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Grid Computing

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Title: Grid Computing


1
Grid Computing
  • Yoab Gorfu
  • Abe Guerra
  • Kay Odeyemi
  • Renel Smith

2
Presentation Outline
  • Introduction
  • Architecture
  • Large Deployment Example - National Fusion Grid
  • Grid Toolkits
  • Globus Toolkit
  • Stateful Web Services

3
Introduction
  • A computational grid is a hardware and software
    infrastructure that provides dependable,
    consistent, pervasive, and inexpensive access to
    high-end computational capabilities.
  • Criteria for a Grid
  • Coordinates resources that are not subject to
    centralized control.
  • Uses standard, open, general-purpose protocols
    and interfaces.
  • Delivers nontrivial qualities of service.

4
Introduction
  • Grid Problem - coordinated resource sharing
    and problem solving in dynamic,
    multi-institutional virtual organizations 1
  • Virtual Organizations (VOs)
  • Vary dramatically
  • Core set of requirements

5
Introduction
  • VO requirements
  • Flexibility
  • Control
  • Varied resources
  • Usage modes

6
Introduction
7
Introduction
  • Grid Computing Benefits
  • Exploit underutilized resources
  • Resource balancing
  • Virtualize resources across an enterprise
  • Enable collaboration for virtual organizations

8
Companies involved in Grid Computing
  • Avaki
  • Axceleon
  • CapCal
  • Centrata
  • DataSynapse
  • Distributed Science
  • Elepar
  • Entropia.com
  • Grid Frastructure
  • GridSystems
  • Groove Networks
  • IBM
  • Intel
  • Powerllel
  • ProcessTree
  • Sharman Networks Kazza
  • Sun Gridware
  • Sysnet Solutions
  • Tsunami Research
  • Ubero
  • United Devices
  • Veritas
  • Xcomp
  • Jivalti
  • Mithral
  • Mind Electric
  • Mojo Nation
  • NewsToYou.com
  • NICE, Italy
  • Noemix, Inc.
  • Oracle
  • Parabon
  • Platform Computing
  • Popular Power

Source http//www.gridcomputing.com/
9
Computation Grid Projects
  • Particle Physics
  • global sharing of data and computation
  • Astronomy
  • Virtual Observatory' for multi-wavelength
    astrophysics
  • Chemistry
  • remote control of equipment and electronic
    logbooks
  • Engineering
  • industrial healthcare and virtual organizations
  • Bioinformatics
  • data integration, knowledge discovery and
    workflow
  • Healthcare
  • sharing normalized mammograms
  • Environment
  • Ocean, weather, climate modeling, sensor networks

10
Grid Architecture
  • Protocol architecture
  • Standards-based open architecture offers
  • Interoperability
  • Services
  • API flexibility

11
Grid Architecture
12
Grid Architecture
  • Fabric Layer provides the resources to which
    shared access is mediated by Grid protocols
  • Resource-specific operations
  • Functionality vs. simplicity

13
Grid Architecture
  • Fabric layer should provide
  • Enquiry mechanisms
  • Resource management mechanisms

14
Grid Architecture
  • Connectivity Layer defines core communication
    and authentication protocols required for
    Grid-specific network transactions
  • Data exchange
  • Verification

15
Grid Architecture
  • Connectivity layer should provide
  • Single sign on
  • Delegation
  • Integration with various local security solutions
  • User-based trust relationships

16
Grid Architecture
  • Resource Layer defines protocols for the
    secure negotiation, initiation, monitoring,
    control, accounting, and payment of sharing
    operations on individual resources
  • Use Fabric Layer functions
  • Information vs. Management protocols

17
Grid Architecture
  • Resource layer should provide
  • Fabric layer functionality
  • exactly once semantics
  • Error reporting

18
Grid Architecture
  • Collective Layer contains protocols and
    services which capture interactions across
    collections of resources
  • General vs. specific purpose

19
Grid Architecture
  • Collective layer could provide
  • Software discovery services
  • Community accounting and payment services
  • Collaboratory services

20
Grid Architecture
  • Applications Layer comprises the user
    applications that operate within a VO
    environment.

21
National Fusion Grid
  • A Collaboratory Pilot project that is creating
    and deploying collaborative software tools
    throughout the magnetic fusion research community

22
National Fusion Grid
  • Simple Goals
  • To advance scientific understanding and
    innovation in magnetic fusion research by
    enabling more efficient use of existing
    experimental facilities and more effective
    integration of experiment, theory, and modelling.
  • To advance scientific understanding and
    innovation in fusion research
  • Making widespread use of Grid technologies
  • http//www.fusiongrid.org/

23
National Fusion Grid
  • VISION FOR THE FUSION GRID
  • Data, Codes, Analysis Routines, Visualization
    Tools should be thought of as network accessible
    services
  • Shared security infrastructure
  • Collaborative nature of research requires shared
    visualization applications and widely deployed
    collaboration technologies
  • Integrate geographically diverse groups
  • Not focused on CPU cycle scavenging or
    distributed supercomputing (typical Grid
    justifications)
  • Optimize the most expensive resource -
    peoples time

