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PBS Team Training

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Title: PBS Team Training


1
PBS Team Training
  • Module 2 Universal Implementation

2
(No Transcript)
3
Modules developed by the University of Missouri
Center for School-wide PBS and revised by
North Carolina PBS Trainers
4
Expectations
  • Be Responsible
  • Return promptly from breaks
  • Be an active participant
  • Be Respectful
  • Turn off cell phone ringers
  • Listen attentively to others
  • Be Kind
  • Participate in activities
  • Listen and respond appropriately to others ideas

5
Attention Signal
  • Trainer will raise his/her hand
  • Participants will raise their hand and wait
    quietly

6
Institute Overview
  • Training organized around three modules
  • School responsibilities
  • Complete Working Agreement
  • Attend training
  • Develop action plans
  • Share Annual Data Requirements with NCDPI
  • NCDPI responsibilities
  • Provide training support
  • Provide limited technical assistance
  • Provide networking opportunities

7
Training Matrix
8
PBS Team Training Objectives
  • Participants will learn
  • Basics for understanding and addressing problem
    behavior
  • Building a continuum of universal approaches to
    prevention and intervention
  • Basics of a successful PBS team
  • Skills for data-based decision-making

9
Module Two Agenda
  • Review
  • Systems Classroom Technical Assistance for
    Staff, Cultural Responsiveness, Referral
    Process/ Intervention Team
  • Practices Effective Classroom Design and
    Management, Small Group Social Skills
    Instruction, Check-in/Check-out, Mentoring
  • Data Classroom Data, Data Decision Rules,
    Evaluation
  • Team Time

10
Module 2 Team Outcomes
  • Review/assess current level of implementation
  • Consider how to create systems to support growth
    towards secondary implementation
  • Determine method to implement practices
  • Plan for continuing data collection and
    evaluation

11
Positive Behavior Support
  • PBS is a broad range of systemic and
    individualized strategies for achieving important
    social and learning outcomes while preventing
    problem behavior.
  • OSEP Center on PBIS

12
PBS is Not...
  • A specific __________________ or curriculumits
    a general approach to preventing problem behavior
  • Limited to any particular group of studentsits
    for all students
  • Newits based on a long history of behavioral
    practices and effective instructional design and
    strategies

13
School Improvement
14
School Improvement
15
CONTINUUM OF POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT
16
Positive Behavior Support
17
School-wide Systems of Positive Behavior Support
  • Utilize data-based decision-making
  • Focus on the use of a __________ of behavioral
    supports
  • Focus on increasing the contextual fit between
    problem context and what we know works
  • Focus on establishing school environments that
    support long term success of effective practices
    3-5 years

18
School-wide Systems of Positive Behavior Support
  • Expectations for student behavior are defined by
    a building based team with input from all staff
  • Effective behavioral support is implemented
    consistently by staff and administration
  • Appropriate student behavior is ____________
  • Positive behaviors are publicly acknowledged

19
School-wide Systems of Positive Behavior Support
  • Problem behaviors have clear consequences
  • Student behavior is monitored and staff receive
    regular feedback
  • Effective Behavioral Support strategies are
    implemented at the school-wide, specific setting,
    classroom, and individual student level
  • Effective Behavioral Support strategies are
    designed to meet the needs of
  • _____________________

20
Universal Strategies School-wide
  • Statement of _______________
  • Clearly defined expected behavior
  • Procedures for teaching expected behavior
  • Procedures for encouraging expected behavior
  • Procedures for discouraging problem behavior
  • Procedures for record-keeping and decision making

21

PBS Team Responsibilities
  • Assess behavior management practices
  • Examine patterns of behavior
  • Obtain/Retain staff commitment
  • Develop a school-wide _____________
  • Obtain parental participation and input
  • Oversee, monitor, and evaluate all planned
    objectives and activities developed by the team

22
PBS Team Responsibilities
  • Once practices are established teams
  • should meet at least once a month to
  • Analyze existing __________
  • Make changes to the existing database
  • Problem-solve solutions to critical issues
  • Develop/Review Action Plan

23
Team Time Self-Assessment
Workbook Page 3
  • Assess your PBS
  • progress thus far
  • What are the strengths and needs of your team and
    school?
  • What assessments or pieces of data are you using
    routinely to make decisions?

24
Its Time to Consider Secondary PBS
Implementation When
  • Universals are not sufficient to impact behavior
  • Students display ___________ patterns
  • Concerns arise regarding students behavior

25
Why is it so critical to build School-Wide
Interventions before implementing Secondary and
then Tertiary Interventions?
Jenga
26
Positive Behavior Support
27
Secondary Systems
  • Ensuring that all staff are using best classroom
    practices
  • Rationale Brain-based learning
  • Cultural Responsiveness
  • Effective Teaching _______________
  • Secondary Team Functions
  • Function Based Intervention
  • Data Decision Rules
  • How Students Access ______________ Interventions

28
The Science of Learning
29
HUMAN NATURE
  • Is stubborn and inflexible. We do more of the
    same even when it doesnt work.
  • American culture encourages us to look for the
    ____________.

30
What is perceived by the brain determines the
______________ ___________________.
31
How one interprets reality when under stress is
most reflective of ones significant life
experiences.
32
  • The Brain Begins to Customize Itself for its
    Particular Lifestyle
  • by pruning away unneeded cells and
  • billions of unused __________________.
  • As educators, we must ask
  • Exactly what talents, abilities, and
    experiences are students being exposed toand, on
    the other hand, what are they missing out on?

