we receive enough nutrition and thus
    grow at a natural rate.
  • In many countries a lack of proper nutrition
    greatly affects the maturational process.

3
Adolescent Physical Issues
  • Childhood Obesity
  • Defined
  • Body weight that is more than 20 above the
    average for a person of a given age and height.
  • United States
  • 15 of U.S. children are obese.
  • This has tripled from 5 since the 1960s.
  • Most obese country in the world. Why?
  • We are in no short supply of resources.
  • Speed of our economy.
  • No time anymore to make a good meal.
  • Both parents working.

4
Adolescent Physical Issues Motor Development
  • Are there extreme differences between boys and
    girls in motor abilities?
  • Do boys out perform girls in sports?
  • Are boys better designed for this
  • type of activity?
  • Truth
  • There are little if any physical differences
    between boys and girls in ability to excel at
    physical activities.
  • Testosterone does not make a difference at this
    age.
  • Why would research in the past say one thing and
    now today it say a different thing?
  • In the past it was not expected of girls and
    girls were told that they would fail if they
    tried.
  • Today it is normal and expected for them to
    participate in physical activity.
  • If a person is told that they will fail all the
    time they will most likely fail.

5
Adolescent Physical Issues Motor Development
  • Children have more dexterity today than we ever
    did
  • They can now type on a computer and use a
    pen/pencil efficiently, with skill
  • Children today are more excelled at this task
    today than we ever were. Why is this?
  • Video games and internet?

6
Adolescent Physical Issues Physical Health
  • Children in this age group are more likely to get
    sick.
  • Continues through high school but not as strong
    there.
  • Asthma
  • Chronic condition characterized by periodic
    attacks of
  • Wheezing
  • Coughing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Has been on the rise.
  • Affects more than 15 million U.S. children.
  • Potential Reasons
  • Increased pollution
  • More insulated buildings today
  • Air cant flow well
  • Increased ability to detect it
  • Increased concern over illness in children

7
Adolescent Physical Issues Physical Health
  • Accidents
  • Not a common source of
  • mortality in this age group.
  • Increased mobility increase
  • their chances of being in an accident.
  • Bicycle and auto Accidents
  • Most frequent of accidents causing death in
    children at this age.
  • Kills 5 out of every 100,000 children.
  • Fires, burns, drowning, and gun-related deaths
    follow in frequency.
  • Not many children in this age group die from
    accidents, nonetheless they get in many accidents.

8
Adolescent Social Issues Social Problems
  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • Individuals refuse to eat.
  • While denying that their behavior
  • and appearance are out of the ordinary.
  • Social issue.
  • Advertisements and commercials.
  • Bulimia
  • Characterized by binges on large quantities of
    food.
  • Followed by purges of the food through vomiting.
  • Or the use of laxatives.
  • Personal Issue.
  • Must be treated by looking at their life
  • What is out of control?

9
Adolescent Social Issues Social Problems
  • Depression
  • State of intense sadness, melancholia or despair.
  • That has advanced to the point of being
    disruptive to an individual's social functioning
    and/or activities of daily living.
  • More than ¼ of adolescents report
  • feeling depressed for more than two
  • weeks at a time.
  • 2/3 of adolescents report having
  • felt depressed.
  • 3 report major depression.
  • Adolescent Girls experience depression more often
    than boys.
  • African-American adolescents have higher rates of
    depression than Caucasian adolescents.
  • Native Americans have high rates of depression.

10
Adolescent Social Issues Social Problems
  • Suicide
  • Willful act of killing oneself.
  • Rate of adolescent suicide has
  • tripled in the last 30 years.
  • There is one teenage suicide
  • every 90 minutes.
  • Parents are not reluctant to report it as a
    suicide as opposed to an accident anymore.
  • Suicide rate is higher for boys than girls
  • Boys use more violent methods than girls

11
Adolescent Social Issues Social Aspects
  • Adolescent Egocentrism
  • State of self-absorption in which the world is
    viewed from ones own point of view.
  • Imaginary Audience
  • Adolescents belief that his or her own behavior
    is a primary focus of others attentions and
    concerns.
  • Personal Fables
  • View held by some adolescents that what happens
    to them is unique, exceptional, and shared by no
    one else.

12
Adolescent Social Issues Social Aspects
  • Average dropout makes 42 less than high school
    graduate.
  • Unemployment rate for dropouts is 50.
  • 50 of high school seniors and 20 of eighth
    graders used THC within the past year.

13
Adolescent Social Issues Social and Peer Groups
  • Reference Groups
  • Groups of people with whom one compares oneself.
  • Cliques
  • Groups from 2 to 12 people
  • whose members have frequent
  • social interactions.
  • Crowds
  • Larger groups than cliques, composed of
    individuals who share particular characteristics
    but who may not interact with one another.
  • Sex Cleavage
  • Sex segregation in which boys interact primarily
    with boys and girls primarily with girls.

14
Adolescent Social Issues Adolescent Identity
  • James Marcia
  • Suggested that identity can be seen in terms of
    which of two characteristics
  • Crisis or Commitment
  • Is it present or Absent
  • Crisis
  • Period of identity development in which an
    adolescent consciously chooses between various
    alternatives and makes decisions.
  • Commitment
  • Psychological investment in a course of action or
    an ideology.

