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Comments from feedforward sheet

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She had to be harmony for family honour. This ... Part 1. May 19, 2009. Kiyoko Sueda. Article: Martin, J. N. & Nakayama, ... 3.2 Four modes of acculturations ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Comments from feedforward sheet


1
Comments from feedforward sheet
  • The girl who is in DVD is Indian. Her family is
    very strict. Her parents emphasize on respect of
    family. They do not respect her feelings. This
    situation is near to Japan. She had no choice to
    Erabu(choose) her decision. She had to be
    harmony for family honour. This is Awase style.
    This theme(Erabi Awase style) related to
    the different styles between western (Erabi) and
    estern(Awase). Western tend to address
    individualism and eastern tend to make a harmony
    with others (collectivism). TJ
  • The video showed the degree of interdependence of
    British (western) culture and Indian (eastern)
    culture. The westerners children are primarily
    self-respected because they can do anything they
    desire and parents do respect children. In
    contrast, Indian father did not let his girl
    disobey to what her father says and therefore she
    is not respected to do anything along her will
    and must obey what her parents say. KN

2
  • Like showing in the video, the Indian girl are
    not supposed to play football in the team. Her
    family forbid her to do so. This situation is
    apparently a story from a interdependent culture
    in which she is not just an individual, she is
    connected to her family and cultural group. She
    has to consider the feeling of her parents, not
    just her owns, and obey to her parents. WF
  • The video shows an example of how parents make
    decisions for heir children in eastern cultures
    rather than in western cultures. It also
    illustrates the hierarchical rather than
    individualistic relationships in the context of
    family. PK
  • The clip shows how the main character struggles
    with her familys focus on interdependence and
    her own desire to be independent. Her family want
    her to focus on her studies but she wants to be a
    soccer player. EF

3
  • The most obvious connection to todays theme was
    shown during the conversation between the Indian
    parents and the English man. The parents made a
    decision for their daughter and emphasized
    respect for elders, which are characteristics of
    eastern cultures. Another connection to todays
    theme was the changing times. We discussed how
    Japanese language has been changing, and this is
    paralleled in the video by the difference between
    the daughters point of view and the parents
    point of view. Much like younger Japanese people,
    the girl in the movie is more independent than
    her parents of the previous generations. CP

4
Intercultural Transitions
  • Part 1
  • May 19, 2009
  • Kiyoko Sueda
  • Article Martin, J. N. Nakayama, T. K.
  • pp. 264-277.

5
1. Types of migrant groups
  • 1.1. Definition
  • A migrant is an individual who leaves the
    primary cultural contexts where he/she was raised
    and moves to a new cultural context for an
    extended period.

6
  • 1.2 Voluntary Migrants
  • 1. Travelers
  • 2. Sojourners (those who stay somewhere
    temporarily)
  • -International students
  • -corporate personnel
  • -missionaries
  • 3. Immigrants (who come to live permanently
    in a foreign country)

7
  • 5 major countries for immigrants
  • 1. USA
  • 2. Canada
  • 3. Australia
  • 4. Israel
  • 5. New Zealand

8
Japans mobility
  • No. of foreign people coming to Japan was
    9,150,000(-5,800) as of the end of 2008.
  • No. of Japanese going abroad was
  • 10,599,000(-1,310,000)
  • ???30???? ?Increasing the number of foreign
    students up to 300,000 by 2013

9
  • 1.3. Involuntary immigrants
  • Short-term refugees
  • Long-term refugees
  • because of war, famine and oppression.
  • c.f. 1982-2006 Total number of refugees in
    Japan 410 (4,882 applied) MOFAhttp//www.mofa.go.
    jp/mofaj/gaiko/nanmin/main3.html

10
2. Culture shock2.1 Definition
  • Culture shock is a relatively short-term feeling
    of disorientation, of discomfort due to the
    unfamiliarity of surroundings and the lack of
    familiar cues in the environment.
  • (Text, p. 270).
  • Oberg, K. (1960). Culture shock Adjustment to
    new cultural environments. Practical
    Anthropology, 7, pp. 177-182.

11
2.2 Nature of culture shock
  • Most people experience culture shock during the
    period of transition to a new culture (e.g.,
    country, region, organization, role, marriage )
  • The more people have a direct contact, the more
    they are likely to experience culture shock.
  • Maintaining separateness insulates people from
    culture shock.

12
2.3 Aspects of culture shock
  • 1. Strain as a result of the effort required to
    make necessary psychological adaptation
  • 2. A sense of loss and feelings of deprivation in
    regard to friends, status, profession, and
    possessions
  • 3. Rejection by and/or rejection of members of
    the new culture

13
  • 4. Confusion in role, role expectations, values,
    feelings, and self-identity
  • 5. Surprise and anxiety after becoming aware of
    cultural differences
  • 6. Feelings of helplessness as a result of not
    being able to cope with the new environment
  • Furnham, A. (1988). The adjustment of
    sojourners. Y.Y. Kim, W. B. Gudykunst (Eds.,)
    Cultural adaptation, pp. 42-61. Sage.