33
The Brains Subconscious AssessmentImmediate
Memory
  • Do I WANT to learn this?
  • How does this relate to what I already know?
  • Does this make sense?
  • What do I ________ from learning this?
  • Do people that matter to me know or want to know
    this?

34
The Brain
  • Brainstem
  • Sustains life functions (blood pressure, heart
    rate)
  • Midbrain
  • Appetite Sleep
  • Limbic System
  • Seat of emotions and impulse-action oriented if
    aroused
  • Cortex
  • Logic, planning, cognition, executive functions

35
To Avoid Functioning in Limbic Mode
  • In your classroom, students must feel
  • Safe
  • Wanted
  • Successful

36
The Chemistry of Attention
  • Dopamine levels ____________ as focused attention
    time is required or enforced
  • Dopamine regulates emotion, movement, and thought
  • Research suggests _________ minutes of maintained
    attention for grades 3-7
  • When learners are drowsy or out of it, its
    likely that brain chemical levels are low

37
How should we plan instruction?
  • Provide engaging activities
  • Physical movement
  • Use humor
  • Play music
  • Change location
  • Drama/Storytelling
  • ______________
  • Discussions
  • Celebrations

38
How should we plan instruction?
  • Rotate styles of instruction to provide strong
    contrast
  • mini-lectures
  • _______________________
  • peer feedback
  • Reflection
  • individual work
  • team time
  • Computers
  • student-led teaching

39
How should we plan instruction?
  • Use emotion to trigger attention
  • Alert Students Senses
  • Trigger Significant _______________
  • Introduce a Sense of Novelty
  • Build in time for processing and rest so
    information has a chance to make it into
    long-term memory

40
How should we plan instruction?
  • BONUSphysical activity triggers release of
    hormones that enhance neural communication,
    elevates mood, and assists in long-term memory
    formation!!

41
Creating a Climate for Learning
  • Clear, Positive Expectations
  • Clear Rules
  • Positive Role Modeling
  • Acceptance of Shaping
  • Respect for Each Student
  • Limit Setting
  • ______________
  • Procedures Routines
  • Positive Reinforcement
  • Structured Academic Success

42
A childs life is like a piece of paper on which
every passerby leaves a mark.Chinese Proverb
43
Culturally Responsive Instruction
44
Culturally Responsive Instruction
  • Acknowledge students differences as well as
    their commonalities
  • Validate students cultural identity in classroom
    practices and instructional materials
  • Educate students about the ____________ of the
    world around them
  • Promote equity and mutual respect among students
  • Assess students ability and achievement validly

45
Culturally Responsive Instruction
  • Foster a positive interrelationship among
    students, their families, the community, and
    school
  • Motivate students to become active participants
    in their learning
  • Encourage students to think critically
  • Challenge students to strive for excellence as
    defined by their potential
  • Assist students in becoming socially and
    politically conscious

46
Think, Pair, Share
  • What would this look like in a classroom? What
    ideas do you have for approaches or activities
    that would help you accomplish this goal?

47
Effective Teaching Plans
48
Whos In Charge of the Mood of the Classroom?
49
  • I have come to the conclusion that I am the
    decisive element in the classroom. It is my
    personal approach that creates the climate. Its
    my daily mood that makes the weather. As a
    teacher, I possess a tremendous power to make a
    childs life miserable or joyous. I can be a
    tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration.
    I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal. In all
    situations it is my response that influences
    whether a crisis will be escalated or
    de-escalated and a child humanized or
    de-humanized. Haim Ginott

50
Effective Teaching Plans
  • Are for all teachers
  • Support struggling teachers
  • Boost teachers in a rut
  • Become fluid, living, breathing documents
  • Support reflective, thoughtful, well-planned
    teaching use of effective _____________
    (academic and social)
  • Provide direction for needed PBS system supports

51
Components of An Effective Teaching Plan
Workbook Pages 4-6
  • Define classroom rules based on school-wide
    expectations
  • Outline routines (attention signal, etc)
  • Establish ___________________ for teaching
    routines and procedures
  • Decide strategies for encouraging appropriate
    behavior and discouraging problem behavior
  • Plan a variety of instructional strategies
  • Establish effective classroom environment

52
Sustaining and Maintaining Effective Classroom
Practices
  • Ongoing staff development
  • Effective teaching plan
  • Peer coaching
  • Mentoring
  • Supportive environment
  • Team based problem solving
  • ____________ parent contact

53
Effective Instruction
Effective instruction increases the likelihood of
correct student responses
Correct responding is correlated with positive
teacher interactions
Leading to increased academic achievement of
students and positive behavioral
exchanges between students and teachers
Gunter, Hummel, Venn, 1998
54
Team Time
  • How can our team help all teachers in our
    building utilize Best Practice in the Classroom?

Workbook Page 7
55
Secondary Team Systems
56
Secondary Team Systems
  • Function Based ________________
  • Data Decision Rules
  • How Students Access Targeted Interventions

57
Function Based Interventions
58
To correctly match appropriate interventions to
problem behaviors, teams will rely on the science
of ____________.
59
Basics of Behavior
  • Behavior is __________________
  • Every social interaction you have with a child
    teaches him/her something

60
Functional Perspective
  • Every behavior serves a purpose
  • (every picture tells a story

  • Every behaviors purpose is to meet a need
    (either real or perceived)
  • The _________ of behavior

61
Think, Pair, Share
  • How would knowing the function of problem
    behavior assist in developing interventions?

62
Brief Behavioral Assessment
  • Eddies teacher is increasingly frustrated with
    his outbursts. Anytime she asks Eddie to work
    independently or turn in assignments, Eddie talks
    back, yells out, gets out of his seat, or starts
    something with his classmates. Eddies teacher
    says that she has tried repeatedly to talk to him
    about this behavior to no avail.

