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Bilingualism: Part II ASLEnglish Bilingual Education


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Title: Bilingualism: Part II ASLEnglish Bilingual Education

Bilingualism Part IIASL/English Bilingual
ASHA Convention 2006 Susanne Scott
Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education
Center Gallaudet University
  • Who We Are
  • Language Planning at the Laurent Clerc National
    Deaf Education Center
  • ASL/English Bilingual Model
  • Individual Language Planning for Diverse Students
  • Facilitating ASL and Spoken English in a
    Bilingual Environment
  • Early Childhood Program
  • Team 1,2,3

Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center
Gallaudet University
  • Demonstration Schools
  • Kendall Demonstration Elementary School
  • Birth through Grade 8
  • Model Secondary School for the Deaf
  • 15yrs.-21 yrs. High School
  • National Mission
  • Literacy
  • Family Involvement
  • Transition

Kendall Demonstration Elementary School
  • Tuition Free Day Program
  • No hearing level admission requirement
  • Four Academic Teams
  • Early Childhood Education
  • Parent-Infant Program
  • Nursery
  • Pre-Kindergarten
  • Kindergarten
  • Team 1/2/3
  • Team 4/5
  • Team 6/7/8
  • Student Support Services

Language Planning at the Clerc Center
  • Language Planning Committee
  • ASL/English Bilingual Professional Development
  • Bilingual Classroom Models and Strategies
  • ECE
  • ASL

Goal of an ASL/English Bilingual Program
  • To develop social and academic proficiency in
    both ASL and English

Social vs. Academic Language
Social Language

BILINGUAL ABILITY The Language Abilities
forDeaf Children
Source Adapted by Nover (Feb 23,2006) from
Nover, Christensen, Cheng (1998)
Signacy in context
  • Oracy refers to fluency in a spoken language
    (i.e., the ability to speak and listen) and
    literacy refers to fluency in a written
    language (the ability to read and write). The
    term signacy is derived from the concepts of
    oracy and literacy (Baker, 2001 Bench 1992)
    but is used to specifically indicate fluency in a
    signed language.

Transitional Bilingual Education
  • The goal of a transitional bilingual program is

Hakuta, K., Mostafapour, E. (1998).
Maintenance Bilingual Education
  • The goal of a maintenance bilingual program is

Hakuta, K., Mostafapour, E. (1998).
Components of a Maintenance Bilingual Program
  • School-wide Language Plan To develop
    proficiency in social and academic ASL and
  • Development of Individual Language Plans
  • Implementing bilingual educational strategies

Components of a Comprehensive Program
  • Fluent Language Models
  • Deaf/Hearing Teaching Teams
  • Communication Guidelines
  • Collaboration
  • Support Specialists
  • ASL Specialist
  • Speech-Language Therapist
  • Audiologist
  • Literacy Specialist
  • Technology Support
  • Family Supports
  • Family ASL
  • Shared Reading Program

  • Developing an Individualized Language Plan

What is a Individual Language Plan
  • Description of a students use of language (ASL
    and spoken English) for communication and
    learning in various contexts
  • A guide for goal development
  • Establishment of guidelines for language
  • Description of recommended student services

Facilitating ASL and Spoken English in a
Bilingual Environment
Clerc CenterNursery ProgramBilingual Model
  • Objective
  • To facilitate language development and
    effective communication with a range of students
    in an environment that is aware of and responsive
    to the individual communication/language needs of
    each student and effective practices in the
    education of young deaf children.

Clerc CenterNursery ProgramBilingual Model
  • Classroom composition and staffing
  • The Nursery program is divided into two classes.
  • In each classroom there are deaf students without
    cochlear implants, deaf students with cochlear
    implants, and hard of hearing students.
  • Each class has two teachers one deaf teacher and
    one hearing teacher as well as a third adult.

Clerc CenterNursery ProgramBilingual Model
  • Both teachers are responsible for the overall
    planning and implementation of each students
    Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) or
    Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
  • Support staff are integrated into these
    classrooms as well.
  • Communication access All teachers and staff are
    responsible for ensuring communication access for
    students/adults in the communication setting.

Clerc CenterNursery ProgramBilingual Model
  • Group activities inclusive of all students ASL
    is the language of instruction
  • One- to-one activities Teachers and staff to
    adjust communication use based on individual
    student functioning levels and goals, as well as
    the context and goal of the activity.
  • Small group time
  • Students grouped based on auditory access
    (Language Plan and IFSP/IEP goals to be utilized
    to determine group placement)
  • Range of English development activities
    integrated into all groups (based on the
    characteristics of the children )

Clerc CenterNursery ProgramBilingual Model
  • Program Components to address spoken language
  • Daily hearing aid check/CI check for all students
    who use amplification
  • Listening area (computer, language master, video,
    and tape recorded activities) to be available
    during free choice activities
  • Music/finger-play/nursery rhymes integrated into
    the day (videos, sign supported)
  • Individual/small group auditory and speech
    training based on each childs IFSP

  • All Children Together - Circle Time and Activity
  • ASL

  • Teachers work one-on-one with small groups of
    children (art projects, free play, etc.)
  • Flex Time
  • Teachers target individual children based on
    their IEP goals

Language Groups
  • Daily regrouping of students based on language
  • Auditory Access Group
  • Visual Access Group

Auditory Access GroupPhonemic Awareness
Pre-K Bilingual Classroom
  • Self-contained classroom
  • Hearing Teacher and Deaf Teaching Assistant (Both
    fluent in ASL)
  • 5 students (varied profiles but all have auditory
    access through a hearing aid or cochlear implant)

Student Profiles
  • TE HOH/Binaural aids Deaf parents (Swedish,
    English, ASL spoken in the home)..L1 ASL
  • AG Deaf/CI/HA Hearing parents (English and ASL
    spoken in the home).L1 ASL
  • AC HOH/HA Deaf parents (ASL in the home) L1
  • LW Deaf/CI/HA Hearing parents (ASL and English
    in the home) L1 English
  • TO HOH/BC aid (Unilateral loss apraxia)
    English in the home L1 English

Classroom characteristics
  • Identified adults in the environment to
    facilitate in both ASL and Spoken English
    (specialists, teachers, other professionals)
  • Identified daily/weekly activities to facilitate
    both Spoken English and ASL (social and academic)
  • Read aloud strategies in both ASL and Spoken
  • Incorporation of media facilitated activities in
    both ASL and Spoken English (DVDs, Smart Board,
    computer games, card reader for listening, etc)

  • Strategies linking
  • ASL and English

Facilitating ASL and Spoken English Team 1,2,3
  • WCN18
  • Listening Literacy Centers
  • Teaching ASL

Listening and Literacy Centers
  • Books on Tape
  • Computer Software Programs
  • Card Reader

In closing
  • Importance of Valuing Bilingualism
  • Providing opportunities for individual student
    development in ASL and English
  • Assessment and Documentation of student
    performance in ASL and English