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Title: California Trucking Association Discussion Fleet Modernization Concept Triangular Truck Trade


1
California Trucking Association --Discussion--
Fleet Modernization --Concept-- Triangular
Truck Trade
2
Presentation Criteria
  • Only On Road Diesel Trucks
  • Years not Tiers
  • On Road-Years
  • Off Road-Tiers I, II, III, IV
  • Only ARB Approved Devices and Fuel
  • Cleaire Longview Retrofit Device
  • PM 85
  • NOx 25
  • Diesel Fuel-No Alt. Fuels
  • No other ARB approved fuel
  • Infrastructure Problems
  • Engine Warranty Problems
  • Existing Carl Moyer Project

3
Cars vs. Trucks
  • 1. Cars-1976
  • a. Catalytic Converters mandated on all
    newly manufactured automobiles
  • b. No accompanying retroactive retrofit
    policy attached for pre- 1976 vehicles.
  • 2. Trucks-1986/2006
  • a. Federal diesel emissions limit guidelines
  • b. No accompanying retroactive retrofit
    policy attached for any vehicles.
  • 3. CARB
  • a. Added diesel truck industry mandate to
    RETROFIT all trucks with pre-2007 diesel
    engines.

4
California
Air Resources Board California Only Mandates
  • Aromatic Fuel Standard
  • Refuse Rule
  • TRU Rule
  • Idling Rule
  • Private Fleet Rule
  • Retrofit of Diesel APUs
  • -Installed on all 2007 trucks

5
Section 1 New Technology
  • Retrofit Devices
  • Tire Technology
  • Auxiliary Power Units
  • Installations 05/06
  • Cost Analysis
  • Quiz
  • New Programs

6
Longview System Schematic
Note Diesel fuel injection is used for NOx
reduction, not filter health
Exhaust Flow
Catalyzed SiC PM Filter
NOx Catalyst
NOx Catalyst
Temperature Sensors
Inlet
Outlet
System Controls
Backpressure Sensor
Diesel Fuel Injection System with Filter
RPM, Turbo Boost Sensor
Notification lights
Engine
7
Cleaire Longview mounted horizontally
Exhaust Flow
1
2
3
View of truck tail pipe without Retrofit device
View of truck tail pipe with Retrofit device
8
Cleaire Longview mounted vertically
9
The vehicle pictured here is a 2006 Volvo. Any
vehicle with a 2006 or older ENGINE will have to
be retrofitted even if it is in a truck
manufactured in 2007. THE DETERMINING FACTOR
IS MANUFACTURE DATE OF THE ENGINE not the
VEHICLE
10
Tire Technology
When purchasing new equipment, a company may opt
for new technology such as the Michelin X1 single
tires pictured here. The ground footprint of
this tire is the same as with a set of duals (two
tires). The main benefits of this tire are
weight savings more payload and a possible fuel
savings of up to a 5.
11
Auxiliary Power Units
12
Function
  • 1. Heat/Cool Driver Compartment
  • 2. No Idling of Main Truck Engine
  • 3. APU Fuel Consumption
  • a. Heat Compartment-.04 Gals. Per Hour
  • b. Cool Compartment-.18 Gals. Per Hour
  • 4. Main Engine Fuel Consumption
  • a. 1 Gallon Per Hour
  • 5. Fuel Use Comparison-590 Hours
  • a. Main Truck Engine-590.0 Gallons
  • b. APU-------------------- 106.2 Gallons
  • 483.8
  • c. 483.8 gals. _at_ 2.50 per gal.1,209.50
  • 6. Price-9,200.00

13
Cleaire Retrofit Devices Installations-2005/2006
Units Bus Type Device Type PM
NOx 350 School Horizon 85 0 1700 Transit Longv
iew 85 25 Units Truck Type Device
Type PM NOx 2000 Class 8 Longview 85 25
350 Units _at_ 11,000 3,850,000 1,700 Units _at_
20,50034,850,000 2,000 Units _at_
20,50041,000,000 4,050 Units
79,700,000
14
Cost Analysis Cleaire Longview Retrofit Device 1
Year Manufacturing Capability
  • Number of Units--- 5000
  • Cost Per Unit--------20,500
  • Total Cost------------ 102,500,000

15
New Programs
  • Proposed Private Fleet Rule
  • Heavy-Duty Engine Program
  • Triangular Truck Trade Pilot Project

16
Quiz Pollution Contribution
  • Of the following vehicle criteria,
  • a. Age
  • b. Duty Cycle-Fuel Used
  • c. Color
  • d. Miles Traveled
  • which do you feel would more accurately determine
    the Diesel Truck that pollutes the most?