63
Behavior Interventions
  • Look for opportunities to
  • Prevent problem behavior from occurring
  • ____________ an acceptable alternative behavior
  • Reward a positive behavior

64
Behavioral Interventions
Workbook Page 8
65
Team Time
  • List the Student Support Programs being offered
    in your school now. Decide which behavioral
    needs are met by each program.

Workbook Page 9
66
How will students access Secondary Interventions?
67
Access to Secondary Interventions
  • Staff all know how to refer students
  • Intervention begins within 10 days of referral
  • Data decision rule or screening to determine
    students that need additional support that are
    not referred
  • System in place for data collection and review of
    students receiving Secondary support

68
Working Smarter
  • What does working smarter look like at the
    individual level?
  • How do we invest our resources wisely?
  • Develop a continuum of support, within the
    tertiary level to address all the shades of yellow

69
Targeted Intervention
Targeted Intervention
Targeted Intervention
Team Assessment of Function
Workbook Page 10
70
Referral Process
  • How will teachers know who to refer?
  • Data decision rule
  • Professional judgment
  • After what process in classroom
  • How do they refer?
  • Conversation in the hall
  • ________
  • To Whom

71
Referral Process
  • Team Receives Referral
  • How does team decide with available targeted
    intervention is appropriate?
  • Team places student in intervention
  • Team evaluates
  • Continue Intervention
  • Move to next step

72
Team Time
  • Complete Part I and Part II of the CISS to help
    you plan for implementation of Secondary Systems

Workbook Pages 11-17
73
Do Problem Students Deserve Positive Attention?
74
When I Change Interactions, Am I Giving a
Misbehaving Student Her/His Way?
75
Is it Appropriate to Give Even More Time and
Attention to Students Who Misbehave?
76
Wont the Students Know The Positive Attention is
Phony?
77
What Do You Do When You Just Dont Like the
Student?
78
Supporting Staff Behavior
SYSTEMS
Positive Behavior Support
79
Practices In The Classroom
80
What is the single best practice to reduce
problem behavior in the classroom?
81
Practices in the Classroom
  • Assess __________ Arrangement of Classroom
  • Establish Behavioral Expectations/Rules
  • Encourage Expected Behavior
  • Minimize and Correct Student Behavior Errors
  • Provide Effective Instruction

Workbook Pages 18-21
82
Physical Arrangement
83
Physical Arrangement
  • Reduce congestion in high-traffic areas.
  • Ensure the teacher can easily see all students.
  • Make teaching materials and student supplies
    easily accessible.
  • Make sure students can easily observe whole class
    presentations.
  • Devote some display space to ____________
    ______________.

84
Classroom Arrangement Considerations
  • What type of activities will students typically
    be doing?
  • What type of student interaction does the teacher
    want?
  • What arrangements will foster these activities
    and interactions?

85
Think, Pair, Share
  • Think about how you have arranged your classroom
    to enhance student behavior
  • Pair up with another person
  • One person shares
  • Watch for signal
  • The second person shares

86
Establish Expectations, Rules, and Routines
87
Establish Behavioral Expectations and Rules
  • Use School-wide expectations as basis for
    classroom Rules
  • Clearly and positively stated
  • State in observable terms
  • Posted and Referred to frequently
  • Teach explicitly to _________________
  • Reinforce consistently

88
Establish Procedures Based on Expectations
  • Develop a Schedule
  • Teach an Attention Signal
  • Teach Routines for Repetitive
  • Tasks
  • Use Precorrects

Let's take a closer look!
89
Develop Classroom Schedule
  • Establish predictable schedules
  • illustrate with icons, time, etc.
  • Schedule non-instruction time
  • administration time
  • personal time
  • _____________ the variety and time for each
    activity.

90
Develop A Schedule...Down Time Causes Problems
  • Time unscheduled in a classroom is an open
    invitation to disruptive behavior.
  • Scheduled time is one of the basic proactive
    variables that is under teacher control.
  • 70 of the school day should be scheduled for
    academic activity.

91
Sample Schedule
  • 10 Min Teacher directed review of
    previous concepts
  • 5 Min Homework review
  • 20 Min Teacher directed new concepts
  • 15 Min Teacher directed guided practice
  • 30 Min Independent work
  • 10 Min Teacher directed guided practice and
    review

92
Teach Attention Signal
  • Always use a simple portable cue to prompt
    students to listen.
  • Avoid starting instruction until all students are
    attending
  • ________________ students who attend immediately
  • Provide specific verbal praise to peers to
    redirect students
  • Consistency, consistency, consistency!

93
Think, Pair, Share
  • What are some effective attention signals you
    have used in the past?
  • How could you share with your colleagues?
  • Do you have a school-wide attention signal?

94
Routines
  • Used for transition times and basic activities
    that happen on a regular basis.
  • Establish clear expectations for students and
    adults.
  • Plan, post, and teach routines.

