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PHILOSOPHY

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PHILOSOPHY. Politics. Economics. Religion. PHILOSOPHY. WHY. HOW. XXWHATXX ... making practical decisions. Branches of philosophy. LOGIC. More a guiding approach ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PHILOSOPHY


1
PHILOSOPHY
  • Politics
  • Economics
  • Religion

2
PHILOSOPHY
  • WHY
  • HOW
  • XXWHATXX

3
Definitions of philosophy
  • A set of views or beliefs about life and the
    universe, which are often held uncritically

4
Definitions of philosophy
  • A process of reflecting on and criticizing our
    most deeply held conceptions and beliefs

5
Definitions of philosophy
  • A rational attempt to look at the world as a whole

6
Definitions of philosophy
  • The logical analysis of language and the
    clarification of the meaning of words and concepts

7
Definitions of philosophy
  • A group of perennial problems that interest
    people and for which philosophers always have
    sought answers

8
Why do we need philosophy?
  • - understanding society
  • - evaluating statements and beliefs
  • - making practical decisions

9
Branches of philosophy
  • LOGIC
  • More a guiding approach
  • than a branch itself

10
Branches of philosophy
  • LOGIC
  • Premises (reasons) lead
  • to a conclusion
  • (position the reasons lead to).

11
Branches of philosophy
  • LOGIC
  • Example
  • All vans are green.
  • I own a van.
  • My van is green.

12
Branches of philosophy
  • LOGIC
  • An inference is drawn
  • ( a conclusion is made)
  • through DEDUCTION
  • or INDUCTION.

13
Branches of philosophy
  • LOGIC
  • Inductive argument -
  • PROBABLE conclusion.
  • I was very sick today. I ate the Big Tasty at
    McDonalds for the first time in months. The
    fatty food could have caused me to be sick.

14
Branches of philosophy
  • LOGIC
  • In a DEDUCTIVE argument, IF the premises are
    true, THEN the conclusion MUST be true. This
    means the argument is valid, NOT necessarily
    factual!

15
Branches of philosophy
  • LOGIC
  • All cats are female.
  • Worf is a cat.
  • THUS, Worf is a female.

16
Branches of philosophy
  • LOGIC
  • DIALECTIC is used to examine inferences to
    understand
  • - what they mean
  • - what they are based on
  • - what derives from them

17
Branches of philosophy
  • METAPHYSICS
  • Studies being or reality
  • what can be known.

18
Branches of philosophy
  • EPISTEMOLOGY
  • Knowledge can we know? How can we know? Is
    certainty possible? How do we perceive the world
    around us? How we justify what we believe?

19
Branches of philosophy
  • EPISTEMOLOGY
  • 1. What are the sources of knowledge?
  • 2. What is the nature of knowledge?
  • 3. Is our knowledge valid?

20
Branches of philosophy
  • EPISTEMOLOGY
  • Rationalism reason as the basis
  • for what we believe.
  • Empiricism experience as the basis
  • for what we believe.

21
Branches of philosophy
  • VALUE THEORY
  • ETHICS -
  • descriptive how we act
  • normative how we should act
  • critical defines the terms we use

22
Branches of philosophy
  • AESTHETICS
  • Analyzes the ideals of
  • art and beauty

23
Branches of philosophy
  • SOCIAL AND POLITICAL
  • PHILOSOPHY
  • How do groups and societies function ethically?
    What can be done to improve society?

24
Method in philosophy
  • DIALECTICAL METHOD
  • Originated by Socrates -
  • a problem is raised
  • possible answers are examined for flaws
  • we agree to disagree and keep
  • on searching for answers
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