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Chapter 5: Infancy (First 24 Months)

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Title: Chapter 5: Infancy (First 24 Months)


1
Chapter 5 Infancy (First 24 Months)
2
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • Chapter Objectives
  • To identify important milestones in the
    maturation of the sensory and motor systems, and
    to describe the interactions among these systems
    during the first two years of life
  • To define social attachment as the process
    through which infants develop strong emotional
    bonds with others, and to describe the dynamics
    of attachment formation during infancy

3
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • Chapter Objectives (cont.)
  • To describe the development of sensorimotor
    intelligence, including an analysis of how
    infants organize experiences and conceptualize
    causality
  • To examine how infants understand the properties
    of objects, including the sense that objects are
    permanent, that they have unique properties and
    functions, and that they can be categorized.

4
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • Chapter Objectives (cont.)
  • To examine the nature of emotional development,
    including emotional differentiation, the
    interpretation of emotions, and emotional
    regulation
  • To analyze the factors that contribute to the
    resolution of the psychosocial crisis of trust
    versus mistrust, including the achievement of
    mutuality with the caregiver and the attainment
    of a sense of hope or withdrawal

5
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • Chapter Objectives (cont.)
  • To evaluate the critical role of
    parents/caregivers during infancy with special
    attention to issues of safety in the physical
    environment optimizing cognitive, social, and
    emotional development and the role of
    parents/caregivers as advocates for their infants
    with other agencies and systems

6
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • Newborns
  • On average 7 to 7 ½ pounds and 20 inches
  • Low-birth-weight-babies weigh 5 pounds 8 ounces
    or less
  • Small for their gestational age low weight for a
    given gestational age

7
Chapter 5 Infancy
8
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • The Development of Sensory/Perceptual and Motor
    Functions
  • Infant sensory/perceptual competencies can be
    measured with infant gazing, heart rate, sucking,
    head turning, and habituation
  • Habituation allows the infant to attend to new
    aspects of the environment

9
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • Brain Development in Infancy
  • Infant brain is well-formed at birth with about
    100 billion interconnected neurons (brain cells)
  • Neural plasticity

10
Chapter 5 Infancy
11
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • Sensory/Motor Development
  • Hearing
  • Vision
  • Taste and Smell
  • Touch
  • The sensory/perceptual capacities function as an
    interconnected system to provide a variety of
    sources of information about the environment at
    the same time

12
Chapter 5 Infancy
13
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • Sensory/Motor Development (cont.)
  • Motor skills develop as a result of physical
    growth and maturation in the context of varied
    environmental opportunities
  • Motor skills begin as involuntary reflexes, and
    follow a general sequence of development

14
Chapter 5 Infancy
15
Chapter 5 Infancy
16
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • Temperament
  • Relatively stable characteristics or response to
    the environment that can be observed during the
    first months of life
  • Significant source of individual differences a
    result of genetic, environmental, and socially
    construed factors
  • Assessed by childs positive or negative reaction
    to events and stability of this reaction

17
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • Another View of Temperament
  • Reactivity or the childs threshold for arousal,
    which could be evidenced at the physiological,
    emotional, or motor level
  • Self-regulation or behavioral inhibition that can
    be thought of as a continuum from bold or brazen
    to inhibited and cautious

18
Chapter 5 Infancy
19
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • Case Study The Cotton Family
  • Thought Questions
  • How would you describe Annas temperament? What
    problems might the Cotton family face if Anna had
    been a more passive, reserved, and inhibited
    child?
  • In what ways was Anna being expected to adapt to
    the Cotton family lifestyle?

20
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • Case Study The Cotton Family (cont.)
  • What are some of the challenges Nancy and Paul
    faced as new parents? How did they cope with
    these challenges?
  • How would you describe Pauls enactment of the
    father role?
  • How would you describe Nancys enactment of the
    mother role?
  • Anna seems to be influencing the well-being of
    her mother, father, and her grandmother. What
    impact does Anna have on each of these family
    members?

21
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • Attachment
  • Process through which people develop specific,
    positive emotional bonds with others
  • Attachment Behavior System
  • Parenting or caregiving is the nurturing
    responses of the caregiver to the child
  • Synchrony, or interactions that are rhythmic,
    well-timed, and mutually rewarding establish
    attachments

22
Chapter 5 Infancy
23
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • The Development of Attachment
  • Internal mental representations / internal
    working models
  • Goal-corrected partnerships
  • Stranger anxiety
  • Separation anxiety

24
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • Formation of Attachments with Mother, Father, and
    Others
  • The amount of time the infant spends in the care
    of the person
  • The quality and responsiveness of the care
    provided by the person
  • The persons emotional investment in the infant
  • The presence of the person in the infants life
    across time

25
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • Measuring the Security of Attachment
  • The Strange Situation
  • A 20 minute period
  • Child is exposed to a sequence of periods of
    separations and reunions with the caregiver
  • How the child responds to these periods is used
    to assess their level of attachment to the
    caregiver