95
Effective Routines - Rationale
  • The number one problem in the classroom is not
    discipline it is the lack of procedures and
    routines. A vast majority of the behavior
    problems in the classroom are caused by the
    failure of students to follow procedures and
    routines.
  • -Harry Wong

96
Effective RoutinesWhy They Help Manage Behavior
  • Support for transition times and basic
    activities that happen on a regular basis
  • Establish __________________
  • Clear Expectations for Student Behavior
  • Clear Expectations for Adult Behavior

97
Teach Routines
  • Think through and establish procedures
  • for transition times and basic regularly
  • scheduled activities
  • Effective procedures become routines
  • Establish clear expectations for student behavior
    and clear expectations for adult behavior
  • Plan, Post and Teach!
  • Tell-Show-Practice-Feedback loop
  • Consistently teach all day, every day
  • Reflect Are procedures working? Why or why not?

98
Effective Routines
  • Use Think-Pair-Share to brainstorm a list of
    procedures teachers need to teach
  • You have 2 minutes
  • Share your list!

99
Encourage ExpectedBehavior
100
Encourage Expected Behavior
  • Provide praise for correct academic responses and
    appropriate social behavior leading to
  • Increases in student correct responses
  • Increases in on task behavior
  • Decreases in ________________ behaviors
  • (Sutherland, 2000)

101
Encourage Expected Behavior Verbal Feedback
  • Timely and Accurate
  • Specific and Descriptive
  • (Tie to school-wide expectations)
  • _________________
  • Age-appropriate
  • Given in a Manner that Fits Your Style

102
Examples of Non-Verbal Feedback
  • Wink
  • Nod
  • Thumbs-up
  • Pat on the back
  • High-five
  • Hug (when and where appropriate)

103
Ratio of Interactions
  • Strive to keep an _____ ratio of
    positive-to-negative statements
  • Each time you have a negative interaction with a
    student, tell yourself you owe that student
    positive interactions
  • Identify specific times during the day you will
    give positive feedback
  • Schedule individual conference time
  • Scan the room searching for appropriate behaviors
  • Engage in frequent positive interactions with all
    students


104
Secondary Practices
  • Effective Classroom Practices
  • Targeted Small Group Interventions
  • Small group social skills instruction
  • ______________
  • Check-in/ Check-out or BEP

105
Teaching Effective Rules
  • Tell-Show-Practice (Assess-Repeat)
  • Give Positive Reinforcement for Appropriate
    Student Use
  • Consider Consequences for Errors
  • re-teach
  • redirect
  • time to Cool Down
  • Reflect! Are the Rules Working? Why or Why Not?

106
Teaching Expectations
Teach your expectations before the activity
or transition begins.
Monitor student behavior by circulating and
visually scanning.
Provide feedback during the activity and at the
conclusion of the activity.
Begin the cycle again for the next activity.
107
Give Precorrects
  • ____________ function as reminders
  • Opportunities to practice
  • Prompt for expected behavior
  • Especially helpful before teacher anticipates
    behavior learning errors

108
Precorrect Examples
  • Remember, before you leave class, collect all
    your materials, put your papers in the bin, and
    quietly walk out of the room.
  • Sam, show us how to be respectful and line up
    quietly for gym.

109
Increasing Positive Interactions
  • Focus on teaching students to get attention
    through responsible behavior rather than
    misbehavior.
  • Require adults to change the ratio of adult to
    student interactions from primarily negative to
    primarily positive

110
Increasing Positive Interactions
  • Based on the concept that most students want and
    need adult attention.
  • Leads students to feel like valued members of the
    _______________

111
Positive Interactions
  • It sounds so easy
  • but it can be so difficult!

112
Think, Pair and Share
  • Think about what you need to do to increase your
    positive interactions with students
  • Pair up with another person
  • One person shares
  • Listen for signal
  • The second person shares

113
Techniques to Improve Compliance
  • Do not use a question format
  • Get up close
  • Use a quiet voice
  • Make eye contact
  • Give them ____________

114
Techniques to Improve Compliance
  • Tell them only ____________
  • Give one direction at a time
  • Tell students what you want them to do (rather
    than what you dont)
  • Verbally reinforce compliance
  • Get up and move

115
Increasing Opportunities to Respond Active
Participation
  • Encourages everyone to become involved in
    learning
  • Increases _______ of responses of all learners
  • Increases attainment of material presented
  • Allows reluctant learners a secure environment to
    practice
  • Decreases inappropriate or off task behavior

116
Whole Group Oral Response
  • Strategy for reviewing or memorizing information
  • Students repeat information in unison when
    teacher prompts

117
Practice Time!
  • Students should be reinforced at a rate of _____
    to ______.
  • Universal strategies used in classroom management
    are to teach rules and _________.
  • PBS stands for_________________.

118
Whole Group Action Responses
  • Students are asked to do something during the
    lesson
  • Example
  • Put your finger on the title of the story
  • Point to the hour hand on the clock
  • Touch the action word in the sentence

119
Whole Group Written Response
  • Plan for short written responses (not more than
    one item)
  • __________ a signal for students to indicate
    completion (e.g. put your pencils down and look
    up when you are finished)
  • Have individual materials available paper,
    slates, chalkboards or white boards

120
Small Groups / Partners
  • Used to give everyone a chance to
  • Express thoughts
  • Answer a question
  • Verbally participate when there could be a
    variety of answers
  • Answers can be shared with other groups or whole
    group
  • Answers can be written on overhead by the teacher
    and presented to group

121
Minimize and Correct Student Behavior Errors
122
Techniques to Minimize At-Risk Behaviors
  • Surface Management
  • Cognitive Approaches
  • Sensory Strategies
  • Signaling Systems

123
Surface Management Proximity
  • Physical presence of the teacher is an
    _______________ source of control for student
    behavior.
  • Allows for intervention without any public
    acknowledgement of the student or behavior of
    concern
  • As behavior occurs, the teacher circulates
    around the room, moving closer to the student
  • Proximity can range from standing nearby to
    placing a hand on the desk or even on the
    students shoulder.
  • The teacher is allowed to continue teaching!

