Combustible DustPreventing and Mitigating FireExplosions Hazards - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Combustible DustPreventing and Mitigating FireExplosions Hazards PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: c6edc-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Combustible DustPreventing and Mitigating FireExplosions Hazards

Description:

Note: This article was obtained from OSHA's website. 27. Environmental, Health and Safety ... If ignition sources are present, use cleaning methods that do not ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:69
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 38
Provided by: michael935
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Combustible DustPreventing and Mitigating FireExplosions Hazards


1
Combustible Dust-Preventing and Mitigating
Fire/Explosions Hazards
  • Mike Lastie, CSP
  • Wednesday 115 215
  • Texas One

2
Combustible DustIncidents
  • Following three major dust explosions in 2003,
    the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation
    Board (CSB) initiated a study of dust explosions
    in general Industry-West Pharmaceutical Services
    (01/03)-CTA Acoustics, Inc. (02/03)-Hayes
    Lemmerz International (10/03)
  • According to the CSB Investigation Report
    Combustible Dust Hazard Study (11/06), there
    were- 281 dust fires and explosions between 1980
    and 2005- They claimed 119 lives and injured 718
    people-They occurred in 44 states, in many
    different industries and involved a variety of
    different materials

3
Combustible DustIncidents
  • 82 new dust explosions has occurred between
    January 2006 and July 2008
  • Two of those 82 new dust explosions involved
    Domino Sugar and Imperial Sugar
  • Based upon oral testimony of John S. Bresland,
    Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the CSB
    before the U.S. Senate Committee
  • on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions
    Subcommittee on Employment and Workplace Safety
    on July 29, 2008.

4
Combustible DustIncidents
  • There was an explosion at the Domino Sugar
    refinery in Baltimore Maryland on November 2,
    2007. - There were no fatalities- 3 employees
    suffered minor injuries- Employees were
    performing maintenance on a dust collector at the
    time of the explosion - Maryland Occupational
    Safety and Health Administration fined Domino
    4,000 for allowing dust to accumulate in its
    refinery which wasbelieved to be the cause of
    the explosionbased upon a Baltimore Sun
    newspaper report on July 26, 2008

5
Combustible DustIncidents
  • There was an explosion at the Imperial Sugar
    refinery in Port Wentworth, GA on February 8,
    2008. - There were 13 fatalities- 40 employees
    suffered injuries including severe burns - OSHA
    issued penalties of 5.06 MM for the companys
    Port Wentworth refinery and 3.7 MM based upon an
    inspection of the companys refinery in Gramercy,
    LAfollowing the Port Wentworth explosion.-The
    company was issued 69 Willfulviolations and 51
    serious violations at thePort Wentworth refinery
    and 49 Willfulviolations and 48 serious
    violations at itsGramercy, LA refinery

6
Key Findings From CSB Investigation Report
  • The following are some of the key findings taken
    directly from the CSB Investigation Report
    Combustible Dust Hazard Study - No
    Occupational Safety and Health Administration
    (OSHA) standard comprehensively addresses
    combustible dust explosion hazards in general
    industry. -OSHAs Grain Facilities Standard has
    successfully reduced the risk of dust explosions
    in the grain industry. -Secondary dust
    explosions, due to inadequate housekeeping and
    excessive dust accumulations, caused much of the
    damage and casualties in recent catastrophic
    incidents.

7
Key Findings From CSB Investigation Report
  • The following are key findings taken directly
    from the CSB Investigation Report Combustible
    Dust Hazard Study - Consensus standards
    developed by the National Fire Protection
    Association (NFPA) that provide detailed guidance
    for preventing and mitigating dust fires and
    explosions are widely considered to be effective
    however, these standards are voluntary unless
    adopted as part of a fire code by a state or
    local jurisdiction, and have not been adopted in
    many states and local jurisdictions, or have been
    modified. among jurisdictions that have
    adopted the fire codes, enforcement in industrial
    facilities is inconsistent, and, in the states
    the CSB surveyed, fire code officials rarely
    inspect industrial facilities.

8
Key Findings From CSB Investigation Report
  • The following are key findings taken directly
    from the CSB Investigation Report Combustible
    Dust Hazard Study -The OSHA Hazard
    Communication Standard (HCS) inadequately
    addresses dust explosion hazards, or safe work
    practices and guidance documents, in Material
    Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs). -41 of the 140
    combustible powder MSDSs the CSB surveyed did not
    warn users about explosion hazards, and only 7
    referenced appropriate NFPA dust standards to
    prevent dust explosions.

9
Key Findings From CSB Investigation Report
  • The following are key findings taken directly
    from the CSB Investigation Report Combustible
    Dust Hazard Study -The voluntary American
    National Standards Institute (ANSI) consensus
    standard for MSDS format and preparation, ANSI
    Z400.1, inadequately addresses combustible dust
    explosion hazards, and does not define
    combustible dust or discuss the need to include
    physical properties for combustible dusts.
    -Training programs for OSHA compliance officers
    and fire code inspectors generally do not address
    recognizing combustible dust hazards.

