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Title: Sustainability, Infrastructure and Communities Focus on Opportunities


1
Sustainability, Infrastructure and Communities -
Focus on Opportunities -
Arpad Horvath Associate Professor Department of
Civil and Environmental Engineering University
of California, Berkeley horvath_at_ce.berkeley.edu Fe
bruary 14, 2007
2
Outline of Presentation
  • Where is sustainability research today?
  • Sustainability research at UC Berkeley
  • Players, networks, timing, trends
  • Joint opportunities
  • Involvement of industry

3
The Grand Vision Sustainable
Development
  • Definition Meeting the needs of the current
    generation without sacrificing the ability of the
    future generations to meet their needs.
    (Brundtland Commission, 1987)
  • Maintain societal progress while improving
    environmental quality and quality of life
  • Environmental goals
  • reduce non-renewable resource use
  • manage renewable resource use for sustainability
  • reduce toxic substance emissions (heavy metals,
    solvents,)
  • reduce greenhouse gas and ozone depleting
    substance emissions
  • Educate the stakeholders
  • Do good by doing well
  • profit revenue - cost

4
The Triple Bottom Line of Sustainability
5
Courtesy B. Boughton, DTSC
6
Urban Communities of the Third Millennium
  • Sustainable
  • Livable
  • Engaging
  • Transit oriented
  • Wired
  • Renewable
  • ENR, March 12, 2001, Cover Story

7
Characterizing Sustainability Research
  • 30 years of publications and projects
  • 1st phase we have a global problem
  • Mostly descriptive, qualitative
  • Stated problem, categories of effects (e.g., air
    emissions), but few numbers
  • 2nd phase lets analyze/blame someone low
    hanging fruit
  • Industries automobile, chemical, petroleum,
    electric power, cement
  • Advent of industrial ecology, life-cycle
    assessment (LCA)
  • Mostly incomplete assessments (e.g., not all life
    cycle phases, inventory but no impact assessment)
  • Initial savings by companies
  • 3rd phase more specific assessments
  • Data collection for specific studies
  • Services and network analysis, not just
    manufacturing processes and products
  • Supply-chain informed LCA
  • Advances in impact assessment

8
Observations about Sustainability Research
  • 1. Need to incorporate triple bottom line
    environment, economy, equity
  • - need a unified theory and implementation to
    link them
  • 2. Sustainability solutions are integrated
    solutions - Need to learn from successful
    businesses
  • 3. Need to assess a broad range of environmental
    effects sustainability is not just about
    energy!
  • 4. Need international networks for research and
    projects
  • 5. Need quantitative studies
  • 6. Need to analyze services, not just products
    and processes

9
Integrated Facilities Engineering Companies in
the U.S.
Bechtel
10
Percentage of Waste Recycled in the U.S., Late
1990s
100

80
60
40
20
0
Lead
Asphalt
Steel
Aluminum Cans
Concrete Rebars
Paper
Plastic Bottles
Copper
11
LCA Framework
Source U.S. EPA
A concept and methodology to evaluate the
environmental effects of a product or activity
holistically, by analyzing the whole life cycle
of a particular product, process, or activity
(U.S. EPA, 1993).
12
LCA Methodology ISO 14040
13
Stage 1 Materials Extraction
Stage 2 Materials Processing
Stage 3 Component Manufacturing
Stage 4 Assembly
Stages 5 6 Use and Disposal
Coal Mining
Coal burning in power plant
Electricity
Chromium
Ore Mining
Keyboard
Stainless Steel
Extrusion
Chemical Reduction
Iron
Iron Ore Mining
Plastics
Injection Molding
Monitor
Petrochemicals production
Oil Drilling
Aluminum
Rolling and Shot Peening
Electrolysis
Bauxite Ore Mining or recycled aluminum collection
Housing
Hard Drive
Copper
Copper Ore Mining
Wire drawing
Cooling Fan
Computer
Screws
Video Card
Cobalt
Wires
Casserite Mining
Separation
Motherboard
Silicon
Purification and polishing
Refinement
Quartz Mining
Glass
This flowchart disregards all the forms of
energy required for each stage of the supply
chain (transportation fuel, electricity, etc)
Figure 1 Life Cycle of a Computer
C. Reich-Weiser, UCB
14
The 1.7 Kilogram Microchip
Williams, E. (2002) The 1.7 Kilogram Microchip
Energy and Material Use in the Production of
Semiconductor Devices. EST, 365504-5510.
15
Buildings and the Environment
  • Buildings integral part of infrastructure systems
    (or civil systems), and the boundaries between
    these terms are fuzzy
  • The built environment has a large impact on the
    natural environment, economy, health, and
    productivity
  • Buildings account for 17 of worlds fresh water
    withdrawals, 25 of worlds wood harvest, and 40
    of worlds materials and energy flows