17
Section 2 Air Quality Rules
  • Where do they come from and how are they
    administered?
  • CARB Proposed Private Fleet Rule
  • Engine Model Year Changes Federal Emissions
    Limits
  • Zones
  • Zone Discussion
  • Dual Path/Fast Track

18
(No Transcript)
19
  • A. Legislative Level
  • Congress
  • Clean Air Act-1963
  • 1. Set national air quality standards
  • 2. Give states an attainment time table
  • 3. Requests a State Implementation Plan (SIP)
    from each state to describe how and when that
    state will meet federal air quality requirements
  • B. Federal Level
  • Environmental Protection Agency
  • 1. Oversees/Approves each (SIP)
  • 2. Can provide money to support clean air
    projects

20
  • C. State Level
  • California Air Resources Board (CARB)
  • 1. Approves 35 local air districts
    implementation plans
  • 2. Allocates state grant funds (Carl Moyer
    Program) to local air districts
  • D. Local Level
  • San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District
  • (SJVAPCD)
  • 1. Monitors local air quality
  • 2. Prepares local clean air plans
  • 3. Implement plans to achieve goals
  • 4. Administers Moyer Grant Program

21
California Air
Resources Board
  • Proposed Private Fleet Rule
  • For On Road Diesel Vehicles
  • All Trucks Traveling in California

22
  • A. By 2014
  • Emissions Equivalence in G/BHP-H
  • 2004 model year or newer
  • Must ALSO apply highest level (BACT), Best
    Available Control Technology, for PM and NOx
  • Start-2004 Min. (BACT) Result
  • a. PM-- 0.10 85 0.015
  • b. NOx- 2.50 25 1.875
  • B. By 2020
  • Emissions Equivalence in G/BHP-H
  • 2007 model year or newer

23
  • C. Affected Vehicles
  • 1. 14,000 Lb. GVWR and Greater
  • a. Trucks
  • b. Motor Homes
  • c. Federal Fleets
  • d. Buses
  • D. Exempted Vehicles
  • 1. Military tactical vehicles

24
  • E. ARB Compliance Concepts
  • 1. Fleet Averaging
  • a. 5 or more vehicles
  • b. Allow offsets--Older vehicles offset by
    newer vehicles or retrofit technology.
  • c. Annual reporting
  • e. Averages to decline over time to meet
    PM/NOx targets
  • 2. (BACT) Phase-In Time Table
  • Vehicles must be in compliance or phased out
  • a. By Dec. 2009-1965/1994

25
Federal Diesel Engine Emissions Model Year Changes
  • No Controls
  • Control Set 1
  • Control Set 2
  • Control Set 3
  • Control Set 4
  • Control Set 5
  • Control Set 6
  • Control Set 7

26
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27
Trapping Particles
Neutralizing a Gas
28
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29
  • Zone 1
  • The Dead Zone
  • a. 19??-1986 Mechanical Engines
  • b. 1987-1990 Start of Emissions Limits
  • Carl Moyer-1990 Re-power Projects
  • c. 1991-1993 Partially Electronic
  • Zone 2
  • a. 1994-1997 Fully Electronic Engines
  • b. 1998-2002
  • c. 2003-2006
  • Zone 3
  • a. 2007-2009 Current Utopia
  • b. 2010-20?? Future Better Utopia

30
Zone 1-Dead Zone-Vehicles
  • 1. Are a minimum of 14 YEARS OLD 1993-2007
  • 2. Are a minimum of 17 YEARS OLD for Moyer 1990
    re-power project
  • 3. Are usually worth more as SCRAP
  • 4. Retrofit devices will ONLY EFFECT (PM),
    NO (NOx) BENEFIT
  • 5. PM ONLY retrofit devices could cost as much
    as 11,000.00
  • 6. DO NOT travel 100,000 miles a year
  • 7. Have NO LOGICAL COST EFFECTIVE emissions
    reduction scenario
  • 8. Solution- RETIRE IT, do not
  • RE-POWER IT or
  • RETROFIT IT

