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The European Multinational and Multicultural Identity


Historically not clear (more clashes than harmony) ... CONCLUSION PART I: PRECONDITIONS FOR THE EMERGENCE OF A EUROPEAN IDENTITY: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The European Multinational and Multicultural Identity

The European Multinational and Multicultural
  • Assets and tensions, immigration and integration

Overview, part I
  • European Identity
  • Concepts of identity
  • European Values and the EU
  • Models of looking at Europe
  • Europe as a family of nations
  • Constitutional patriotism
  • Europe as a space of encounters

Overview, part II
  • From immigration to integration
  • Migration history
  • Policy
  • Views towards the future
  • Integration and effects of immigration
  • Questions

Part I Identity
European Identity
  • Important one of the three basic conditions for
    membership (next to democratic status and respect
    for human rights).
  • But very elusive
  • Geographically elastic
  • Linguistically varied 23 languages
  • Religiously diverse, Cf. work on the
    Consititutional treaty, 2004
  • Historically not clear (more clashes than
  • No coherent view on the European quality of the

The first of May 2004 marked an important date in
the history of Europe as a political, geographic,
and social entity. Ten European countries joined
the European Union, bringing in their potential
and expectations, adding a total population of 75
million people and a territory of 738,000 square
kilometers. The EU-25 has 452 million citizens.
Feeling European
  • Barometer 1999
  • Feeling European in Luxemburg, Italy, Spain,
    France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Austria and
  • Feeling national in UK, Sweden, Funland, Greece
    and Denmark
  • Barometer 2004
  • 86 is proud of their country, 68 is proud of
  • But, 49 feels there is no shared cultural

Activity 1
  • Surf to the Eurobarometer site and check how
    Europeans today feel about the Union
  • How closely do people in your homecountry feel
    attached to their nation/region? How has this
    evolved over time?

Identity Values?
  • Sharing an essentially similar view on the world?
  • Discourse 5 core values
  • Democracy
  • Non-discrimination
  • Gender equality
  • Physical and psychological integrity
  • Respect for cultural diversity and identities

Activity 2
  • List five qualities (positive / negative ) that
    you think are typically European.
  • Check your list with that of your neighbour.
  • Keep the list with you to see if it fits with how
    Europeans see themselves.

Overview Hofstede dimensions Europe
Flanders 39/40 47/50 8 5
France 27/29 47/50 13/14 17/22
Netherlands 61 72 4/6 53
Germany 63/65 11/13 18 43
G.B. 63/65 11/13 3 66
Spain 45/46 51/53 30 17/22
Italy 51 7 9 33
Shared fears?
Shared cultural heritage
Activity 3
  • Check the publication A community of cultures
    The European Union and the arts. on
  • What do you learn about Europes shared cultural

Institutional identity
  • Only 4 in 10 feels satisfied with the way
    democracy works in Europe
  • They feel they know very little of how the
    institutions work
  • 29 of Europeans feels that 50 years of Union
    have accomplished little to nothing
  • In 2004, only 54 voted in Pariliament

Activity 4
  • Lets talk on how the Europan Union could
    actively promote this idea of European identity.
    What actions could be taken?
  • Read the charta on European Identity
    chart_gb.htm. What do you think about the
    conclusions made there?

Models of looking at Europe A family of nations
  • A family of nations a polity can only be stable
    if anchored in a common history and culture.
    Emphasises that European identity has emerged
    from common movements in religion and philosophy,
    politics, science and the arts
  • Euro-nationalism that leads to exclusionary
    policies within European societies (as regards
    non-European immigrants) and the polarisation of
    global politics.

Models of looking at Europe constitutional
  • A common political culture, or civic identity,
    based on universal principles of democracy, human
    rights, the rule of law etc. expressed in the
    framework of a common public sphere and political
  • Artificial distinction between the private and
    the public, the subjective and the universal /
    Democracy and human rights are not universal
    values / Problems related to cultural differences
    are ignored.