16
U.S. Buildings and the Environment
  • The construction industry accounts for 8 of
    U.S. GDP
  • Similar in industrialized countries, even bigger
    economic share in industrializing countries
  • U.S. construction industry larger than the GDP of
    212 national economies (CAs 150 economies)
  • 54 of U.S. energy consumption is directly or
    indirectly related to buildings and their
    construction
  • In the U.S., buildings account for
  • 65 of electricity consumption
  • 30 of GHG emissions
  • 30 of raw material use
  • 30 of waste output (136 M tons annually)
  • 12 of potable water consumption

17
Categories of Natural Resources
  • Energy
  • Raw materials
  • Land/Habitat
  • Terrestrial Ecosystems
  • Marine Ecosystems
  • Biodiversity
  • etc.

18
Ecosystems and Biodiversity
  • Terrestrial and marine ecosystems greatly
    endangered
  • Loss of forest, oil spills, overfishing, etc.
  • Current rate of extinction is several orders of
    magnitude greater than the natural background
  • In the U.S.
  • over 500 known species are now extinct
  • 1,200 species listed as endangered

19
Consortium on Green Design and Manufacturing
  • Multidisciplinary campus group integrating
    engineering, policy, public health, and business
    in green engineering, management, and pollution
    prevention 
  • Strategic areas
  • Civil infrastructure systems
  • Electronics industry
  • Servicizing products
  • 9 faculty from Civil and Environmental
    Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Haas School
    of Business, Energy and Resources Group, School
    of Public Health
  • 10 current Ph.D. students
  • 28 alumni

Since 1993
http//cgdm.berkeley.edu
20
Green Engineering and Management Research Network
at UC Berkeley
  • Consortium on Green Design and Manufacturing
    (CGDM)
  • Network for Energy and Environmentally Efficient
    Economy (N4E)
  • Center for Future Urban Transport, A Volvo Center
    of Excellence
  • Urban Sustainability Initiative (USI)
  • Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory
    (RAEL)
  • Project Production Systems Laboratory (P2SL)
  • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)
  • Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI)

21
Green Engineering Management Some Recent
Research Projects (1999-2006)
  • Infrastructure
  • Buildings
  • Pavements
  • Electricity generation
  • Water treatment
  • Used oil
  • Shredder residue
  • Freight transportation
  • Electronics industry
  • Computer plastics recycling
  • Services
  • Telework/telecommuting
  • News delivery using wireless and wired
    telecommunications
  • Teleconferencing versus business travel

22
Green Engineering Management Selection of
Current Research Projects
  • Infrastructure
  • Passenger transportation modes
  • Green logistics
  • Building life cycle and indoor air quality
  • Data centers
  • Services
  • Digital media through wired and wireless
    telecommunications

23
Urban Sustainability Initiative
  • Joint effort of UC Berkeley, the U.S. National
    Academies, and non-governmental organizations
    (Urban Age, Healthy Communities Network)
  • Goal combine cutting edge research and
    development with innovative capacity building
    programs and a global information exchange
    network to foster the spread of effective urban
    sustainability practices and technologies in
    growing cities throughout the developing world.
  • Facilitate linkages between project partners,
    local scientific communities, civil society, the
    private sector and the official leadership of
    rapidly growing cities
  • Accelerate the application of existing
    technologies and practices, and the development
    and demonstration of new technologies and
    practices that improve the environment
  • Creating an extensive urban sustainability
    information network to share technologies and
    best practices for the benefit of cities around
    the world.
  • Create living laboratories in cities in Asia,
    Latin America, and Africa, and to test new
    approaches of environmentally sustainable urban
    development.

24
UCB Preliminary Inventory 2005
Required and Optional Reporting to California
Climate Action Registry
6.4 metric tons/person
Source Fahmida Ahmed, CalCAP
25
UCB Preliminary Inventory 2005
Additional Optional Reporting
12 metric tons/person
26
Trends
27
Carbon Performance
Each of these campuses looks at emissions sources
comparable to the required and selected optional
reporting package.
Source Fahmida Ahmed, CalCAP
28
http//sustainable-engineering.berkeley.edu/
Engineering for Sustainability and Environmental
Management Certificate Program
29
Players, Networks in the U.S.
  • Universities
  • Carnegie Mellon, Michigan, Arizona State, Texas,
    Washington
  • Research labs (e.g., Lawrence Berkeley National
    Lab)
  • The leaders are ICT companies
  • LEED as a green scoring system

