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Software Project Management Intro to Project Management


Risk, business value, duration, cost, etc. can be used to ... Risk Management Guide. Plan a mitigation strategy to reduce the risk's impact on your project ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Software Project Management Intro to Project Management

Software Project ManagementIntro to Project
  • INFO 638
  • Glenn Booker

  • Course covers essential project management
  • Traditional Project Management
  • Adaptive Project Framework
  • Text complies with PMIs Project Management Body
    of Knowledge (PMBOK)
  • We add software-specific concepts

  • Class focuses on application of project
    definition and management principles to a project
    of your choosing
  • Text is Wysockis Effective Project Management, 3e

My Background
  • Systems Engineering approach
  • Mostly work with long-lived systems
  • Industry experience includes thirteen years of
    Dept. of Defense (DoD) work, and five for the FAA
    mostly in large scale system design,
    development, and testing

  • See web sitehttp//
  • In particular, note the SEI, SPMN and STSC
    resources on the Reference Materials page
  • The SEI document index is particularly
    recommended, and the SPMN identifies a lot of
    classic mistakes to avoid.

Defining a Project
  • A project is a series of complex, connected
    activities with a common purpose
  • Our most common context is a project to develop
    or refine an information system, but most
    principles of project management apply to any

Activities Sets of Tasks
  • A key difference in project management is to
    start thinking of a project as a series of
    interrelated tasks which need to be accomplished
  • Most other courses focus on how to perform a
    single complex task, such as developing an ERD,
    or designing a good interface here we focus on
    defining the tasks needed to complete the project

Project Limitations
  • Projects also have limits on the amount of time
    and money available to them
  • There may be changes to these limits negotiated,
    but there are always limits
  • Projects need some form of specification to
    describe what needs to be accomplished
  • Here, they are system requirements

Program versus Project
  • Often program and project are used
    interchangeably, but nominally, a program is a
    larger concept than a project
  • A program is a set of related projects
  • The Space Shuttle program consists of many
    flights which are each separately managed
  • Here we focus mainly on projects

Project Limits
  • Projects are limited in scope, as defined by one
    of these
  • A functional specification
  • A Software Requirements Specification
  • Use cases and their documentation
  • A Statement of Work (SOW)
  • A Mission Needs Statement (MNS) (government term)

Project Limits
  • Projects are limited by their product quality and
    process quality requirements
  • Cost mostly the labor cost, but also hardware,
    software, training, etc.
  • Calendar time
  • And other resources people, facilities,
    equipment, etc.

The Triangle
  • Projects generally get stuck facing a triangle
  • Cost
  • Time (schedule)
  • Features and/or quality
  • At most, two of these points can be controlled
  • Which one can you tolerate flexibility?

Project Classification
  • Projects are often classified by their
    approximate size and complexity
  • Risk, business value, duration, cost, etc. can be
    used to determine categories
  • The categories are often used to determine the
    extent of documentation needed (e.g. page 14),
    and may affect approval processes (bigger
    projects need higher level approval)

Traditional Project Management
  • Traditional Project Management (TPM) refers to
    commonly accepted management practices
  • In software development, it implies that some
    variation of the waterfall life cycle model is
  • DOD-STD-2167a (1988) is the classic description
    of the waterfall life cycle others will be
    discussed with the WBS

Traditional Project Management
  • Also note that TPM is typically regarded as the
    most time consuming way to run a project
  • In software, extreme programming (XP) and other
    agile methods have been developed to speed
    development for small, low risk projects

TPM Life Cycle
  • Wysocki has five major phases in the TPM life
  • Scope the project
  • Develop the project plan
  • Launch the plan
  • Monitor/control project progress
  • Close out the project

Scope the project
  • This phase includes
  • Define problems (with existing information
    system) and opportunities (for new features
    and/or use of new technologies)
  • Define project objectives in terms of business
    value quantify improvements compared to current
  • Identify project success criteria, risks, and

Develop the project plan
  • Identify the project activities
  • May divide activities into support activities
    (which are done throughout project) and specific
    life cycle phases (per the life cycle model
  • Estimate duration and resources for each
  • Create project schedule or network
  • Put all this into a project proposal

Launch the plan
  • Select and recruit project team members
  • Level resources needed across the plan
  • Schedule and document work packages
  • A work package is the detailed set of tasks
    needed to perform a given activity

Monitor/control project progress
  • Determine how project progress will be measured
  • Establish change control tools and processes,
    including an escalation process
  • Monitor actual progress vs. the plan
  • Go back to Develop the project plan if major
    changes are needed