Models of looking at Europe A space of encounters
  • A consequence of intensified civic, political and
    cultural exchanges and cooperation. As identities
    undergo constant change, European identity
    would be encompassing multiple meanings and
    identifications and would be constantly redefined
    through relationships with others.
  • Overemphasises the ability of people to adapt to
    a world in flux und underestimates their need for
    stability. Too much diversity can eventually lead
    to the loss of identity, orientation and
    coherence, and therefore undermine democracy and
    established communities.

Conclusion part I preconditions for the
emergence of a European identity
  • Politics the strengthening of democratic
    participation at all levels and more democracy at
    EU level
  • Education and culture strengthening of the
    European dimension in certain subjects
    (especially history), more focus on language
    learning, more exchanges etc. 
  • Social and economic cohesion counteracting social
    and economic differences

Part II Migration
In 1620, one of 10 people in the Netherlands was
foreign born. In a town as Amsterdam, this could
be as much as one in four!
Activity 5
  • Scan the web for some images on migration. What
    do these images tell you? What thoughts and
    feelings do they provoke?

Difficult outset
  • Unlike the USA, Canada or Australia, no Western
    European country sees itself as an immigrant
  • Most Europeans still consider mass migration to
    be the historical exception. Residing in the same
    place throughout one's life is considered to be

Historical overview
  • For centuries, European migration patterns
    consisted mainly of movement around the
    continent, or away from it. Millions fled
    religious persecution. Others were driven by
    hunger and poverty, including impoverished
    southern Europeans.

Historical overview
  • 1950-60 Workers arrived in their millions to
    fill gaps in European labour markets. National
    policies were fairly liberal .
  • People from West-indies and India to UK
  • Migration from southern-european countries to
  • Contacts with Turkey and Maghreb.
  • The numbers peaked in the early 1960s, creating a
    net European migration figure which is far higher
    than today's. These immigrants, mostly non-white,
    were not expected to stay.

Historical overview
  • Policies became restrictive from the 1970s on.
    Satiation of labour market. 1973 Migration stop.
  • 1980s recession. Some possibilities remained
    family reunification, studies, seasonal work, .
    This left the asylum system to carry the weight
    of the migration wave.
  • The 1980s also brought about the accession of the
    Southern European states Greece, Spain, and
    Portugal, which faced initial restrictions in the
    movement of people

Historical overview
  • 1990s Germany (unification and close to
    Eastern-Europe) had the largest flows of migrants
    followed by the United Kingdom.
  • 2000 a number of governments have been revising
    their policies to take better account of
    employment and demographic needs.
  • 2002 Investing in return programmes.

  • . There are probably between 2 and 3 million
    undocumented immigrants in Europe - accounting
    for 10 to 15 per cent of the total population of
    foreigners. Some estimates say there could be
    500,000 a year.

There are probably between 2 and 3 million
undocumented immigrants in Europe - accounting
for 10 to 15 per cent of the total population of
foreigners. Some estimates say there could be
500,000 a year.
Activity 6
  • Make a sketch of migration histories within your
    own family.
  • Plot your families migration history on a map.
  • Think about why people migrated and what their
    long term perspective was.

Origin of migrants
  • 1950-2000 clear push and pull factors
  • former colonial links,
  • previous areas of labour recruitment,
  • ease of entry from neighbouring countries.
  • In recent years, immigrants have been coming from
    a wider range of countries and particularly from
    lower-income countries.

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Activity 7
  • Describe the make-up of your own community
    immigrants, migrants, historical minorities, new
  • Try to define what relates all of them.
  • Would you define your home-society as diverse or
    quite homogenous?

Migration and development
  • The pressure to move from developing countries is
    being perpetuated by Europe's own policies. The
    EU's protectionism, agricultural policies and
    subsidies are all contributing to making life
    tougher for the developing world, increasing the
    pressure for people to leave.
  • Commission principles
  • Remittances
  • The involvement of willing diaspora members
  • Brain circulation and limiting impact of brain

Other Problems
  • Smuggling and trafficking networks -gt need for
    considerable investments
  • Striking a balance between security and basic
    rights of individuals.
  • Relationships with historical minorities and
    policies aimed at them. p.e. Jewish community