124
Surface Management Antiseptic Bouncing
  • Allows the student to exit the setting briefly
    and minimizes continuation/escalation of the
    behavior
  • Signal student to leave while saving face.
  • Travel to an arranged spot for a set time frame.
  • This can be done as a helping job.
  • This process should __________________.

125
Surface Management Humor
  • Humor can be used to effectively redirect and/or
    de-escalate behavior.
  • A good ice-breaker allows everyone to save face
  • Caution sarcasm should not be used!
  • Caution If you said it, and you are the only one
    laughing, it wasnt really funny!

126
Surface Management Ignoring
  • Quite simply, refusal to respond
  • Useful for low-intensity behaviors
  • No eye-contact, emotion, proximity, message
    (verbal, gesture, tone, expression)
  • Begins immediately upon behavior initiation
  • Pair with reinforcement of the correct behavior

127
Cognitive Approach Routines
  • Structure creates safety and comfort
  • Provides a sense of purpose, work guidelines and
    ability to anticipate
  • Structure that is universal will especially
    benefit certain students
  • Additional individual structure may be needed

128
Cognitive Approach Repetition
  • If its important, say it (write it, do it)
    again!
  • Natural way for the brain to determine importance
  • Ensures information will be available when it is
    ready to be processed
  • Can also be done through _________________
    attachment

129
Sensory Strategy Music
  • There are specific neurons for processing
    musicit may be a preferred learning style.
  • Specifically helpful in spatial reasoning and
    math
  • Useful to facilitate student transition
  • Impacts and helps regulate __________
  • Can be calming to students with anxiety.
  • Provides multiple reinforcement opportunities

130
Sensory Strategy Movement
  • Physical movement (gross and fine motor)
  • Associated with language development and problem
    solving
  • Repetitive movement can improve recall
  • Can increase engagement and time on task with
    students seen as being easily distracted or
    inattentive
  • Provides stress reduction
  • Provides multiple reinforcement opportunities

131
Signaling System Cueing
  • Visually/Verbally based prompts and reminders
  • Improve overall communication when paired with
    language
  • Respond to the brains needs during stress to
    process information and clarify perceptions
  • Gain student attention by signaling the brain as
    to what is important
  • Minimize disruptions to the learning process

132
Signaling Systems _________ CUEING
  • Visuals are the strongest aide in quick learning.
  • Vision also has dedicated neurons in the brain.
  • Children need gestures to make language clearer.
  • Stress makes the brain more dependent on visuals
    not only to hear and process, but also to
    establish perceptions.
  • Use visual cues to get students attention, to
    clarify language, as a behavioral intervention,
    and to signal the brain as to what is important.

133
Signaling Systems CATCH PHRASES (Verbal Cueing)
  • Nike?
  • Trix?
  • US Army?
  • 910-555-1212
  • 910-555-1212
  • Key Points in your lessons should be reduced to
    catch phrases.
  • Rules/Procedures should be reduced to catch
    phrases.

134
What should be your first strategy to address
repetitive student behavior errors?
135
Correct Student Behavior Errors
  • _____________ response
  • More effective if students have been taught
    expected behaviors
  • Minimize attention other than to signal an error
    has occurred
  • Praise for appropriate behavior

136
Correct Student Behavior Errors
  • Signal that an error has occurred
  • Refer to rules "We respect others in this room
    and that means not using put downs.
  • Ask for an alternative appropriate response
    "How can you show respect and still get
    your point across?"
  • Provide an opportunity to practice the skill and
    provide verbal feedback
  • "That's much better, thank you for showing
    respect
  • toward others.

137
Utilize Effective Reinforcement Strategies
138
Effective ReinforcementStrategies
  • Behavior(s) are determined and taught
  • Reinforcement is contingent upon appropriate
    behavior
  • Be generous with reinforcers at the beginning
  • Reward class when
  • Students who have not exhibited behavior in the
    past are exhibiting the behavior now.
  • Students who have exhibited behaviors in the past
    continue to exhibit them.

139
More Reinforcement Strategies
  • Group contingencies or individual systems
  • Yes/no bag
  • Compliance matrix
  • Lottery tickets

140
The Yes and No Bag
  • Things needed to implement include
  • - 50 or so yes and no cards
  • - A container, box or bag
  • - A reward (mystery motivator!)

141
Steps to Implement Yes and No
  • Decide on the behavior(s) to be reinforced.
  • Teach the desired behavior(s).
  • Catch the students doing the desired behavior.
  • Describe the behavior and put a Yes ticket in
    the bag.
  • If you see an inappropriate behavior, state the
    desired behavior and put a No ticket in the bag.

142
Yes No
  • At the designated time, draw a ticket out of the
    bag.

If it is a Yes ticket, the students receive
the reinforcer.
  • If it is a No ticket, there is no reinforcer
    that day.

143
Compliance Matrix
144
Lottery Tickets
  • Determine the behavior(s) you want to reinforce
  • Teach the behavior to the students
  • Give the student a ticket when you see the
    behavior.
  • Have student write his/her name on ticket
  • and put ticket in box/bin.
  • At a designated time, draw a ticket out of the
    bin and present a reinforcer to the student whose
    name is on the ticket.

145
Targeted Social Skills Instruction
146
  • Students learn appropriate behavior in the same
    way a child who doesnt know how to read learns
    to readthrough instruction, practice, feedback,
    and encouragement.