30
Exciting Times in the U.S….
  • AB 32, Global Warming Solutions Act, by 2020,
    return GHG emissions to 1990 levels (and boost
    annual GSP by 60B and create 17,000 jobs)
  • UC Berkeleys 500M Energy Biosciences Institute
    (BP-funded)
  • U.S. considering GHG reduction legislation and
    industrial action

The Economist, 4/29/04
31
Greening Building Practices in China
  • Tasks
  • Assess the current construction practices of
    commercial buildings and high-rise residential
    buildings in China.
  • Recommend environmentally less burdensome
    building materials and processes.
  • Short term Focus on major materials (e.g.,
    concrete, steel, aluminum, flooring, with special
    focus on cement) and processes (e.g.,
    construction equipment, temporary materials).
  • Later evaluate the engineering, economic and
    environmental feasibility of using waste
    materials and byproducts (such as fly ash,
    demolition material, waste tires) in
    construction.

32
Indoor Air Quality in China
  • Task
  • Assess the effect of the indoor environments on
    building occupants.
  • What are the indoor air quality (IAQ)
    implications of using common building (e.g.,
    carpet and paint) and maintenance materials
    (e.g., cleaners)?
  • What are the IAQ implications from the
    introduction of pollution from outdoor air? China
    has severely polluted urban air and might
    consider IAQ control by means of filtering supply
    air in addition to controlling indoor emission
    sources.

33
Opportunities to Use Innovations in Practice
  • Need to get all the stakeholders networking and
    integrating (clients want intergated, packaged
    services, want to deal with one company)
  • Need to get problem focused
  • problems are global
  • GHG and other environmental studies of U.S.,
    Chinese, Indian, etc. companies, industries,
    government entities
  • ICT industry Data centers study, construction,
    operation
  • Biofuels
  • Lean and green

34
Connecting Green and Lean Project Production
Systems Laboratory
  • Develop new project management theory based on
    understanding of production systems (esp. Toyota
    Production System)
  • Reform project management practice

http//p2sl.berkeley.edu
35
Opportunities in Research and Development
  • Location U.S., Europe, China
  • Transformational, interdisciplinary research and
    development
  • Modeling of infrastructure
  • Sustainability metrics
  • E.g., green building scoring system for the EU
  • LCA model for Finland, Nordic countries, EU
  • Data centers
  • Computer-based decision-support tools
  • Education
  • Joint educational initiatives in, e.g., China

36
Opportunities for Industrial Involvement
  • GHG developments in California, U.S., China,
    India
  • Scientific and management knowledge transfer,
    consulting
  • service industries, and their supply chains have
    a tremendous opportunity to present a unified
    product (e.g., Bechtel, Xerox, Kodak)
  • ICT industries
  • Biofuels
  • Data centers
  • ICT products/services helping urban communities
    (e.g., telework, mobile work)
  • Green does not have to be synonimous with cheap
  • Green can bring competitive advantages

37
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38
Industrial Ecology
  • The (deliberate and rational) concept requires
    that an industrial system be viewed not in
    isolation from its surrounding systems, but in
    concert with them.
  • It is a systems view in which one seeks to
    optimize the total materials cycle from virgin
    material, to finished material, to component, to
    product, to obsolete product, to ultimate
    disposal.
  • Factors to be optimized include resources,
    energy, and capital. Graedel and Allenby

39
Future Work
  • Continued adaptation of the latest environmental
    science and management methods and results
  • hybrid LCA
  • Need to assess indirect as well as direct
    environmental effects, and reveal the supply
    chain implications
  • Takeback, recycling regulations
  • Revisit past research questions, and redo some
    analyses
  • Quantify the benefits on society
  • Focus on impact assessment, not just on inventory
  • Embrace analysis of social effects

40
Future Plans
  • Campus research center in Technology and
    Sustainability.
  • Formalize Technology and Sustainability
    certificate program.
  • Accelerate research on green and lean project
    delivery.
  • Develop green modules for engineering courses.
  • Involve more faculty in teaching and research.