24
National Fusion Grid
  • The problems of data sharing and rapid data
    analysis the National Fusion Collaboratory
    community adopted
  • a common data acquisition and management system
  • common relational database run-management schema

25
National Fusion Grid
  • Geographically Diverse Community
  • 3 Large Experimental Facilities
  • Alcator, C-Mod, DIII-D
  • NSTX  1B replacement cost
  • 40 U.S. fusion research sites
  • Over 1000 scientists in 37 state
  • Efficient collaboration is a requirement!
  • Integrate geographically diverse groups
  • One future worldwide machine
  • Not based in US
  • US needs collaboration tools to benefit

26
National Fusion Grid
  • National Magnetic Fusion Research Community
    FUSION COMMUNITY HAS 40 US SITES IN 37 STATES

27
National Fusion Grid
  • Design and Implementation of Access Grid
  • Produced of both design and architecture
    documents for review by public (beginning
    introduction into GGF document process)
  • Demonstrated full-featured prototypes in Nov 2002
    at SC2002 of new venue architecture, venue
    client, workspace docking complete with
    application sharing

28
National Fusion Grid
  • Building the Fusion Grid (Progressive testbeds)
  • Deployment Phrase
  • Use Policies and Issues of Trust
  • Moving to Real-Time
  • Wrapping it up

29
Globus the Globus Toolkit
  • Globus
  • Open source community focused on Grid computing
  • Globus Toolkit
  • Started in the late 1990s to address common Grid
    application problems
  • found at www.globus.org
  • Includes
  • A set of services focused on infrastructure
    management
  • Tools for building new Web services, in Java, C,
    and Python
  • Standards-based security infrastructure
  • Client APIs and command line programs

30
Globus Toolkit Web Services
31
Modeling Stateful Resources with Web Services
  • Web Services Background
  • What is a Web Service?
  • Web Service Environments
  • A Brief Taxonomy of State and Services
  • Stateless Implementations, Stateful Interfaces

32
Modeling Stateful Resources with Web
ServicesWhat is a Web Service?
  • Machine to Machine over a network via exchange of
    SOAP messages
  • Conveyance via HTTP
  • Key facility in distributed environment known as
    SOA

33
Modeling Stateful Resources with Web ServicesWhy
Web Service in Grid Discussion?
  • Convergence in Grid and SOA
  • Many grid implementations use Web Services

34
Modeling Stateful Resources with Web ServicesWeb
Services are usually Stateless
  • All information needed by the service is
    contained in the input message
  • All results are return via the output message
  • The service does not remember what it just did
    on completion
  • Not that useful for Grid

35
Modeling Stateful Resources with Web
ServicesState and Web Services
  • Most applications are not stateless
  • Grid application need their components to keep
    state
  • Web services can be components of Grid
    applications

36
Modeling Stateful Resources with Web
ServicesState and Web Services
  • Two general ways for representing state
  • The service keep track of its state
  • The service has other systems keep track of state
    for it
  • Ideally, Option 2 preferred

37
Modeling Stateful Resources with Web
ServicesWS-Resource
  • Protocol for modeling stateful resources
  • Standards for read, update and querying of state
    values.

38
Modeling Stateful Resources with Web
ServicesWS-Resource Lifecycle
39
Modeling Stateful Resources with Web
ServicesWS-Resource Example
40
Modeling Stateful Resources with Web ServicesWS
Resource ACID properties
  • Atomicity
  • Consistency
  • Isolation
  • Durability

41
References
  • Foster, Ian Globus Toolkit Version 4 Software
    for Service-Oriented Systems, IFIP International
    Conference on Network and Parallel Computing,
    Springer-Verlag LNCS 3779, pp 2-13, 2005
  • Foster, Ian WS-Resource Framework Globus
    Alliance Perspectives, GlobusWORLD, January 20,
    2004
  • Foster, I., C. Kesselman, and S. Tuecke, The
    Anatomy of the Grid Enabling Scalable Virtual
    Organizations. International Journal of High
    Performance Computing Applications, 2001. 15(3)
    p. 200-222.
  • Foster, I., Frey, J., Graham, S., Tuecke, S.,
    Czajkowski, K., Ferguson, D., Leymann, F., Nally,
    M., Storey, T. and Weerawaranna, S. Modeling
    Stateful Resources with Web Services. Globus
    Alliance, 2004.
  • Keahey, K, Fredian, T., Peng, D.P. Schissel, M.
    Thompson, I. Foster, M. Greenwald, D. McCune,
    Computational Grids in Action The National
    Fusion Collaboratory, submitted to Future
    Generation Computer System, October 2002. 18(8)
    p. 1005-1015.
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