10
Causal Factors in Many Case Studies
  • Housekeeping-Unsafe accumulation of combustible
    dust
  • Lack of Hazard Recognition-Employees and
    managementunaware of dust explosionhazards

11
Causal Factors in Many Case Studies
  • Lack of Ventilation or Engineering
    Controls-Missing or improperly maintained dust
    collectors
  • Improper Maintenance -Leaks which allows dust
    to escape
  • Lack of Safety Devices

12
Combustible Dust Hazards
  • Fires
  • Explosions

13
Necessary Elements for a Dust Fire
  • Basic Fire Triangle-Fuel Combustible Dust
    /Organic Material or Powder Metal of correct
    particle size (lt400 micron)-Ignition Source
    Heat, static charge, open flame-Oxygen Air

14
Necessary Elements for a Dust Explosion
  • All of the three fire elements plus the
    simultaneous presence of the following two
    elements-Dispersion and concentration (LEL 20
    60 g/m3 or UEL 2 6 kg/m3 )-Confinement
    Inside of a structure

15
Necessary Elements for a Dust Explosion
Ignition
Fuel

Confinement
Dispersion
Oxygen
16
Combustible DustStandards
  • OSHA issued its National Emphasis Program (NEP)
    for Combustible Dust on October 18, 2007.-
    Primary purpose was to increase enforcement
    activities and focus on specific industries that
    have experienced frequent combustible dust
    incidents- Each OSHA Area Office was to conduct
    at least one inspection per fiscal year
  • The NEP for Combustible Dust (CPL-03-00-008) was
    reissued on March 12, 2008 following the Imperial
    Sugar explosion-Each OSHA Area Office is to
    conduct at least four inspection per fiscal year

17
Combustible DustStandards
  • The dust addressed in the NEP for Combustible
    Dust include but are not limited to the
    following- Metal dust such as aluminum and
    magnesium- Wood dust- Coal and other carbon
    dusts- Plastic dust and additives-
    Biosolids- Other organic dust such as sugar,
    flour, paper, soap and dried blood-Certain
    textile materials

18
Combustible DustStandards
  • There are two main list in the NEP for
    Combustible Dust that OSHA Area Offices will
    utilize in scheduling inspections- Appendix D-1
    (Industries with More Frequent and/or High
    Consequence Combustible Dust Explosions/Fires)-A
    ppendix D-2 (Industries that may have a Potential
    for Combustible Dust Explosions/Fires)
  • They must schedule 3 inspections from Appendix
    D-1 and 1 inspection from Appendix D-2

19
Combustible DustStandards
20
Combustible DustStandards
21
Combustible DustStandards
22
Combustible DustStandards
23
Combustible DustStandards
24
Combustible DustStandards
25
Combustible DustStandards
  • Recent NEP Inspection (Date of article - 3/11/09)
  • U.S. Department of Labor's OSHA cites Thomson,
    Ga., automotive parts supplier, H P Pelzer, with
    135,000 in proposed penalties
  • ATLANTA -- The U.S. Department of Labor's
    Occupational Safety and Health Administration
    (OSHA) is issuing citations for 24 occupational
    health and safety violations against H P Pelzer
    Automotive Systems Inc. in Thomson, Ga. The
    agency is proposing 135,000 in penalties against
    the company.
  • A health inspection of the plant revealed seven
    serious violations resulting in penalties of
    32,500. The health violations include the
    company allowing combustible dust to accumulate,
    not protecting employees from noise hazards and
    exposing employees to an airborne concentration
    of formaldehyde.

26
Combustible DustStandards
  • The company is also being cited with a repeat
    health violation and a 25,000 penalty for using
    high pressure compressed air to clean equipment
    resulting in clouds of resin dust, and a second
    repeat violation with a 25,000 penalty for
    exposing employees to high concentrations of
    airborne particulates. This location had been
    cited for similar violations after inspections
    conducted in 2006.
  • OSHA is issuing an additional 15 citations with
    proposed penalties of 52,500 after a subsequent
    safety inspection found serious violations
    including lack of guardrails, improper
    lockout/tagout procedures to prevent accidental
    start-up of machinery, electrical hazards and
    employees using defective equipment.
  • "OSHA conducted this inspection as part of its
    national emphasis program on combustible dust,"
    said Gei-Thae Breezley, director of OSHA's
    Atlanta-East Area Office. "No employee needs to
    risk their health and their life by working under
    these conditions."
  • Note This article was obtained from OSHAs
    website.

