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HUMAN SOCIETIES

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OF HUMAN THOUGHT. RATIONALISM, CALVINISM, AND INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM ... SOCIETY HAS POWER THAT IS DEMONSTRATED IN HOW IT SHAPES OUR THOUGHTS AND ACTIONS ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HUMAN SOCIETIES


1
HUMAN SOCIETIES
2
SOCIETYPEOPLE WHO INTERACT WITHIN A DEFINED
TERRITORY WHILE SHARING A COMMON CULTURE OR WAY
OF LIFE
3
VISIONS OF SOCIETYFOUR DIVERSE PERSPECTIVES ON
WHAT ACCOUNTS FOR SOCIAL CHANGE AND SOCIETAL
EVOLUTION
  • GERHARD AND JEAN LENSKI
  • SOCIETY AND TECHNOLOGY
  • KARL MARX
  • SOCIETY IN CONFLICT
  • MAX WEBER
  • SOCIETY AND RATIONALITY
  • EMILE DURKHEIM
  • SOCIETY AND FUNCTION

4
SOCIOCULTURAL EVOLUTIONTHE PROCESS OF CHANGE
THAT RESULTS FROM A SOCIETYS GAINING NEW
INFORMATION, PARTICULARLY TECHNOLOGY
  • SOCIETIES RANGE FROM SIMPLE TO THE
    TECHNOLOGICALLY COMPLEX
  • SOCIETIES SIMPLE IN TECHNOLOGY TEND TO RESEMBLE
    ONE ANOTHER
  • MORE COMPLEX SOCIETIES REVEAL STRIKING CULTURAL
    DIVERSITY

5
THE WAY THE LENSKIS SEE THINGS
TECHNOLOGY SHAPES OTHER CULTURAL PATTERNS.
SIMPLE TECHNOLOGY CAN ONLY SUPPORT SMALL NUMBERS
OF PEOPLE WHO LIVE SIMPLE LIVES. THE GREATER
AMOUNT OF TECHNOLOGY A SOCIETY HAS WITHIN ITS
GRASP, THE FASTER CULTURAL CHANGE WILL TAKE
PLACE. HIGH-TECH SOCIETIES ARE CAPABLE OF
SUSTAINING LARGE NUMBERS OF PEOPLE WHO ARE
ENGAGED IN A DIVERSE DIVISION OF LABOR.
6
TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETAL EVOLUTION
  • TECHNOLOGY
  • APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE TO THE PRACTICAL TASKS
    OF LIVING
  • HUNTING AND GATHERING
  • SIMPLE TOOLS USED FOR EACH TASK
  • HORTICULTURAL
  • USE OF HAND TOOLS FOR CROP WORK
  • PASTORALISM
  • DOMESTICATION OF ANIMALS
  • AGRICULTURAL
  • LARGE-SCALE CULTIVATION
  • INDUSTRIAL
  • USE OF SOPHISTICATED FUELS AND MACHINERY

7
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8
SOCIETY IN CONFLICT
  • SOCIAL CONFLICT
  • STRUGGLE BETWEEN GROUPS OVER SCARCE RESOURCES
  • SOCIETY AND PRODUCTION
  • CAPITALISTS AND THE PROLETARIAT
  • SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
  • INFRASTRUCTURE AND SUPERSTRUCTURE
  • FALSE CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS
  • PLACING BLAME ON INDIVIDUALS

9
THE CONFLICT PARADIGM
10
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11
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12
CAPITALISM AND ALIENATION
  • FOUR SPECIFIC WAYS CAPITALISM CAN ALIENATE
    WORKERS
  • FROM THE ACT OF WORKING
  • NO LONGER HAVING A SAY IN PRODUCTION
  • FROM THE PRODUCTS OF WORK
  • NO OWNERSHIP IN THE PRODUCT THAT IS MERELY SOLD
    FOR PROFIT
  • FROM OTHER WORKERS
  • WORK HAS BECOME COMPETITIVE RATHER THAN
    COOPERATIVE
  • FROM HUMAN POTENTIAL
  • BECOMING A STRANGER UNTO ONESELF