147
Teaching Behavior
  • Inappropriate behavior is viewed as a skill
    deficit.
  • Social skills training teaches students a process
    or strategy to resolve problems.
  • Teaching behavior is used when a student needs to
    replace problem behavior with a more desirable
    behavior.

148
Two Types of Social Skill Deficits
  • Skill deficits (cannot do)
  • Direct teaching approach
  • Coaching, modeling, behavior rehearsal
  • Performance deficits (will not do)
  • Incentive-based management approach
  • Prompting, cuing, reinforcement
  • _______________ social initiations
  • Home and school rewards
  • Individual and group contingencies

149
Assessment of Social Skills
  • Skill based deficit
  • Provide strong incentive to observe if student
    can perform under such conditions.

150
Assessment of Social Skills
  • Performance based deficit
  • Motivational deficit
  • Observe if student performs skill following
    introduction of motivational strategy.
  • motivationvaluebelief in abilityget reward
    promised (Vroom, 1964)
  • Discrimination deficit
  • Student frequently performs skill, but fails to
    perform under specific circumstances.
  • Oblivious to social cues or social demands of
    situation.

151
Social Skills Instruction
  • Direct instruction
  • Skill based approach
  • Social problem solving
  • Strategy based approach
  • __________________ teaching (not enough alone)
  • Prompt students who have missed an opportunity to
    practice a skill
  • Provide correction when skill is incorrectly or
    inappropriately demonstrated
  • Debrief when student uses inappropriate behavior
    in place of appropriate social skill

152
To effectively teachsocial skills you must
ALWAYS determine what you want the student to
do INSTEAD
153
Social Skill Areas
  • Cooperation skills
  • Assertion skills
  • Friendship skills
  • Empathy skills
  • Self-control skills
  • School and classroom skills

154
Social Skills Instruction for Small Groups
  • Select group students with similar needs
  • Determine staff responsible
  • Determine best time for instruction
  • Select curricula write lessons
  • Communicate with teacher and parents
  • Evaluate effectiveness

155
Social Skills Instruction for Small Groups
  • Select group students with similar needs
  • Type of problem behavior
  • Intensity of problem behavior
  • Age/Developmental Level
  • _______________
  • Develop Group Behavior Management Plan

156
Social Skills Instruction for Small Groups
  • Determine staff responsible
  • Consider size of group and type of problem
    behavior when assigning staff to (co) lead
  • Determine best time for instruction
  • Lunchtime, After/Before School, Rotating Schedule

157
Social Skills Instruction for Small Groups
  • Select curricula write lessons
  • Consider students developmental level
  • Commercial curricula, online lessons, or custom
    lessons
  • Materials needed
  • Meeting space requirements/limitations

158
Social Skills Instruction for Small Groups
  • Select curricula and write lessons
  • Tell, Show, Practice, Assess, Repeat
  • Teach replacement behaviors
  • First Day Lesson

159
Social Skills Instruction for Small Groups
  • Select curricula and write lessons
  • Rationale
  • when and why
  • Modeling
  • Role play
  • Feedback
  • Coach to fluency

160
Generalization Strategies
  • During instruction
  • Use naturally occurring examples within the role
    plays.
  • Use naturally occurring reinforcers.
  • Use appropriate language.
  • Pinpoint activities in which students are likely
    to engage.
  • Target useful skills (skills likely to be
    reinforced by others).

161
Generalization Strategies
  • Provide a range of useful skill variations.
  • Teach in the targeted ______________.
  • When teaching, include peers the target student
    is likely to encounter in the problem setting.
  • Use a number of adults when teaching.
  • Continue teaching for a sufficient amount of time.

162
Social Skills Instruction for Small Groups
  • Communicate with teacher and parents
  • Written parent permission best practice
  • Determine how teacher(s)/parent(s) can
    encourage/participate (homework)

163
Social Skills Instruction for Small Groups
  • Evaluate effectiveness
  • Pre/Post Data Comparison
  • Teacher/Parent _____________
  • Student Assessment

164
Social Skill Example Following
Directions/Instructions
  • Discuss rationale for the critical rule
  • What would happen if you do or do not follow
    directions?
  • If you follow directions, your parents may see
    you as more responsible and cooperative which
    could lead to more privileges.
  • Your teacher will view you as a learner because
    you follow through.
  • If you dont follow directions, an adult might
    think you are deliberately misbehaving or
    ignoring them.
  • Elicit responses from students when, where
    with whom they would use this skill.

165
Following Directions
  • Teach/describe the skill and skill steps.
  • Look at the person.
  • Acknowledge (verbal or nonverbal).
  • Decide if you need to ask any clarifying
    questions.
  • Do the task immediately.
  • Check back if appropriate.

166
Following Directions
  • Model examples and non-examples.
  • Provide an example from your life of when you
    followed directions.
  • Provide more examples than non-examples.

167
Following Directions
  • Role play / practice with feedback.
  • Students role play scenarios elicited from the
    group.
  • Students and teachers observing can provide
    specific feedback.
  • Review and test
  • Identify one time in which you did not follow
    directions.
  • Identify one time in which you did follow
    directions.

168
Critical Components of Behavior Instruction
  • Teach the skill.
  • _______________ the skill.
  • Provide multiple opportunities for practice with
    feedback.
  • Reinforce and encourage when students demonstrate
    the skill.