31
Zone 2 Vehicles
  • 1. Make 1994 Zone 2a the Baseline
  • a. First fully electronic engines
  • 2. 1994-1997 Zone 2a Vehicles
  • a. Use as trade down vehicles for ALL DEAD
    ZONE Vehicles
  • b. DO NOT RETROFIT
  • 3. 1998-2002 Zone 2b Vehicles
  • a. Check DUTY CYCLE to determine vehicle
    retrofit or trade down process
  • 4. 2003-2006 Zone 2c Vehicles
  • a. NO approved ARB retrofit device as of
    yet
  • b. All 2003-2006 ENGINES must be
    retrofitted even if the 2006 engine is in a
    2007 vehicle
  • c. Life expectancy will still be 10 years of
    running 100,000 miles a year

32
  • 2. MANDATES
  • a. TIME FRAME MANDATE-ACCEPTABLE
  • b. UNFUNDED MANDATE-UNACCEPTABLE
  • c. FUNDED MANDATE-ACCEPTABLE-RARE usually
    given to municipalities for buses
  • 3. Funding Eligibility-Any California domiciled
    fleet-1 to 100,000 trucks
  • 4. Prime objective-Project cost effectiveness
  • 5. Best criteria for any 3 R project is
  • DUTY CYCLE-FUEL USED not AGE
  • 6. Trucking industry to help the ARB and Air
    Districts set viable criteria for 3 Rs.
  • 7. A possible Triangular Trade process attached
    to the Private Fleet Rule which would scrap ALL
    pre-1994 Class 8 Trucks.

33
Section 3 Class 8 Truck Owners
  • 1. Fleet Owners
  • 2. Specialized Fleet Owners
  • 3. Owner Operators

34
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35
Class 8 Truck Owners
  • A. Fleet Owners
  • 1. Run year around
  • 2. Have a maintenance facility
  • 3. Do cost analyses
  • 4. Have fleet modernization plans
  • B. Specialized Fleet Owners
  • 1. Ag. Carriers-Seasonal operation
  • 2. Cotton Module Haulers
  • a. Run as few as 7 weeks a year
  • 3. Cattle feeding company
  • a. Run trucks 10 to 12 hrs. a day

36
  • 4. Farming Operation
  • a. Owns a truck/s-necessary evil
  • b. Hard to get outside carrier to fill
    needs
  • c. Has employee/s with CDL
  • d. They drive truck or tractor as needed
  • C. Owner Operators
  • 1. Owns one truck
  • 2. May choose to work seasonally
  • 3. May own a truck to haul his own product to
    market
  • 4. Usually maintains his own truck

37
Section 4 Funding Sources
  • Trucking Industry
  • Private Funding Source
  • Profit
  • Are there funding sources available?
  • Who is eligible for those funds?
  • Tax Consequences

38
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39
Trucking Revenue Per Mile vs. Inflation Rate
Trucking Industry De-regulation
The trucking industry was deregulated in 1980.
The American Trucking Association graph pictured
here helps to explain the current problem Fleet
Owners are having when they try to develop fleet
modernization plans.
40
Revenue Per Mile
  • For-hire trucking revenues expanded at a healthy
    pace during the last decade, but these numbers do
    not tell the full story. Trucking miles driven,
    like trucking revenue increased substantially,
    translating into stagnant average revenue per
    mile. Between 1976 and 1980, when the industry
    was still regulated, the average revenue per mile
    followed the rate if inflation very closely.
    Since then, however, inflation has far surpassed
    the growth in average revenue per mile.
  • Specifically, from 1979 to 1980, inflation and
    average revenue per mile increased 45 and 35
    respectively. Since then, inflation has risen
    102, compared with only 11 for average revenue
    per mile.
  • After adjusting average revenue per mile for
    inflation, it is determined that average revenue
    per mile has actually fallen 45 since 1980.