14
2.4 Major symptoms of culture shock
  • Excessively aware of cleanliness (e.g., washing
    hands more frequently than necessary, checking to
    see if water, food, plates, bed, etc are clean)
  • Avoiding talking with people
  • Not wanting to do anything

15
  • Refusing to learn the host countrys language
  • Being afraid of getting hurt
  • Wanting to go home badly
  • ???? Isogai, T. (1998) ??7??????????????????????
    ???????Yashiro, K.(?)???????????pp. 241-282.

16
2.5 Ways to look at culture shock
  • 1. Culture shock is a problem.
  • -It is like a disease.
  • -The migrant can recover from
  • the disease.

17
  • 2. Culture shock can be shifted to a
  • learning process.
  • -Those who experience culture shock is
    sensitive to cultural differences.
  • -We can learn from culture shock.
  • ????(2001).??????????????????
  • ???????????????????????????
  • ????????????4?,57-74. Sueda, K. (2001). An
    analysis of students' images of their host
    countries Application of the PAC method to
    Intercultural Training.Journal of Intercultural
    Communication No.4, pp.57-74, SIETAR, Japan

18
3. Migrant-Host Relationships3.1 Overview4
modes of acculturations
  • 4 ways for migrants to relate to their new
    cultures They can assimilate, remain separate,
    integrate, or become marginalized.

19
3.1 Overview Diagram
  • Berry, J. W., Kim U., Boski, P. (1988),
  • Psychological acculturation of immigrants.
  • p. 66. Fig. 3.1

Is it valuable to maintain cultural identity?
YES
NO
INTEGRATION
ASSIMILATION
Is it valuable to maintain relationships with
other groups?
YES
NO
SEPARATION
MARGINALIZATION
20
3.2 Four modes of acculturations3.2.1
Assimilation
  • 1. An individual does not want to maintain
    his/her cultural identity but wants to maintain
    relationships with other groups in the new
    culture.
  • 2. A migrant is generally welcomed by the new
    host culture.
  • 3. An individual does not maintain his/her
    cultural heritage.
  • 4. It creates the melting pot model.
  • 5. The effects of societys pressure on an
    individual/group to assimilate.

21
3.2.2 Two forms of Separation1. Separation
  • 1. An individual wants to maintain his/her
    cultural identity but avoids contact with other
    groups in the new culture.
  • 2. They choose separation, and the dominant
    society respects their choice.
  • (e.g., Amish in the USA, Brazilian-Japanese in
    Oizumi-cho, Japan)

22
2. Segregation
  • Separation is initiated and enforced by the
    dominant society.
  • Segregation can be seen in many aspects such as
    housing, facilities, transportation, etc.
  • (e.g., Apartheid (till 1994) in South Africa,
  • Some Ainu people in Japan)

23
FYI
  • The Ainu People
  • "Ainu" means "human." The Ainu people regard
    things useful to them or beyond their control as
    "kamuy"(gods). In daily life, they prayed to and
    performed various ceremonies for the gods. These
    gods include "nature" gods, such as of fire,
    water, wind and thunder "animal" gods, such as
    of bears, foxes, spotted owls and gram-puses
    "plant" gods, such as of aconite, mush-room and
    mugwort "object" gods, such as of boats and
    pots and gods which protect houses, gods of
    mountains and gods of lakes. The word "Ainu"
    refers to the opposite of these gods.

24
  • History
  • About 300 B.C., Honshu (Japan's mainland)
    experienced the Yayoi Period. Between the Yayoi
    and Muromachi Periods, Hokkaido experienced
    periods of earthenware cultures, such as the
    Zoku-Jomon Period, the Satsumon Period, and the
    Okhotsk Culture.
  • The "Ainu Culture" extended from about 1400 to
    the early 1700 s. According to one theory, the
    Satsumon Culture developed into the Ainu Culture
    through the influence of the Okhotsk Culture.
  • However, this theory is not a proven one. In the
    mid-1400 s, the Japanese extended their influence
    over southern Hokkaido, primarily Esashi and
    Matsumae. Later, they came to oppress the Ainu.
    To resist the oppression by the Japanese, the
    Ainu waged the Battle of Kosyamain in 1457, the
    Battle of Syaksyain in 1669, and the Battle of
    Kunasiri-Menasi in 1789. The Ainu lost each time.
    After losing the Battle of Kunasiri-Menasi in
    particular, the Ainu fell completely under the
    control of the Japanese.