27
Combustible DustStandards
  • Remember no consensus OSHA standards for
    combustible dust
  • 1910.22(a)(1) Housekeeping-Accumulations of
    dust exist in places of employment , passageways
    and service which pose an explosion hazard
  • 1910.22(a)(2) Housekeeping-Accumulations of
    dust exist on floors of workrooms which pose an
    explosion hazard
  • Subpart E (Egress)

28
Combustible DustStandards
  • 1910.178 (c) Classification in Hazardous
    Environments
  • 1910.307 (Hazardous Locations)-Electrical
    equipment not of the right design
  • 5(a)(1) General Duty-Dust within dust
    collection system or other containers such as
    mixers pose - Reference NFPA Standards

29
Combustible DustStandards
  • Listing of Referenced NFPA Standards in NEP for
    Combustible Dust-NFPA 654, Standard for the
    Prevention of Fires and Dust Explosions from the
    Manufacturing, Processing, and Handling of
    Combustible Particulate Solids-NFPA 61,
    Standard for the Prevention of Fires and Dust
    Explosions in Agricultural and Food Processing
    Facilities-NFPA 484, Standard for Combustible
    Metals, Metal Powders, and Metal Dusts-NFPA
    664, Standard for the Prevention of Fires and
    Explosions in Wood Processing and Woodworking
    Facilities

30
Combustible DustStandards
  • Listing of Referenced NFPA Standards in NEP for
    Combustible Dust-NFPA 68, Guide for Venting of
    Deflagrations-NFPA 85 Boiler and Combustion
    Systems Hazards Code-NFPA 69, Standard on
    Explosion Prevention Systems-NFPA 499,
    Recommended Practice for the Classification of
    Combustible Dusts and of Hazardous (Classified)
    Locations for Electrical Installations in
    Chemical Process Areas

31
Suggested References
  • 1. OSHA Grain Handling Standard
    (1910.272)-Emergency Action Plan-Hot Work
    Permit-Entry into Bins, Silos and
    Tanks-Contractors-Housekeeping (Dust
    Accumulations/Emissions)-Filer
    Collectors-Preventative Maintenance2. CSB
    Combustible Dust Hazard Study3. OSHA Safety and
    Health Information Bulletin (October 1998) Dust
    Explosion Hazard in Certain Textile Processes4.
    OSHA Safety and Health Information Bulletin (July
    2005) Combustible Dust in Industry Preventing
    and Mitigating the Effects of Fire and
    Explosions

32
Key Factors In PreventingDust Explosions
  • Key factors addressed in OSHAs SHIB July 2005
  • Perform a hazard assessment of your facilityto
    assess potential for dust explosions. Look for
    -Materials that can be combustible when finely
    divided-Processes which use, consume, or produce
    combustible dusts-Open areas where combustible
    dusts may build up-Hidden areas where
    combustible dusts may accumulate (i.e. ceilings,
    duct work, etc.)-Means by which dust may be
    dispersed in the air-Potential ignition sources

33
Key Factors In PreventingDust Explosions
  • Dust Control - Implement a hazardous dust
    inspection, testing, housekeeping, and control
    program- Use proper dust collection systems and
    filters- Minimize the escape of dust from
    process equipment or ventilation systems- Use
    surfaces that minimize dust accumulation and
    facilitate cleaning- Provide access to all
    hidden areas to permit inspection- Inspect for
    dust residues in open and hidden areas at regular
    intervals- If ignition sources are present, use
    cleaning methods that do not generate dust
    clouds- Use only vacuum cleaners approved for
    dust collection - Locate relief valves away from
    dust deposits.

34
Key Factors In PreventingDust Explosions
  • Ignition Control - Use appropriate electrical
    equipment and wiring methods- Control static
    electricity, including bonding of equipment to
    ground- Control smoking, open flames, and
    sparks- Control mechanical sparks and friction-
    Use separator devices to remove foreign materials
    capable of igniting combustibles from process
    materials- Separate heated surfaces from dusts-
    Separate heating systems from dusts- Select and
    use industrial trucks properly- Use cartridge
    activated tools properly- Use an equipment
    preventive maintenance program.

35
Key Factors In PreventingDust Explosions
  • Injury and Damage Control Methods - Separation
    of the hazard (isolate with distance)-
    Segregation of the hazard (isolate with a
    barrier)- Deflagration isolation/venting-
    Pressure relief venting for equipment- Direct
    vents away from work areas- Specialized fire
    suppression systems- Explosion protection
    systems- Spark/ember detection for suppression
    activation- Develop an emergency action plan-
    Maintain emergency exit routes

36
Key Factors In PreventingDust Explosions
  • Training and Educating Employees on Combustible
    Dust Hazards-Safe work practices applicable to
    their job tasks-Overview of dust hazard
    assessments of the site-Overview of dust and
    ignition control procedures at the worksite
    -Proper use of fire extinguishers on combustible
    dust fires-Emergency evacuation procedures

37
Questions Answers
  • End of Presentation
About PowerShow.com