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Behavior Management

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Title: Behavior Management


1
Behavior Management
  • Dr. Peterson

2
Discipline Problems
  • What are the contributing factors that cause
    discipline problems?
  • Physiological environment
  • Physical environment
  • Psychosocial environment

Burden, P. R., Byrd, D. M. (1994). Methods
for effective teaching. Boston, MA Allyn Bacon
3
Physiological Factors
  • Health factors
  • Allergy
  • Lack of sleep
  • Illness
  • Inadequate diet
  • Physical impairments
  • Vision/hearing loss
  • Paralysis
  • Severe physiological disorder
  • Mental Disorders
  • Oppositional Defiant Disorder
  • Bi-Polar Disorder
  • Medications or drug use

Burden, P. R., Byrd, D. M. (1994). Methods
for effective teaching. Boston, MA Allyn Bacon
4
Physical Environment
  • Resources or conditions in the home and community
  • Lack of adequate clothing
  • Parental supervision and types of discipline
  • Home routines
  • Significant events such as divorce or death
  • School Factors
  • Curriculum
  • Effectiveness of teachers, administrators, or
    staff
  • School routines
  • Adequacy of facilities
  • Temporary buildings or trailers outside of school
  • Classroom arrangement
  • Seating arrangements
  • Temperature of room
  • Noise levels
  • Lighting

Burden, P. R., Byrd, D. M. (1994). Methods
for effective teaching. Boston, MA Allyn Bacon
5
Psychosocial Environment
  • Interpersonal Factors
  • Values
  • Motivation
  • Preferences/Interests
  • Expectations
  • Influences the way teachers, students, and
    parents interact with one another or others.
  • Quantity and quality of interpersonal
    interactions of parents, teacher, and peers often
    affect the behavior of a student.
  • Whose opinions are most valued by the student?
  • Conditioning history
  • Emotional
  • Learning Impairments
  • Hinders students ability to reason or interact
    with others in an appropriate manner
  • Could be result of
  • Developmental delay
  • Communication disorders
  • Mental Retardation
  • Learning disabilities
  • Behavior of the teachers often dictate the
    behavior of students.

Burden, P. R., Byrd, D. M. (1994). Methods
for effective teaching. Boston, MA Allyn Bacon
6
Types of Misbehavior
  • Hyperactivity
  • Unable to sit still and fidgets
  • Talks too much
  • Cannot wait for pleasant things to happen
  • Constant demand for attention
  • Hums and makes other noises
  • Excitable
  • Overly anxious to please
  • Awkward and poor general coordination

Burden, P. R., Byrd, D. M. (1994). Methods
for effective teaching. Boston, MA Allyn Bacon
7
Types of Misbehavior
  • Inattentiveness
  • Doesnt stay with games and activities
  • Doesnt complete projects
  • Inattentive and distractible
  • Doesnt follow directions
  • Withdraws from new people is shy
  • Sits fiddling with small objects
  • Unable to sit still and fidgets

Burden, P. R., Byrd, D. M. (1994). Methods
for effective teaching. Boston, MA Allyn Bacon
8
Types of Misbehavior
  • Conduct Disorder
  • Doesnt stay with games and activities
  • Cannot accept correction
  • Teases others
  • Discipline doesnt change behavior for long
  • Defiant and talks back
  • Moody
  • Fights
  • Difficulty in handling frustration

Burden, P. R., Byrd, D. M. (1994). Methods
for effective teaching. Boston, MA Allyn Bacon
9
Types of Misbehavior
  • Impulsivity
  • Reckless and acts carelessly
  • Has lots of accidents
  • Gets into things

Burden, P. R., Byrd, D. M. (1994). Methods
for effective teaching. Boston, MA Allyn Bacon
10
Behavior
Burden, P. R., Byrd, D. M. (1994). Methods
for effective teaching. Boston, MA Allyn Bacon
11
Rudolf Dreikurs
  • Help Misbehaving students behave appropriately
  • Identify the goal of the misbehavior
  • Attention
  • Power
  • Revenge
  • Self-confidence
  • Alter reactions to misbehavior
  • Proactive response rather than reactive response
  • Dont give immediate attention to those who seek
    it.
  • Try to ignore the behavior whenever possible.
  • Have a discussion with the student to determine
    alternatives for changes in behavior.

Burden, P. R., Byrd, D. M. (1994). Methods
for effective teaching. Boston, MA Allyn Bacon
12
Rudolf Dreikurs
  • Provide encouragement
  • Dont confuse with praise.
  • Praise is an expression of approval by the
    teacher after a student has attained something.
  • Encouragement can be offered following failure.
  • Encouragement
  • Focus on the deed not the doer
  • Focus on effort rather than the outcome
  • Focus on what is being learned more than on what
    is not being learned
  • Focus on intrinsic motivation for the student
    instead of extrinsic.