25
  • They remained oppressed and exploited by the
    Japanese until the Meiji era. In the Meiji era,
    under the government policy of assimilation, the
    Ainu were prohibited from observing their daily
    customs. Given the status of former aborigines,
    the Ainu were forced to abide by Japanese daily
    customs. In 1899, the Hokkaido Aborigine
    Protection Act was passed. The act primarily
    aimed to provide relief for the Ainu and help
    them become engaged in agriculture. However, the
    act designated the Ainu as "former aborigines"
    and clarified the distinction between the
    Japanese and the Ainu.
  • In the late Meiji era, with an increasing number
    of Japanese colonizing Hokkaido from Honshu, the
    oppression and exploitation of the Ainu was
    replaced by discrimination against them.
    Discrimination against the Ainu still remains
    today and has become a major social problem.

http//www.ainu-museum.or.jp/english/eng01.html
26
3.2.3 Integration
  • An individual is interested in maintaining
    his/her original culture and language and in
    having interactions with other groups.
  • Integration depends on the openness and
    willingness of those in the dominant society to
    accept the cultures of others.
  • An individual tries to maintain his/her cultural
    heritage.
  • It creates the Salad Bowl model.?
    Multiculturalism

27
3.2.4 Marginalization
  • An individual or group has little interest in
    maintaining cultural ties with either the
    dominant culture or the migrant culture.
  • An individual is not likely to be able to
    participate fully in its political and social
    life as a result of cultural differences.
  • (e.g., some intercultural children in Japan,
    Japanese ltchildren left behind in Chinagt
    returnees from China)

28
3.2.5 Combined modes of relating
  • Immigrants and their families often combine these
    four different modes of relating to the host
    society.
  • (e.g., economic assimilation, linguistic
    integration, and social separation).

29
Video Watching
  • -Can you observe any symptons of culture shock?
  • -Do you have any similar experiences?

30
A. Group presentations
  • 1. Based on the reading materials, select a topic
    and make a group presentation. You can make a
    critical analysis of what you have learned in
    class or from the reading materials, or you can
    relate the theories you have learned to your
    daily life and experiences.
  • e.g. -What is KY(kuuki yomenai)?
  • -Are Japanese really collecitivists?
  • -A cultural minority in Japan.
  • 2. Make a group consisting of 5 or 6 persons, and
    the total time allowed for each group is 20
    minutes. The presentation time cannot be changed
    based on the number of people in the group.
  • 3. The form of the presentation is flexible, but
    everyone in the group should contribute to the
    project.

31
  • 4. For your presentation, you can use equipment,
    such as a PC (Windows XP), DVD, or VHS. Your
    group leader has to let Sueda know which
    equipment you would like to use.
  • 5. You can use Suedas PC (the one I have at the
    office is Windows XP) for powerpoint slides. You
    are welcome to use it, but you need to save your
    document on your own USB and format it for XP.
  • 6. Presentation will be made on the following
    dates June 23, June 30, July 7 and July 14.
  • 7. As a member of the audience, you are expected
    to evaluate your classmates presentations.
  • 8. As a presenter, you are expected to evaluate
    your own performance.

32
B. Final paper
  • Based on your group presentation, you are
    expected to
  • submit a final pa per individually to Kyomuka
    (Building 8 on the 1st floor). The due date of
    the paper is from July 16th to 18th . (These
    dates are not certain)
  • 2. The content of the paper should include (1)
    what you have learned academically from the
    project and (2) how well your group
    collaborated, and reasons why your group
    collaborated well or not.
  • 3. The paper should be typed (double-spaced1.5)
    and from 1 to 2 pages in length.

33
Presentation Schedule
  • June 23
  • Group 1 Ayon, Marmo??? ?? ?? ??
  • Group 2 Dinoffria, Quintana??? ?? ?? ??
  • Group 3 Fowler, Araki??? ?? ???? ??
  • Group 4 Paxton, ???? ????? ???? ??
  • June 30
  • Group 5 Kogan, ? ?? ?? ?? ??
  • Group 6 Tinkham, Crawley ?? ?? ?? ??
  • Group 7 Barnard, ? ?? ?? ??
  • Group 8 Ganbold, Rubi ?? ??? ??

34
  • July 7
  • Group 9 Calzada, Suzuka ?? ?? ??
  • Group 10 Ginn, Delaterre ?? ?? ?
  • Group 11 Yates, Nomura ? ?? ??
  • Group 12 Li, ?, Hayes ?? ?? ??
  • July 14
  • Group 13 Eysmont, Lam ?? ?? ??
  • Group 14 ??? ?? ?? ??
  • Group 15 Gregory, ?? ?? ?? ??
  • Group 16 ??????? ?? ??
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