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Exploration Systems Projects

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Title: Exploration Systems Projects


1
UPC - Orion Constellations Access to Space
for Science and Technology Missions
Exploration Systems Projects
  • Bruce Milam and Steve DePalo
  • NASA Goddard Space Flight Center/Code 455
  • Bruce.Milam_at_nasa.gov 301.286.0429

2
Objectives of Briefing
Overview of the concept of Unpressurized Cargo (UPC) History, Review the legacy of Apollo and Shuttle support for science payloads of opportunity Constellation Program (CxP) Infrastructure UPC Technical Strategy UPC-Orion Mission Concepts
3
GSFCs Exploration Systems Projects, Code 455, is
establishing the Exploration payload framework
which provides opportunities for science payloads
to utilize the agencys next-generation
architecture
  • The programmatic framework will include
  • A single programmatic interface for payload
    providers
  • Mission manifesting dictated by Constellation
    Program requirements and priorities
  • Standardized, plug and play hardware interfaces
  • Cradle to grave in-house engineering support
    services for payload providers (e.g. integration,
    test, and launch support)
  • Mission operations and data handling services

As NASAs vision shifts to the Moon and Mars,
Exploration UPC Payloads will evolve its process
to continue providing access for the science
payload community.
4
The Apollo Scientific Instrument Module (SIM) Bay
flew on three lunar missions enabling detailed
mapping, science investigation, and sub-satellite
deployment capabilities
Apollo History
Missions SIM Bay Configurations

  • Particles and Fields Sub-satellite
  • Gamma Ray Spectrometer
  • Mass Spectrometer
  • Alpha and X-ray Spectrometer
  • Mapping Camera
  • Panoramic Camera
  • Laser Altimeter
  • Lunar Sounder Experiment
  • UV Spectrometer
  • IR Scanning Radiometer
  • Mapping Camera
  • Panoramic Camera
  • Laser Altimeter

Apollo XVII SIM Bay
5
Apollo 15 and 16 Sub satellites
Apollo History
  • 36.3 kg, 24 watts
  • 78 cm X 36 cm
  • 3 instruments
  • Plasma Particles and Magnetic Fields

6
Next, the Shuttle Small Payloads Project (SSPP)
developed a process and set of core engineering
services for secondarypayload to obtain access
to low Earth orbit via the Shuttle
Space Shuttle History
SSPP consisted of a modular, extensible carrier
system that supported a wide range of payload
sizes and complexities, ranging from 50 to more
than 5000 lbs.
  • SSPP had three mission configurations
  • Hitchhiker payloads requiring power, data and
    command services
  • Get Away Special self contained payloads
    requiring limited mechanical and electrical
    interfaces
  • Space Experiment Module self contained
    payloads requiring no Orbiter resources

Nearly 300 secondary payloads flew into space via
the Shuttle Small Payloads Project (SSPP)over
its 20 years of operation.
7
UPC Study Purpose/Goals/Objectives
  • The purpose of the study was to determine the
    feasibility of utilizing Orions SM-UPC
    capability for the ISS Design Reference Mission
    for scientific and technology type payloads.
  • The goals of the study were to explore UPC
    capability to place substantial science or
    technology payloads of 100kg into various Earth
    orbits, and 50kg into a lunar orbit.
  • The objectives were
  • To identify any required interface accommodations
    or smart scaring in terms of functionality and
    associated performance to the SM that would be
    required for UPC payloads.
  • Ascertain the type of orbits and durations
    capable of the design concepts that would be of
    scientific value
  • Define preliminary payload accommodations and
    basic mission configurations.

8
The Constellation Program includes many elements
thatoffer the potential to provide opportunities
for sciencepayload capabilities
Earth Departure Stage - 2018
Crew Exploration Vehicle Orion 2015
Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Ares V 2018
Crew Launch Vehicle Ares I 2014
Lunar Lander Altair - 2018
Dates are approximate and based on current
development schedules
9
Orion 606C February 2008
Crew Module ISS 9,208 kg Lunar 8,608 kg
Launch Abort System 7,260 kg
Spacecraft Adapter 627 kg
Orion Project Office
Service Module ISS 8,402 kg Lunar 12,532 kg
Spacecraft Faring (Jettisoned) 1,012 kg
Translational ?V
10
Service Module UPC Envelope
47.5
52.6
11
The Crew Exploration Vehicle - Orion low Earth
orbit (LEO) missions to ISS will provide the
first opportunity to integrate science payloads
into the Constellation architecture 14 flight
opportunities starting in 2015 Initial orbit 52
degree inclination and 400 km Circular 600 Kg
for all modes
12
Study Methodology
  • Two GSFC Mission Design Lab (MDL) design runs
    of one week each were completed to converge on a
    viable design.
  • Focus on Ejected Sub-Satellite (ESS) Lunar
    orbit
  • A small Optical Laser Communications technology
    pathfinder was chosen as a representative payload
    to achieve a point design.
  • UPC Study Team continued on to define ESS - LEO
    Mission and Attached Payload concepts
  • Attached Payloads include a fixed carrier
    within the Service Module (SM) UPC bay and an
    extractable payload for a ISS attached payload
    site.
  • Extractable case followed the same concept as the
    ISS Control Momentum Gyro (CMG) Orbital
    Replacement Unit (ORU)