Burden, P. R., Byrd, D. M. (1994). Methods
for effective teaching. Boston, MA Allyn Bacon
13
Rudolf Dreikurs
  • Use natural and logical consequences
  • Natural consequences
  • Instead of punishment, students experience the
    natural consequences that flow from misbehavior.
  • Example If a student is mean to another student,
    he or she is likely to have few friends.
  • Logical consequences
  • Event arranged by the teacher that is directly
    and logically related to the misbehavior
  • Example If a student leaves paper on the
    classroom floor, the student must pick the paper
    up off the floor.
  • Example If a student breaks the rule of speaking
    without raising his/her hand, the teacher ignores
    the response and calls on a student whose hand is
    up.

Burden, P. R., Byrd, D. M. (1994). Methods
for effective teaching. Boston, MA Allyn Bacon
14
Burden, P. R., Byrd, D. M. (1994). Methods
for effective teaching. Boston, MA Allyn Bacon
15
Behavior Modification Theories
  • The Kounin Model
  • Withitness, Alerting, and Group Management.
  • The ripple effect when you correct one pupil's
    behavior, it tends to change the behavior of
    others.
  • The teacher needs to be with it to know what is
    going on everywhere in the room at all times.
  • Smooth transitions between activities and
    maintaining momentum are key to effective group
    management.
  • Optimal learning takes place when teachers keep
    pupils alert and held accountable for learning.
  • Boredom satiation can be avoided by providing
    variety to lessons, the classroom environment and
    by pupil awareness of progress.

http//www.humboldt.edu/tha1/discip-options.html
16
Behavior Modification Theories
  • The Neo-Skinnerian Model (Skinner)
  • Shaping Desired Behavior. B.F. Skinner is the
    father of the behavioral school of psychology. A
    popular outgrowth of Skinnerian behaviorism is
    Behavior Modification.
  • Behavior is conditioned by its consequences.
    Behavior is strengthened if followed immediately
    by reinforcement. Behavior is weakened if it is
    not reinforced. "Extinction." Behavior is also
    weakened if it is followed by punishment.
  • In the beginning stages of learning,
    reinforcement provided every time the behavior
    occurs produces the best results.
  • Behavior can be maintained by irregular
    reinforcement. Reinforcers include verbal
    approval, smiles, "thumbs up," high grades, free
    reading time, goodies, prizes and awards.

http//www.humboldt.edu/tha1/discip-options.html
17
Behavior Modification Theories
  • The Ginott Model
  • Addressing the Situation with Sane Messages.
  • Discipline is little-by-little, step-by-step. The
    teacher's self-discipline is key. Model the
    behavior you want in students.
  • Use sane messages when correcting misbehavior.
    Address what the student is doing, don't attack
    the student's character personal traits.
    Labeling disables.
  • Use communication that is congruent with
    student's own feelings about the situation and
    themselves.
  • Invite cooperation rather than demanding it.
  • Teachers should express their feelings--anger--but
    in sane ways. "What you are doing makes me very
    angry. I need you to ...."
  • Sarcasm is hazardous.
  • Praise can be dangerous praise the act, not the
    student and in a situation that will not turn
    peers against the pupil.
  • Apologies are meaningless unless it is clear that
    the person intends to improve.
  • Teachers are at their best when they help pupils
    develop their self-esteem and to trust their own
    experience.

http//www.humboldt.edu/tha1/discip-options.html
18
Behavior Modification Theories
  • The Glasser Model
  • Good Behavior Comes from Good Choices. Glasser's
    recent work focuses on the class meeting as a
    means of developing class-wide discipline.
  • Students are rational beings capable of
    controlling their own behavior.
  • Help pupils learn to make good choices, since
    good choices produce good behavior.
  • Do not accept excuses for bad behavior. Ask,
    "What choices did you have? Why did you make that
    choice? Did you like the result? What have you
    learned?"
  • Reasonable consequences should always follow good
    or bad student behavior.
  • Usually developed in classroom meetings, class
    rules are essential to a good learning climate,
    they must be enforced.
  • Classroom meetings are a good way to develop and
    maintain class behavior. The group diagnoses the
    problem and seeks solutions.

http//www.humboldt.edu/tha1/discip-options.html
19
Behavior Modification Theories
  • The Dreikurs Model
  • Confronting Mistaken Goals.
  • Discipline is not punishment. It means
    self-control.
  • The teacher's role is helping pupils to impose
    limits on themselves.
  • Teachers can model democratic behavior by
    providing guidance and leadership and involving
    pupils in setting rules and consequences.
  • All students want to belong. Their behavior is
    directed to belonging.
  • Misbehavior is the result of their mistaken
    belief that it will gain them peer recognition.
    It is usually a mistake to assume that
    misbehavior is an attack directed at the
    teacher.
  • Misbehavior is directed at mistaken goals
    attention-getting, power-seeking, revenge, and
    displaying inadequacy. The trick is to identify
    the goal and act in ways that do not reinforce
    mistaken goals.
  • Teachers should encourage students' efforts, but
    avoid praising their work or character. Others
    disagree.
  • Support the idea that negative consequences
    follow inappropriate behavior by your actions.