Close out the project
  • When the project is completed
  • Get customer approval of final product
  • Install final product
  • Deliver promised documentation
  • Make sure everythings happy
  • Write up final project report

Support Activities
  • Ongoing activities throughout a project typically
  • Project management (or you dont have a job!)
  • Quality management
  • Risk management
  • Procurement management

Project Management
  • Project management should include all five phases
    of the TPM life cycle
  • Many organizations omit one or more of the
    phases, most often the last ones, producing
    less-than-optimal results

Quality Management
  • There are zillions of books on various aspects of
    quality management
  • Most focus on two major aspects
  • Quality of the product you are creating
  • Quality or maturity of the processes you use to
    create that product
  • Mature processes produce more consistent and
    predictable results

Quality Management
  • There are many guides to quality Six Sigma,
    CMMI, TQM, ISO 9000, Malcolm Baldridge, etc.
  • Organizations with mature processes often use
    statistical process control methods to track
    quality and quantify improvements

Risk Management
  • Deliberate management of risks is critical to
    good project management
  • American culture would rather shoot the messenger
    than deal with risks openly this has to change
  • Risks include any event, which hasnt happened
    yet, which could delay the successful completion
    of a project

Risk Management Guide
  • Need to create a list of possible risks
  • Describe each risk briefly
  • Estimate the probability of the risk happening
  • Should be between 0 and 100
  • Estimate the loss if the risk occurs
  • How much effort will it take to recover from the

Risk Management Guide
  • Multiply probability times loss to get the impact
    of each risk
  • Impact probability loss
  • Sort risks in descending order of impact keep
    the top 10 (typically)
  • This is prioritizing the risks
  • For each significant risk, assign a risk owner to
    look for the risk occurring

Risk Management Guide
  • Quantify what has to occur for the risk to have
    happened (detection)
  • If we are more than 10 over budget, the risk
    for Exceed Budget has occurred
  • Must quantify each risk, or theyll never occur
  • Determine how to prevent the risk, if possible,
    or look for alternative approaches to make the
    risk go away

Risk Management Guide
  • Plan a mitigation strategy to reduce the risks
    impact on your project
  • Once the project starts, keep reviewing the risks
    (e.g. weekly) to see if any risks have occurred,
    or if new risks have been identified

Risk Management Security
  • Risk management looks like security analysis,
    such as for an airline
  • Prevent a risk from happening (e.g. a hijacker
    getting onboard)
  • Detect when the risk has occurred (they make
    their presence known)
  • Mitigate the damage they can do (get the plane on
    the ground safely)

Procurement Management
  • All information systems involve some commercial
    hardware, software, and networking equipment
  • Selection and procurement of these components is
    a key activity
  • Start with the buy-versus-make decision
  • For each system component, will you make it
    yourself, or buy something off-the-shelf?

Procurement Management
  • Procurement has its own life cycle, which runs
    parallel to part or all of the project life cycle
  • Solicit RFI (optional and not in text)
  • Solicit RFPs
  • Get responses
  • Select Vendors
  • Manage contracts
  • Close out contracts

Solicit RFI
  • If you want to create a shorter list of candidate
    vendors, a Request For Information (RFI) can be
  • The RFI is a tool to screen out poorly qualified
    candidate vendors
  • An RFI mainly seeks proof that they understand
    the type of requirements to be addressed, and
    have suitable relevant experience

Solicit RFPs
  • A Request For Proposal (RFP) is used to get
    proposals from candidate vendors
  • posts RFPs for government work
    over 25,000
  • The RFP states your requirements each candidate
    vendor decides how to meet your needs

Get responses
  • Candidate vendors may ask questions to clarify
    the RFP answers are made available to all
  • Vendors prepare a proposal to respond to the RFP
  • RFPs often have very strict time deadlines (30-90
    days) and specific page and format limits

Select Vendors
  • A proposal often has different volumes, e.g.
    Business, Technical, Cost, etc. which are
    reviewed by different experts
  • Each volume is scored or rated according to
    guidance (grading criteria) stated in the RFP
  • The proposal with the highest score generally wins

Manage contracts
  • Once the vendor is selected, contract personnel
    write the details of the contract
  • The contract specifies what will be delivered,
    when, where, and often in what format
  • A Statement of Work details the require-ments to
    be fulfilled by the vendor
  • The schedule for payments to the vendor is also

Close out contracts
  • When the final deliverable products and/or
    services are provided by the vendor, the contract
    is closed out
  • The contract generally specifies what happens to
    equipment, informal documentation, and other work
    products resulting from the contract
  • Final payment is made to the vendor