41
Buildings and the Environment
  • Buildings integral part of infrastructure systems
    (or civil systems), and the boundaries between
    these terms are fuzzy
  • The built environment has a large impact on the
    natural environment, economy, health, and
    productivity
  • Buildings account for 17 of worlds fresh water
    withdrawals, 25 of worlds wood harvest, and 40
    of worlds materials and energy flows

42
U.S. Buildings and the Environment
  • The construction industry accounts for 8 of
    U.S. GDP
  • Similar in industrialized countries, even bigger
    economic share in industrializing countries
  • U.S. construction industry larger than the GDP of
    212 national economies (CAs 150 economies)
  • 54 of U.S. energy consumption is directly or
    indirectly related to buildings and their
    construction
  • In the U.S., buildings account for
  • 65 of electricity consumption
  • 30 of GHG emissions
  • 30 of raw material use
  • 30 of waste output (136 M tons annually)
  • 12 of potable water consumption

43
Composition of the U.S. GDP (2002)
U.S. Department of Commerce, www.census.gov
The Economist, May 8, 2003
44
Cities of the Third Millennium
  • Sustainable
  • Livable
  • Engaging
  • Transit oriented
  • Wired
  • Renewable
  • ENR, March 12, 2001, Cover Story

45
Characteristics of Civil Systems
  • Products and processes
  • Manufacturing and service
  • Long service lifetimes
  • Slower obsolescence (?) compared to industrial
    products
  • Large, complicated, in the public eye
  • Considered underfunded, in bad shape (ASCE
    Report Card 1998, 2001, 2005)
  • Decisions have significant economic,
    environmental and social consequences

46
Current Issues - General
  • Visual and physical impacts of infrastructure
  • Reduction of materials use
  • End-of-life options landfilling, reuse,
    recycling
  • Environmental discharges (to air, water, land and
    underground wells) in all phases of construction
  • Hazardous and non-hazardous waste generation and
    disposal
  • Environmental efficiency of construction
    equipment
  • Energy implications of construction
  • etc.

47
Current Issues - Specific
  • Toxic chemical emissions
  • Conventional pollutant emissions
  • Greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting chemicals use
    and emissions
  • Embedded energy in construction materials
  • Energy consumption by construction machines
  • Nonrenewable and renewable resource use
  • Reuse and recycling of construction materials
  • Solid and nonsolid waste implications
  • etc.

48
Existing Solutions
  • Rating tools
  • EIA
  • LCA

49
How Much Material Do We Use?
  • A total of 2.8 billion metric tons of different
    materials used in the U.S. in 1995 (USGS)
  • 3.5 billion metric tons in 2000
  • 81 by volume were construction materials, mostly
    stone, and sand and gravel

50
Use of Construction Mineral and Material
Commodities in the U.S. ton
Ewell ME (2001), Mining and quarrying trends.
Minerals Yearbook, Vol IMetals and Minerals.
U.S. Geological Survey
51
Current Design Method
  • Current building design decisions are made based
    on
  • Safety
  • Functionality
  • Cost
  • Environmental issues are often only addressed
    qualitatively or simplistically (e.g., using
    recycled-content flooring or lead-free paint)

52
Objectives of Horvaths Research Group
  • Material and energy resource consumption
  • Environmental impacts of onsite construction
    processes
  • Overall life-cycle impacts of construction
  • Decision support tool for the building industry

53
Our Comprehensive Framework
54
Scope and detail of our analysis
55
Our Research
56
European U.S. Office Building Comparison
  • Located in Southern Finland / Midwest U.S.
  • Typical 4-story / 5-story building 4,400 m2
    area
  • 17,300 m3 / 16,400 m3 volume
  • Structural frame
  • pre-fabricated concrete elements, sandwich-panels
  • steel-reinforced concrete beam-column system,
    shear walls at core
  • Exterior envelope brick veneer on concrete /
    aluminum curtain wall
  • Interior finishes typical commercial office
    space
  • Construction materials 1,190 kg/m2 / 1,290 kg/m2
  • Maintenance materials 240 kg/m2 / 70 kg/m2
  • Heat 36 kWh/m3/yr (average) / Natural gas 17.5
    m3/m2/yr
  • Electricity 70 kWh/m2/yr (30 below average) /
    18456 kWh/m2/yr
  • 54 different building elements consisting of 23
    different building materials
  • Service life 50 years

57
EU Case Study Results
58
U.S. Case Study Results
59
Comparison of Contribution of Life-cycle Phases
Finland
U.S.
60
DATA QUALITY ASSESSMENT
Finland
U.S.
61
U.S. Case Study Results
  • Use phase dominates all categories except PM10
  • Materials and maintenance phases each have a
    proportion of 22 or more in a single emission
    category
  • Construction and end-of-life phases have
    relatively insignificant impacts overall

62
U.S. Case Study Data Quality
63
U.S. Case Study Results
64
Case Study Steel v. Concrete Frame Buildings
  • 47,360 ft2, five-story building
  • located in Minnesota
  • 50 year use phase
  • aluminum-framed, glass panel curtain wall
  • built-up roofing
  • interior finishes include painted partition
    walls, acoustical drop ceilings, and carpet or
    ceramic tile flooring
  • mechanical system provides both heating and
    cooling