  • Tampere 1999
  • A comprehensive approach that finds a balance
    between humanitarian and economic admission
  • Fair treatment of third country nationals to
    give them comparable rights and obligations to
    those of nationals
  • Development of partnerships with countries of
    origin including policies of co-development

  • 2000 onwards the emergence of a cross-national
    European response to immigration, as European
    Union countries have become more concerned about
    their common external frontier.
  • The Hague Programme (2004)
  • Green Paper (2005)
  • Policy Plan (2006)

  • Communication by Commission 2000, recommending a
    common approach which should take into account
  • The economic and demographic development of the
  • The capacity of reception of each member state
    along with their historical and cultural links
    with the countries of origin
  • The situation in the countries of origin and the
    impact of migration policy on them
  • The need to develop specific integration
    policies based on fair treatment of
    third-country nationals, the prevention of social
    exclusion, racism and xenophobia and the respect
    for diversity

Activity 8
  • Read the introduction from the Annual Policy
    Report on Migration of The European Migration
    Network http//
  • What strikes you?
  • What differences can you see between the various
    European countries?

A need for migration?
  • Future immigration to the EU is likely to
    increase, both as a result of the demand for
    labour and because of low birth rates in the EU.
  • Both the UK and
  • Germany have announced
  • schemes to attract skilled
  • immigrant workers.

Some Data
  • Data from the EU's statistical office shows that
    between 1975 and 1995 the EU population grew by
    just over 6. From 1995 to 2025 however, this
    growth is expected to almost half to roughly
  • Another reason is that the population's average
    age is increasing. The working-age population was
    225 million in 1995, and is expected to remain
    fairly constant at around 223 million in 2025.
    The striking point, though, is that the over-65
    population is anticipated to rise from 15.4 of
    the EU population in 1995 to 22.4 by 2025.
  • These population trends are not evenly spread.
    Population growth has hit record lows in southern
    European countries.

Approaches to integration
  • Multicultural implying tolerance of cultural and
    religious diversity, robust anti-disrimination
    legislation and easy acces to citizenship
  • Social Citizenship offering a type of quasi
    membership in the form of full social and
    economic rights, but restricted acces to full
  • Republican allows easy acces to citizenship but
    on the understanding that citizens divest
    themselves of particular ethnic or religious
    traits in the public spheres

Activity 9
  • If you were to design an integration course, what
    elements would be there?
  • To get inspired, read the conclusions of chapter
    2 in the European Handbook for Integration

Good practices
  • Portugal SOS Migrant
  • Mentoring of seasonal workers in UK and Catalonia
  • Intercultural sensitivity training for public
    service workers
  • Expanding mediation services (languages, view on
    health care, religious dialogue..)

Example of integration program Belgium
  • Obligatory for all new-comers
  • Adult foreigners centrally registered, -12 months
  • Except
  • EU or Swiss citizens, or their spouses, children
    and parents
  • People older then 65 (except in religious
  • Primary program
  • Basic course Dutch between 120 and 600 hours
  • Orientation to the labor market
  • Social orientation
  • Secondary program
  • Actively searching for work

Unity in diversity
  • The construction of a European identity is
    neglecting the cultural demands of the minorities
    within the member states and fails to produce a
    pluralist reading of identity. () A
    multicultural democracy that wants to remain true
    to itself has to be able to accept difference and
    diversity within its realm. (Sami Zemni)

5 times more chance of un-employment 7 times more
chance of poverty Drawn back in schooling and
higher education
New forms of migration
  • Commuting (Eastern-Europe) migration will remain
    temporary for the most part, taking the form of a
    cross-border commute rather than a permanent
    settlement. 70 percent of the Polish respondents
    anticipated working in other Member States for
    between two months and two years or for
    intermittent periods between returning home. Only
    12 percent of them intended to work for longer
    than two years and 13 percent expressed a desire
    to settle permanently in another member state.
  • Educational migration a persistent trend in the
    pattern of East West migration. Education in
    Eastern Europe is not considered to match in full
    that in Western Europe in terms of resources.

Further reading
  • identity debates
  • construction of Europe
  • a diverse compilation of articles
    and opinion pieces on the most topical and
    important migration issues in Europe.
  • Reports by the Global Commission on
    International Migration
  • .