13
Key Requirements
  • Initial subset of design requirements for UPC
    were taken directly from CxP 70000 Constellation
    Architecture Requirements Document (CARD) 02.08
    Rev B, for the ISS Design Reference Mission
    (DRM).
  • Derived requirements from the CMG UPC study
    prepared by LMSC.
  • Additional requirements levied by GSFC ESP
    included
  • Class C mission single string with selective
    redundancy (as necessary to meet mission lifetime
    or required to meet flight safety requirements)
  • Three year design development to launch schedule
    with LON date of June 2014
  • Multi-payload accommodations/configuration
    platform
  • Five years science mission operations for LEO
    sub-satellites, four years for lunar, and six
    months for ISS attached missions
  • All components and systems were required to have
    a TRL level of 7 or higher, due to the proposed
    launch date of 2014

14
Summary Of UPC Requirements
15
UPC ESS Deployment Sequence
  • SMEX class payloads
  • Can use custom or common interfaces.
  • Approximately 50 (Lunar) to 200 (LEO) kg
    instrument mass.
  • Orbits include L1, LLO, GEO and LEO.

Note Dimensions in meters
16
UPC Bus Details
Optical Com Terminal
SOLAR ARRAY BOOM
SOLAR ARRAY BOOM
17
Ejected Sub-Satellite (ESS) Summary
  • Fits into SM Envelope for UPC
  • Provides clearance margins to be ejected
    without chance of contact
  • Attached to load-carrying SM bulkhead by
    release mechanism that stays with SM after
    ejection of ESS
  • Ejection planned for ISS like-orbit (circular
    with 51.6 deg inclination and 400 km altitude)
    as soon as possible after launch
  • Designed for 3-5 year mission with Class C
    mission reliability
  • Two-variants
  • Lunar Mission capable with large (2300 W) SA,
    Ion Propulsion System.
  • Payload estimated mass of 50 kg
  • LEO Mission capable with small (650 W) SA, only
    Hydrazine propulsion and payload mass dependent
    on orbit
  • Payload mass range 100-200 kg

18
ESS Design Overview
19
Major ESS Sub-Systems
  • Light-weight aluminum honeycomb structure
  • TCS with Heaters, Radiators and Variable
    Conductance Heat Pipes
  • 3-Axis stabilized ACS with sun-sensors, star
    tracker, gyro, and reaction wheels.
  • Propulsion
  • SEP Hall-Effect Ion Propulsion for Lunar variant
  • Hydrazine propulsion for momentum unloading
  • Integrated avionics for CDH, EPS, and
    Communications
  • 28 V DC, 40ah Lithium Ion Battery
  • Pair of 2-axis gimbaled of Lightweight Ultra-flex
    SA
  • Payload accommodation envelope and power/data
    interfaces