169
Key Points
  • Its not what they know, its what they do.
  • Behavior can be taught.
  • Students need multiple opportunities to practice
    behavioral skill deficits.
  • Teachers need to reinforce students when they
    demonstrate targeted skills.

170
Published Curriculum
  • http//www.ssd.k12.mo.us/Staff/instructional_tools
    /index.html
  • Electronic curriculum
  • 84 social skills lessons
  • Lesson design
  • Age appropriate activities
  • Role play rating sheets
  • Age appropriate homework sheets
  • Assessment surveys
  • Progress reports

Free!!!
171
Team Time
Workbook Pages 22-24
  • Using your behavior matrix as a guide, make a
    list of lesson plans your teachers need to teach
    class-wide/schoolwide social skills, and targeted
    groups that might be required
  • Start writing lesson plans if time allows
  • Discuss how teachers will show evidence of social
    skill lessons. Consider possible reinforcers for
    those who do.

172
Mentoring
173
Mentoring
  • Occurs when an experienced adult develops a
    personal relationship with a student through
    which the older adult or mentor encourages and
    guides the student.

174
Mentoring
  • Part of a systems approach to providing
    critical intervention for students who
  • Lack a role model
  • Experience academic failure
  • Maintain behavior with adult attention

175
Mentors
  • Official/non-official adult friend/confidant
  • Persistent presence around the school
  • Universally recognized
  • Approachable
  • Cheap/cost effective

176
Mentors Role
  • To provide guidance, support, and encouragement
    for the student while modeling such skills as
    effective communication, empathy and concern for
    others, and openness and honesty
  • _______________ for entire academic year
  • Requires a shift in student-adult relationship

177
Implementation/Program Development Mentoring
  • Essential components of mentoring programs
  • Involve personnel who have contact with students
  • Select program staff
  • Determine program goals and objectives
  • Define target population
  • Develop activities and procedures

178
Essential Components of Mentoring Programs
Continued
  • Orient mentors and students
  • Monitor mentoring process
  • Ensure a good match
  • Evaluate program effectiveness

179
Involve Personnel Who Have Contact With Students
  • Teachers
  • suggest program type best fit
  • Administrators
  • actively involved in scheduling, recruiting, and
    mentor selection
  • Counselors
  • train mentors, troubleshoot problems, etc.
  • Secretaries
  • Cooks
  • Custodians

180
Personnel
  • Community Volunteers
  • Local businesses
  • Grandparents
  • Retired individuals
  • Universities
  • High schools
  • Local service agencies
  • Advisory board consisting of school personnel,
    students, and parents

181
Determine Program Goals and Objectives
  • Based on needs of students
  • Determined by advisory board
  • Focus on basic needs of students
  • Academic
  • Achievement
  • Behavior
  • Communication
  • Attendance
  • Social skills

182
Define Target Population
  • Clearly define population and ____________________
    ________
  • Academic failure, absentees, etc.
  • Age/grade level

183
Develop Activities and Procedures
  • Determine length and ____________ of
    mentor-student contact
  • Daily
  • Weekly
  • Monthly
  • Activities should be planned in advance and
    placed on a schedule to be shared with
    participants

184
Example Mentor and Student Calendar of Scheduled
Activities for the Year
Workbook Page 25
185
Orient Mentors and Students
  • Before formal process begins
  • Both mentor and student should understand roles
    and hold positive expectations
  • Mentors must be aware of student needs and
    characteristics
  • Determine individual student goals and outcomes

186
Monitor Mentoring Process
  • Continuous monitoring to determine success
  • Provide ongoing ___________ for the mentor
  • Formal/informal
  • Where
  • When
  • How often

187
Ensure Good Match
  • Predictors of a good match
  • Personality
  • Common interests
  • Natural bonds
  • Gender
  • Most important
  • Mentors ability to empathize

188
Successful Mentoring Example
  • Elementary school
  • High percentage of low SES minority students
  • 3rd year of implementing systems of positive
    behavior support
  • Program Goals
  • Reduce office referrals by 25
  • On-going monitoring/evaluation of program (twice
    a year)

189
Mentoring Program Structure
  • Data-based student selection
  • Designed to meet the needs of repeat offenders
    who
  • Exhibited attention maintained behavior
  • Lacked role models
  • Experience academic failure
  • Obtained ______________ permission

190
Mentoring Program Implementation Steps
  • Provided 30 minute staff in-service
  • Emphasized staff commitment and role
  • Primarily a time commitment
  • Time to talk about students interests, problems,
    background, etc.
  • Not responsible for homework
  • Shared district confidentiality policies
  • Obtained staff agreement on time commitment -
    Staff volunteered and selected a student
  • Reminded staff of the purpose of time with
    students

191
More Implementation Steps
  • Had orientation meeting with students
  • Scheduled mentor-student meeting times
  • Recess
  • Lunch
  • Before or after school
  • During special classes (art, PE, music)
  • During silent reading
  • Provided ongoing support to staff
  • Reported outcomes to staff

192
(No Transcript)
193
Mentoring Program Outcomes
  • Reduction in Office Referrals
  • 20 school-wide
  • 58 moderately at-risk students
  • Change in tone of teacher conversation
  • Positive shift in parent views
  • Positive administrative feedback

194
Check-In
195
Check-In
  • is another systems strategy that can be used in
    conjunction with other strategies or as a
    component of the larger system.