13
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14
THE HISTORICAL CHANGE FROM TRADITIONTO
RATIONALITY AS THE DOMINANT MODE OF HUMAN THOUGHT
  • RATIONALISM, CALVINISM, AND INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM
  • PREDESTINATION AND GODS FAVOR
  • FROM A RELIGIOUS TO A WORK ETHIC
  • RATIONAL SOCIAL ORGANIZATION
  • DISTINCTIVE SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS THAT SEE TO
    MEETING THE DEMANDS OF A GROWING, COMPLEX SOCIETY

15
WEBERS RATIONAL SOCIETYBUREAUCRACIES WILL
BECOME THE FAVORITE FORM OF ORGANIZATION, AND
SOCIAL LIFE WILL STRESS THE FOLLOWING
HERE ARE SIX WAYS A PERSON CAN TELL WHETHER OR
NOT ORGANIZATIONS ARE MORE RATIONAL THAN
TRADITIONAL.
  • DISTINCTIVE SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
  • LARGE ORGANIZATIONS
  • SPECIALIZED DIVISION OF LABOR
  • PERSONAL DISCIPLINE IS PART OF VALUE SYSTEM
  • AWARENESS OF TIME
  • TECHNICAL COMPETENCE
  • IMPERSONALITY

16
DURKHEIMS VIEWS ON SOCIETY
  • SOCIETY
  • MORE THAN INDIVIDUALS
  • SOCIETY HAS A LIFE OF ITS OWN - BEYOND OUR
    PERSONAL EXPERIENCES
  • SOCIAL FACTS
  • ANY PATTERNS ROOTED IN SOCIETY RATHER THAN THE
    EXPERIENCE OF INDIVIDUALS
  • SOCIETY HAS AN OBJECTIVE EXISTENCE BEYOND OUR
    OWN SUBJECTIVE PERCEPTIONS OF THE WORLD
  • EXAMPLES NORMS, VALUES, RELIGIOUS BELIEFS, AND
    RITUALS
  • POWER TO GUIDE OUR THOUGHTS/ACTIONS

17
EXAMINING SOCIETY
EVER FEEL LIKE YOURE A PUPPET ON A STRING?
  • THREE ASPECTS OF DURKHEIMIAN THOUGHT
  • SOCIETY HAS A STRUCTURE AND ITS VARIOUS PARTS
    EXISTS IN AN ORDERLY RELATIONSHIP
  • SOCIETY HAS POWER THAT IS DEMONSTRATED IN HOW IT
    SHAPES OUR THOUGHTS AND ACTIONS
  • SOCIETY HAS AN OBJECTIVE EXISTENCE AS IT OPERATES
    APART FORM ANY INDIVIDUALS SUBJECTIVE EXPERIENCE

18
WHERES THE GLUE?
  • WHAT HOLDS SOCIETIES TOGETHER?
  • LENSKIS
  • A SHARED CULTURE
  • KARL MARX
  • ELITES FORCE AN UNEASY PEACE
  • MAX WEBER
  • RATIONAL THOUGHT, LARGE-SCALE ORGANIZATIONS
  • EMILE DURKHEIM
  • SPECIALIZED DIVISIONS OF LABOR

19
ARE SOCIETIES IMPROVING?
  • THE LENSKIS
  • MODERN TECHNOLOGY OFFERS EXPANDED HUMAN CHOICE,
    BUT LEAVES US WITH NEW SETS OF DANGERS
  • KARL MARX
  • SOCIAL CONFLICT WOULD ONLY END ONCE PRODUCTION OF
    GOODS AND SERVICES WERE TAKEN OUT OF THE HANDS OF
    THE CAPITALISTS AND PLACED INTO THE HANDS OF ALL
    PEOPLE
  • MAX WEBER
  • SAW SOCIALISM AS A GREATER EVIL THAN CAPITALISM,
    AS LARGE, ALIENATING BUREAUCRACIES WOULD GAIN
    EVEN MORE CONTROL OVER PEOPLE
  • EMILE DURKHEIM
  • OPTIMISTIC ABOUT MODERNITY AND THE POSSIBILITY OF
    MORE FREEDOM FOR INDIVIDUALS, BUT CONCERNED ABOUT
    THE DANGERS OF ANOMIC FEELINGS
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