20
ESS Block Diagram
21
Lunar ESS Mass Power Summary
Item Mass (kg) Contin-gency (kg) Total (kg) Power (W) Contin-gency (W) Total (W)
Payload 50 15 65 50 15 65
Mech. 60 18 78 0 0 0
TCS 10 3 13 36 11 47
ACS 17 5 22 49 15 64
Prop (Dry) 48 14 62 1502 451 1953
Power 63 19 82 25 8 33
Comm. 10 3 13 10 3 13
CDH 18 5 23 81 24 105
TOTAL (Dry) 225 68 293 1753 527 2280
Hydrazine 6 6
Xenon 175 175
TOTAL (wet) 456 82 538
Launch Adapter 25 8 33
Launch TOTAL 481 90 571(600 allocated)
22
UPC Separation Support System
Planetary Systems Light-Band
23
Delta II
UPC Cylindrical Volume in Blue
Pegasus
24
Overview - System Capabilities and Achieved
Orbit Types
Chemical Volume Prohibited
25
L1 or Lunar Spacecraft
Parameter Capability Comment
Orbit Lunar Low thrust -Solar Electric Propulsion Required
Time to reach Lunar Orbit 15 mo Includes payload carrier/support hardware and 0.24 m3 Payload Volume
Stowed Volume 2.92 m³ (103 ft³) Includes payload carrier/support hardware and 0.24 m3 Payload Volume
Mass 600kg Includes payload carrier/support hardware, with 50 kg Max payload mass
Power 2.4 kW 100W payload survival heater power required while in Cruise Mode
Data Rate 2.0 Mbps Higher downlink possible with deployable HGA - Ka-band
Pointing Accuracy 70 arcsec 3-axis stabilized
26
A Low-thrust solution for a Lunar Mission
Hall Effect Thruster
27
LEO Spacecraft
Parameter Capability Comment
Orbit LEO Only Chemical Propulsion required
Duration of Flight 0.6 -5 yrs Depends on orbit
Inclination 52º
Stowed Volume 2.92 m³(103 ft³) Includes payload carrier/support hardware and 0.64 m3 Payload Volume
Mass 600 kg Includes payload carrier/support hardware and 100 kg Payload.
Power 650 W
Data Rate 5 Mbps Higher downlink possible w/deployable HGA or enhanced earth shaped omni using S, X, Ku-, or Ka-band
Pointing Accuracy 70 arcsec 3-axis stabilized
28
Low Earth Orbits - Lifetimes
  • Lifetime predictions show the duration until
    the spacecraft reaches an altitude of 100km
  • Lifetime dependent upon Ballistic Property,
    used here as mass to area ratio
  • Example 238 kg/m2 (computed from a 2.4m2 area
    and an initial mass of 570kg)
  • 2 s atmosphere yields 0.6 yrs, mean atmosphere
    yields 1.3 yrs.

2 s atmos
500km Lifetime 9.5 yrs for 2s atmos
400km Lifetime
0.8 Yrs
1.3 Yrs
Mean atmos
600km Lifetime 37 yrs for 2s atmos
238 kg/m2
-2 s atmos
29
Fixed Pallet
Parameter Capability Comment
Orbit LEO, 52 350 km ISS orbit
Duration of Flight 180 days Docked to ISS
Volume 2.92 m³ (103 ft³) Includes payload carrier/support hardware, 1.02 m3 for a single large payload and 0.26 m3 for each shelf with 4 shelves available
Mass Up to 400 kg Up to 400 kg Max payload
Power 300W(peak) Via Orion SM when docked to ISS
Data Rate TBD Mbps Via to Orion SM when docked to ISS
Thermal Passive/Active
Field of View Zenith or Nadir Depends on ISS -Orion dock location
Payload sites 0ne-Four Multiple payloads operated sequentially
All units are in meters
30
CEV at Node 1 Nadir
31
Extractable Payloads
Parameter Capability Comment
Orbit LEO, 52 350 km ISS orbit
Duration of Flight Varies Depends on ISS Attached Payload manifest
Volume 2.92 m³ (103 ft³) Includes payload carrier/support hardware
Mass 600 kg 400 kg max payload mass based on CMG Study
Power 1.25-3.0 kW Varies based upon ISS External Payload Attached Site, expect to be unpowered during transfer to the ISS for up to 4.5 hours
Data Rate 1.55 - 100 Mbps Varies on ISS External Payload Attached Site
Thermal Passive/Active Use available power for payload provided active thermal control
Field of View Zenith or Nadir Varies depending upon ISS External Payload Attached Site
32
UPC Schedule
Note A directed mission would have a shorter
Implementation timeline.
33
In an effort to continue the legacies of two
human spaceflight architectures, Exploration
Systems Projects will continue its role to build
advocacy for science payload services within the
Constellation architecture
  • How you can take advantage of these
    opportunities
  • Consider missions utilizing UPC.
  • Provide mission ideas for inclusion in studies to
    develop missions and refine requirements.
  • Promote UPC Orion as a method for future low cost
    Lunar Missions.

34
Study Team Members
Bruce Milam, Formulation Manager Stephen DePalo, Mission Systems
Bobby Beaman, Power Kim Brown, Thermal
Khary Parker, Propulsion Clara Hollenhorst, CDH
Dave Folta, Flight Dynamics Kequan Luu, Flight Software
Robin Mauk, Systems (Science/Tech) Michael Wright, Integration Test
Ken Dearth, RF Communications Michael Nemesure, (SGT) ACS
Lloyd Purves, Systems (ESS) Adrian Rad, (SRSTE), Systems Safety Reliability
James Wood, Structure/Mechanical Matt Konopa (BAH) Tech Writer
35
The mission of the ESP is to identify,
communicate, and implement Goddards contribution
to NASAs Exploration and Constellation
initiatives by leveraging Goddards expertise in
the development and management of space flight
missions to further the Nations vision for space
exploration.
Bruce Milam Project Manager UPC-Orion Formulation
Project NASA/GSFC (301) 286-0429 Bruce.Milam_at_nasa
.gov
36
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