26
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • Four Patterns of Quality of Attachment
  • Secure Attachment
  • Anxious-Avoidant Attachment
  • Anxious-Resistant Attachment
  • Disorganized Attachment

27
Chapter 5 Infancy
28
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • Parental Sensitivity and the Quality of
    Attachment
  • Four factors come into play in producing
    sensitive parenting that underlies secure
    attachments
  • Cultural and subcultural pathways
  • The caregivers personal life story
  • Contemporary factors
  • Characteristics of the infant

29
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • The Relevance of Attachment to Later Development
  • Attachment and internal working models influence
  • expectations about the self, others, and the
    nature of relationships
  • the childs ability to explore and engage the
    environment with confidence
  • the formation of later relationships

30
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • The Relevance of Attachment to Later Development
    (cont.)
  • Clinical diagnoses and links to attachment
  • Reactive Attachment Disorder
  • Inhibited Type
  • Uninhibited Type
  • Critique of the Attachment Paradigm
  • Attachment paradigm has limitations, especially
    when viewed from a cross-cultural or comparative
    cultural lens

31
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • Sensorimotor Intelligence and Early Causal
    Schemes
  • Sensorimotor intelligence, or motor routine, that
    reflects organization
  • Sensorimotor adaptation is Piagets chief
    mechanism governing the growth of intelligence
    during infancy
  • Infants develop an understanding of causality
    based largely on sensory and motor experiences

32
Chapter 5 Infancy
33
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • The Development of Causal Schemes
  • Infants form expectations about how objects
    function.
  • Development of causal schemes
  • Phase 1 reflexes
  • Phase 2 first habits
  • Phase 3 circular reactions
  • Phase 4 coordination of means and ends
  • Phase 5 experimentation with new means
  • Phase 6 - insight

34
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • Understanding the Nature of Objects and Creating
    Categories
  • Object permanence - objects in the environment
    are permanent and do not cease to exist when they
    are out of reach or view
  • One reason babies experience separation anxiety
    is that they are uncertain whether a person to
    whom they are attached will continue to exist
    once out of sight

35
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • Video Segment The Sensorimotor Stage Absence of
    Object Permanence

36
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • Video Segment The Sensorimotor Stage Presence
    of Object Permanence

37
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • The Prefrontal Cortex and Infant Intelligence
  • Prefrontal Cortex allows for the ability to
    derive abstract concepts, rules, and
    generalizations from sensory/motor experiences
    and apply them to new situations

38
Chapter 5 Infancy
39
Chapter 5 Infancy
40
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • Emotions as a Key to Understanding Meaning
  • Provide a channel for determining the meaning the
    child is giving to a specific situation
  • The Ability to Regulate Emotions
  • One of the most important elements in the
    development of emotional regulation is the way
    caregivers assist infants to manage their strong
    feelings

41
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • Emotions as a Channel for Adult-Infant
    Communication
  • Emotions provide a two-way channel through which
    infants and their caregivers can establish
    intersubjectivity
  • Mechanism of social referencing

42
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • The Psychosocial Crisis Trust versus Mistrust
  • Trust - an appraisal of the availability,
    dependability, and sensitivity of another person
    emerges as one person discovers those traits in
    another person
  • Mistrust - can arise, during infancy, from at
    least three sources infant wariness, lack of
    confidence in the caregiver, and doubt in ones
    own lovableness

43
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • The Central Process for Resolving the Crisis
    Mutuality with the Caregiver
  • Mutuality is a characteristic of a relationship
    that is initially built on the consistency with
    which the caregiver appropriately responds to the
    infants needs

44
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • Coordination, Mismatch, and Repair of
    Interactions
  • Coordination refers to two related
    characteristics on interaction matching and
    synchrony
  • Matching means that the infant and the caregiver
    are involved in similar behaviors or states at
    the same time
  • Synchrony means that the infant and caregiver
    move fluidly from one state to the next

45
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • The Central Process for Resolving the Crisis
    Mutuality with the Caregiver
  • Establishing a Functional Rhythm in the Family
  • The match or mismatch between an infants rhythms
    and the familys rhythms is an important factor
    in the overall adjustment of a family to a new
    baby
  • Parents with Psychological Problems

46
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • The Prime Adaptive Ego Quality and the Core
    Pathology
  • Hope - the first prime adaptive ego quality an
    orientation that goals and dreams can be attained
    and events will turn out for the best
  • Withdrawal - a general orientation of wariness
    toward people and objects

47
Chapter 5 Infancy
  • Applied Topic The Role of Parents
  • Safety in the physical environment
  • Fostering emotional and cognitive development
  • Fathers and mothers parental behavior
  • Parents as advocates
  • The importance of social support

48
Chapter 5 Infancy
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