196
A Check-In Example
  • Fern Ridge Middle School
  • High Five Program The BEP

Workbook Pages 26-31
197
Goals of Fern Ridge BEP
  • To assist students with behavioral and academic
    concerns
  • To provide structure and positive support for
    students to ensure their success within the
    school setting
  • To build positive, caring, and meaningful
    relationships between students and adults

198
Check-In
  • Provides an adult for the student to make contact
    with on a regular basis
  • Beginning of the day
  • End of the day
  • Effective for students who ___________ adult
    attention

199
BEP Program Structure
  • Check-in Coordinator
  • Facilitator of check in and check out, weekly
    meetings, and summarizing data
  • Staff Expectations
  • Accept Daily Progress Report Card from students
  • Complete after each class
  • Provide students with constructive positive
    feedback
  • Attend weekly meetings as necessary

200
BEP Program Structure
  • Parent Expectations
  • Attend planning and review meetings
  • Sign Contract Agreement and Report Form
  • Review progress with child
  • ________________ with school

201
BEP Program Structure
  • Student Expectations
  • Attend training
  • Check-in before and after school
  • Get Daily Progress Report form signed by each
    teacher
  • Take Report form home, review with parents

202
BEP Cycle
Weekly BEP Meeting
BEP Plan
9-Week Graph
EXIT
Adapted from Crone, Horner, Hawken, Responding
to Problem Behavior in Schools The Behavior
Education Program (2004)
203
Team Time
  • Discuss which secondary strategies you think
    would be most helpful at your school.
  • Think about necessary steps to implement each
    strategy at your school.

Workbook Page 32
204
Supporting Staff Behavior
SYSTEMS
Positive Behavior Support
205
Data
  • Small Group Outcome Data
  • _________ decision rules
  • Data Collection Tool DBR
  • Evaluation of Secondary level of PBS

See Data Manual pages 33-35
206
Small Group Outcome Data
207
Small Group Outcome Data
  • Identification of which students are in need of
    the most support
  • Assess problem behavior at the individual and
    small group level pre- and post-intervention

208
Small Group Outcome Data
  • How will collecting this data impact
  • School Administrators
  • Document the educational and behavioral progress
    of at-risk students
  • identify which interventions are most effective
    in working with at-risk students
  • PBS Teams
  • determine the effectiveness of functional based
    behavioral supports and address problem areas
    through a team-based approach.

209
Small Group Outcome Data
  • How will collecting this data impact
  • ___________________
  • Provides clear way to focus time and energy on
    interventions that are shown to be effective
  • Gives clear way to communicate progress to other
    staff and parents
  • Students, parents, and communities
  • Improves quality of interventions for children
  • Gives common way for teachers and parents to
    communicate about progress

210
Triangle of Student Referrals
211
Data Decision Rules
212
Data Decision Rules
  • Can be used by teams to determine set points
    where students will be referred for additional
    support
  • Can be used to determine ________________ of
    implementation

213
Data Decision Rule Examples
  • Any student that is absent more than 3 days in
    one month (or one 4 week period) will be referred
    for intervention
  • Any student who receives 2 or more ODRs within a
    9-week period will be referred for intervention
  • Any student who fails one or more classes will be
    invited to join a small group related to
    classroom success

214
Data Decision Rule Examples
Workbook Page 33
215
Data Collection Tool DBR
216
Defining Characteristics of the DBR
(_________________________________)
  • The DBR involves a brief rating of target
    behavior over a specified period of time
  • a behavior(s) is specified
  • rating of the behavior(s) typically occurs at
    least daily
  • obtained information is shared across individuals
    (e.g., parents, teachers, students)
  • the card is used to monitor the effects of an
    intervention and/or as a component of an
    intervention
  • (Chafouleas, Riley-Tillman McDougal, 2002)

217
Many Potential Uses for the DBR
  • Increase communication (teacher-student,
    home-school)
  • As a component of an intervention package,
    particularly in self-management
  • Provide quick assessment of behaviors,
    especially those not easily captured by other
    means
  • Monitor student behavior over time
  • Flexible
  • K-12,
  • or
  • 1 student or larger group
  • ________________ of behaviors

218
ExampleStandard DBR
Workbook Page 34
219
Who are those kids?
  • Create an excel spreadsheet to track
    interventions such as check-in/check-out,
    mentoring, or social skills group outcomes.

220
Create a chart to show the number of referrals
students received prior to intervention.
221
Create a chart to show the number of referrals
students received pre- and post- intervention.
222
Evaluationof Targeted Interventions
223
Evaluate Program Effectiveness
  • Pre-test/post-test comparison of criterion for
    entrance into program (attendance, grades,
    suspensions, etc.)

224
Evaluate Program Effectiveness
  • Possible outcomes Increase in
  • Student ________________
  • Work completion/grades
  • Academic performance
  • Completion of homework
  • Parental/teacher involvement
  • Positive student-teacher interactions

225
Evaluate Program Effectiveness
  • Decrease in
  • Meetings with counselor
  • Office referrals
  • Time outs
  • Suspension
  • Detention

226
Practical Suggestions
  • Keep in mind the importance of communication,
    especially _______________
  • Remember your purpose
  • Get parents/community involved
  • Continue ongoing assessment of program
    effectiveness

227
Additional Support
  • www.ncpublicschools.org/positivebehavior/
  • Regional Coordinator contact information
  • Resources (also Workbook page 36)
  • Links
  • Data Manual Collection Tools
  • Implementation Survey Tools

228
Team Time Synthesis
Workbook Page 35
  • What will your team do now to address current
    needs (refer to action plan, current data, and
    inventory)?
  • Create a data decision rule How will your team
    know when you are ready to move toward
    implementation of more Secondary Interventions ?
  • How will you keep your foundation stable?
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