65
Steel v. Concrete Frame Construction Phase
(Frame Only) Energy Consumption
66
Steel v. Concrete Frame Building Whole Building
Life-cycle Energy Consumption
67
Case Study University of California, Santa
Barbara - Bren School of Environmental Science
Management
Source Zimmer Gunsul Frasca Partnership
68
UCSB Bren School
  • Completed April 2002 for 24 million
  • 7,900 m2 administrative and laboratory space
  • Combination steel and concrete frame
  • U.S. Green Building Council LEED Platinum Rating
  • Green changes include recycled content
    materials, increased HVAC efficiency, building
    orientation to optimize use of natural lighting
    and ocean breezes

69
Bren School Life-cycle Assessment
  • 50-year service life assumed
  • Used 90 construction document cost estimate with
    quantities and installed costs
  • material costs determined using R.S. Means guides
  • Estimated equipment types and duration of use
    with R.S. Means guides
  • Transportation of materials and equipment
    estimated based on material weight and truck
    capacity
  • Building use phase electricity and natural gas
    based on mechanical engineers energy analysis
  • Maintenance based on typical material replacement
    ages

70
Bren School Life-cycle Assessment
71
Proportions of Bren School Building LCA
72
Bren School Emissions Analysis
  • Use phase dominates energy, CO2, SO2, and NOX
    emissions
  • Materials production dominates CO emissions
  • PM emissions are similar in the materials and use
    phases
  • Overall, construction is a small part of
    life-cycle environmental impacts, but as use
    phase becomes more efficient, the materials and
    construction phases are expected to increase in
    significance
  • The end-of-life phase is also small, but more
    research, more detailed assessment is needed
  • Maintenance phase emissions are similar in
    significance to the construction phase

73
Bren School Emissions from Major Phases
74
Connecting Green and Lean Project Production
Systems Laboratory
  • Develop new project management theory based on
    understanding of production systems (esp. Toyota
    Production System)
  • Reform project management practice

http//p2sl.berkeley.edu
75
Conclusions
  • LCA necessary for better decision-making
    throughout the life cycle of a building
  • Control electricity and natural gas use with
    efficient design
  • Control materials and maintenance impacts by
    material choices
  • LCA should permeate green building scoring
    systems (e.g., LEED)
  • We are creating a decision-support tool for total
    building LCA (BuiLCA)

76
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77
Percentage of Waste Recycled in the U.S., Late
1990s
100

80
60
40
20
0
Lead
Asphalt
Steel
Aluminum Cans
Concrete Rebars
Paper
Plastic Bottles
Copper
78
Annual Waste Stream of Different Materials
Recycled, Late 1990s
79
Asphalt Pavement Milling Machine
80
Milling Machine
81
Direct and Indirect Energy Use (electricity plus
fuels) by the Major Sectors of the U.S. Economy
Rosenblum, J., Horvath, A., and Hendrickson, C.
(2000), Environmental Implications of Service
Industries. Environmental Science Technology,
ACS, 34(22), November 15, pp. 4669-4676.
82
Direct and Indirect Generation of RCRA Hazardous
Wastes by the Major Sectors of the U.S. Economy
Rosenblum, J., Horvath, A., and Hendrickson, C.
(2000), Environmental Implications of Service
Industries. Environmental Science Technology,
ACS, 34(22), November 15, pp. 4669-4676.
83
Characterizing ICT Environment Research
  • One of the first three industries to lead design
    for environment and pollution prevention research
    and practice (with automobiles and chemicals)
  • 12 years of publications
  • 1st phase we want to be a clean industry
  • Efforts of a rapidly growing industry to
    establish environmental credibility
  • Prominence of ICT industries grew parallel to
    prominence of environmental management
  • Early adopter of industrial ecology, design for
    disassembly, green materials selection,
    life-cycle assessment (LCA)
  • But largely incomplete assessments (e.g., not all
    life cycle phases, inventory but no impact
    assessment)
  • Mostly energy and toxic emissions related
  • Initially focused on components, then trying to
    assess entire systems
  • 2nd phase more specific assessments, including
    the supply chain and recyclers
  • Involving the supply chain, but also the waste
    management industry/recyclers
  • Data collection for specific studies
  • Supply-chain informed LCA
  • 3rd phase we bring environmental benefits to
    society
  • Services and network analysis, not just
    manufacturing processes and products
  • Internet, telework
  • Servicizing products
  • Critical mass still missing in many areas
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