http//www.humboldt.edu/tha1/discip-options.html
20
Behavior Management Theories
  • Canter Model
  • Assertive Discipline
  • Establish rules
  • Positive and Negative Reinforcers or consequences
  • Name on board warning
  • One check after name demerit or penalty of some
    sort
  • Two checks after name another penalty
  • Three checks after name additional penalty
  • Four checks after name call home or report to
    principal
  • Limit-setting acts
  • Non-verbal
  • Eye-contact
  • Proximity to student
  • Calming gestures
  • Point to students book/page
  • Flash lights on/off
  • Model Expected Behavior
  • Verbal
  • Call students name
  • I need you to
  • Compliment someone who is on task.
  • Peer counseling

http//www.humboldt.edu/tha1/discip-options.html
21
Disadvantages of Punishment
  • Punishment has a transitory effect in suppressing
    inappropriate behavior and is not an effective
    method for changing student behavior.
  • Punishment does not teach the student appropriate
    behavior that can be used to prevent future
    behavior problems.
  • Punishment can produce avoidance behaviors.
  • Punishment may lead to inhibition of socially
    desirable behaviors and the development of
    personal rigidity.
  • The teacher becomes an undesirable model when
    using punishment.
  • Punishment appears to inhibit learning.
  • Teachers that used punitive punishments students
    that valued learning less, were more aggressive,
    and were more confused about behavior
  • Punishment allows the student to project blame
    rather than to accept responsibility
  • Assigning additional homework or academic
    projects and lowering a students grade as
    punishment may create a negative attitude towards
    these activities.
  • The effects of punishment are usually specific to
    a particular context and behavior.
  • If the punishment for being out of your seat is
    extra homework, it is likely not to prevent the
    behavior.

Burden, P. R., Byrd, D. M. (1994). Methods
for effective teaching. Boston, MA Allyn Bacon
22
Guidelines for the Use of Punishment
  • Explain and discuss acceptable behaviors.
  • Clearly specify the behaviors that will lead to
    punishment.
  • Deliver a warning before punishment is applied to
    any behavior.
  • Apply punishment fairly with everyone who
    exhibits the targeted behavior.
  • Apply punishment consistently after every
    occurrence of the targeted misbehavior.
  • Apply the punishment immediately when the
    undesired behavior is expressed.
  • Use punishment of sufficient intensity to
    suppress the unwanted behaviors.
  • Select a punishment that is effective and that is
    not associated with a positive or rewarding
    experience.
  • Select the type of punishment to fit the
    situation. Different situations call for
    different actions.
  • Combine punishment with negative reinforcement
    whenever possible.
  • Combine the punishment with positive statements
    of expectations and rules.
  • Select a type of punishment that does not violate
    school and district policies, nor state statutes.
  • Prevent the opportunity for escape from the
    punishment.
  • Avoid extended periods of punishment.
  • Use punishment only when rewards or non-punitive
    interventions have not worked or if the behavior
    must be decreased quickly because it was
    dangerous.
  • Administer punishment in a calm, unemotional
    manner.
  • Reward correct behavior.

Burden, P. R., Byrd, D. M. (1994). Methods
for effective teaching. Boston, MA Allyn Bacon
23
Practices to Avoid
  • Harsh reprimands
  • Threats
  • Physical punishment
  • Group punishment
  • Assigning extra academic work
  • Reducing grades
  • Suspension
  • Nagging
  • Forced apologies
  • Sarcastic remarks

Burden, P. R., Byrd, D. M. (1994). Methods
for effective teaching. Boston, MA Allyn Bacon
24
Developing a Plan to Deal with Misbehavior
  • Establish your system of rules and procedures.
  • Provide a supportive environment during class
    sessions.
  • Provide situational assistance during class
    sessions.
  • Remove desired stimuli
  • Time out, preferential seating, etc.
  • Add aversive stimuli
  • Reprimands, overcorrection, and physical
    consequences
  • Involve others when necessary

Burden, P. R., Byrd, D. M. (1994). Methods
for effective teaching. Boston, MA Allyn Bacon
25
Preventative Management
  • Rule 1 Assess, clarify, and communicate needs
    and expectations.
  • Rule 2 Create a warm and nurturing classroom
    climate.
  • Rule 3 Democratically develop a set of rules
    and consequences.
  • Rule 4 Develop a daily routine, yet remain
    flexible.
  • Rule 5 Make learning more attractive and fun
    for the student.
  • Rule 6 Deal with misbehavior, quickly,
    consistently, and respectfully.
  • Rule 7 When all else fails, the student will
    respectfully be removed from the class.

http//students.ed.uiuc.edu/freymuth/490i/classroo
mdiscipline.htmassess
26
Resources
  • Burden, P. R., Byrd, D. M. (1994). Methods
    for effective teaching. Boston, MA Allyn
    Bacon
  • Discipline Options
  • http//www.humboldt.edu/tha1/discip-options.html
  • Classroom Discipline Plan
  • http//students.ed.uiuc.edu/freymuth/490i/classroo
    mdiscipline.htmassess
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