15
Adolescent Social Issues Adolescent Identity
  • Marcia proposed 4 categories of adolescent
    identity
  • Identity Achievement
  • Status of adolescents who commit to a particular
    identity following a period during which they
    consider various alternatives.
  • Identity Foreclosure
  • Status of adolescents who prematurely commit to
    an identity without adequately exploring
    alternatives.
  • Moratorium
  • Status of adolescents who may have explored
    various identity alternatives to some degree, but
    have not yet committed themselves.
  • Identity Diffusion
  • Status of adolescents who consider various
    identity alternatives, but do not commit to one
    or even consider options.

16
Adolescent Social Issues Personality Differences
  • Controversial Adolescents
  • Children who are liked by some peers and disliked
    by others.
  • Rejected Adolescents
  • Children who are actively disliked.
  • Whose peers may react to them in an obviously
    negative manner.
  • Neglected Adolescents
  • Children who receive relatively little attention
    from their peers in the form of either positive
    or negative interactions.

17
Adolescent Social Issues Current Issues
  • Permissiveness with affection
  • Premarital intercourse is viewed as permissible
    for both men and women if it occurs in the
    context of a long-term, committed, or loving
    relationship.

18
Adolescent Psychological Issues Mental Health
  • One in five children and adolescents has a
    psychological disorder that produces at least
    some impairment
  • 5 depression
  • 13 anxiety disorder
  • Diagnosed disorders have been higher than it has
    ever been
  • Increased acceptance
  • Increased ability to diagnose
  • Increased concern about psychological problems

19
Adolescent Psychological Issues Learning
Disabilities
  • Defined
  • Difficulties in the acquisition and use of
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • Reading
  • Writing
  • Reasoning
  • Mathematical
  • Growing concern in America.
  • Growing trend toward child diagnosis in America.
  • Dyslexia
  • Reading disability that can result in the
  • misperception of letters during reading and
    writing.
  • Unusual difficulty in sounding out letters.
  • Confusion between left and right orientation.
  • Difficulties in spelling.

20
Adolescent Psychological Issues Learning
Disabilities
  • ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)
  • Inattention, impulsiveness, low tolerance for
    frustration, and generally a great deal of
    inappropriate activity.
  • Affects 3-7
  • Social Problems
  • Many, many children are misdiagnosed with this
    disorder.
  • Many teachers will say that a child has it when
    they dont because they dont know how or refuse
    to learn how to deal with children.
  • If the teacher is using up a large chunk of her
    class time to deal with a student then there is a
    problem.
  • School stigmatizes these children and these
    children grow up believing that they will never
    succeed in life.
  • Treatment
  • Ritalin (Meth-Amphetamine) Common treatment for
    these children
  • Not most effective.
  • Division of Class Work and Activity
  • Children need rewards and often.
  • Instead of giving them 20 questions to work on
    divide it up into 4 sets of 5 and have them bring
    it up to you after completing each.
  • Give them lots of physical activity and involve
    them often.
  • Dont give them sugar.

21
Adolescent Psychological Issues Montessori
Education
  • Maria Montessori (1870-1952)
  • Interesting Montessori almost died at age 10
  • of illness, she told her mother-
  • Dont worry, Mother, I cannot die I have too
    much to do
  • First interest was in mental retardation.
  • She was impressed by the extreme interest in
    knowledge that institutionalized children showed.
  • We cant teach developmentally delayed children
    things that we think they ought to know.
  • Such as reading and writing.
  • This will only lead to frustration.
  • They are not intellectually ready.
  • Best time to learn a language is this at this
  • age, this ability will get worse and worse as
  • they mature.

22
Adolescent Psychological Issues Montessori
Education
  • Theory of Development
  • Owed much to Rousseau.
  • Children think and learn differently than adults.
  • Concept of Sensitive Periods-
  • If a child is prevented from enjoying these
    experiences at the very time when nature has
    planned for them to do so, the special
    sensitivity which draws him to them will vanish,
    with a disturbing effect on development
  • Main component
  • Need a certain attitude about education.
  • It is not our job to direct our childrens
    learning.
  • Respect their efforts at independent mastery.
  • Sensitive Periods
  • Order
  • Details
  • Use of Hands
  • Walking
  • Language

23
Adolescent Psychological Issues Montessori
Education
  • Montessori School
  • 2 ½ years to enter.
  • All ages through 6 are in same class.
  • Environment contains the right materials that
    correspond to the childrens inner needs at
    various sensitive periods the children will
    enthusiastically work on them on their own.
  • Without supervision.
  • Methods
  • Free Choice
  • Rewards and Punishments (never reward or punish a
    child)
  • Gradual Preparation

24
Adolescent Psychological Issues Intelligence
  • Mental Age/Chronological age X 100
  • Standardized test with 100 being the mean IQ.
  • 2/3 of all people on this planet fall between one
    standard deviation of the population mean
    (85-115)
  • Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
  • Wechsler-Adult Intelligence Scale
  • (WISC-IV) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for
    Children Revised

25
Adolescent Psychological Issues Intelligence
  • Two types of Intelligence
  • Fluid Intelligence Reflects information
    processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory
  • Crystallized Intelligence Accumulation of
    information, skills, and strategies that people
    have learned through experience and that they can
    apply in problem-solving situations
  • __________________________________________________
    _____
  • 8 types of Intelligence
  • Musical
  • Kinesthetic
  • Mathematical
  • Linguistic
  • Spatial
  • Interpersonal
  • Intrapersonal
  • Naturalist
  • Do you believe in this division?

26
Adolescent Psychological Issues Intelligence
  • Triarchic Theory of intelligence Model that
    states that intelligence consists of three
    aspects of information processing
  • Componential
  • Experiential
  • Contextual
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