41
The Carl Moyer Program Possible Scenarios
  • 1. The 3 Rs
  • a. Re-power
  • b. Retrofit
  • c. Replace-Fleet Modernization
  • 2. Moyer Criteria
  • a. Re-power Criteria
  • i. 1990-1995 vehicles
  • ii. Must add retrofit device
  • b. Retrofit-1994 newer with PM and
  • NOx combination retrofit device
  • c. Replace-Fleet Modernization
  • Would rather have Natural Gas engines over
    Diesel engines- EXTRA VEHICLE COST-70,000.00

42
  • 3. Sources for Moyer Funds 2005-2006
  • a. 61 Million-Smog Check Fees
  • b. 25 Million-Tire Fees To be reduced to 16
    Million in 07
  • c. Local Air Districts may approve a DMV fee
    of up to 2.00 for Moyer type incentive
    programs

43
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44
Moyer Remodel
  • In an effort to modernize the Carl Moyer
    Program, several variations of the existing Moyer
    re-power process were formulated. The parameters
    for these models are
  • 1. Vehicle production years instead of 1990
  • a. 1994
  • b. 1998
  • 2. Used truck prices from Fresno Truck Center
    web site as of 3/1/2006
  • 3. Calculations based on Carl Moyer Methodology
  • 4. Models based on vehicle traveling 100,000
    miles per year
  • 5. Moyer funding vs. Private match
  • 6. Pollution reductions for 1 and 5 years
  • 7. Cost effectiveness per pound over a 5 year
    life cycle

45
Re-power Comparison 1994 Vehicle 1998 Vehicle
No Added Retrofit Device
46
Swap-Scrap Comparison 1994-2003/1998-2003 No
Added Retrofit Device
47
Swap-Scrap Comparison 1994-2007/1998-2007 No
Retrofit Device Needed
48
Tax Consequences
  • 1. Retrofit Devices-No
  • 2. Rule
  • a. Money received must extend the life of the
    vehicle
  • b. Check in from Air District
  • c. Check out to device manufacturer
  • 3. Re-power-Yes
  • 4. Air District contribution toward new
    vehicle-Yes
  • 5. Tax Incentive Group
  • a. San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control
    District
  • b. South Coast Air Quality Management
    District

49
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50
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51
Regular Payment Schedule
Triangular Trade-Extra Equipment Payment Schedule
52
Regular Payment Schedule
Triangular Trade Extra Equipment Payment Schedule
53
Section 5 The Triangular Truck Trade Concept
  • 1. Mission Statement
  • 2. Players
  • 3. Responsibilities
  • 4. 60 Share of What?
  • 5. Issues

54
Fleet Modernization Mission Statement
  • Determine Best Case Scenarios for the 3 Rs,
  • Re-powering-Retrofitting-Replacing
    vehicles that will
  • AFFECT AIR QUALITY THE MOST
  • AND TAX PAYERS THE LEAST
  • To accomplish this goal, a new strategy must be
    developed. Lets visit the Moyer 3 R
    controversy from a Triangular Trade perspective.
  • Because of Moyer funding rules, it may be
    difficult for a vehicle owner to qualify. The
    Triangular Trade concept focuses on
  • VEHICLE DUTY CYCLE-FUEL USED
  • not VEHICLE AGE when determining the 3 R Best
    Case Scenario. It also deals with vehicles in
    groups of three rather than individually.

55
Triangular Trade Players
Player 3 Owner of Pre-1994 Zone 1 Vehicle
Player 2 Owner of 1994-2002 Zone 2 Vehicle
Player 4 Truck Dealer
Player 1 ARB Air Districts
One company can be both Player 2 Player
3 or Player 3 Player 4
56
Player Responsibilities
Player 3 Owner of Pre-1994 Zone 1 Vehicle
Player 2 Owner of 1994-2002 Zone 2 Vehicle
Player 1 ARB Air Districts
40,000
Player 1 1. Receives application from Player
2 2. Receives application from Player
3 3. Determines appropriate credit amount
57
Player 2 Owner of 1994-2002 Zone 2 Vehicle
Player 4 Truck Dealer
40,000
Player 1 ARB Air Districts
  • Player 2
  • 1. Turns in application to Player 1
  • 2. Once selected, chooses Player 4
  • 3. Turns in vehicle to Player 4
  • Receives Air District credit toward new vehicle
    through Player 4

58
Player 3 Owner of Pre-1994 Zone 1 Vehicle
Player 4 Truck Dealer
Player 1 ARB Air Districts
Player 3 1. Turns in application to Player
1 2. Once selected, turns in vehicle to Player
4 3. Receives Player 2 vehicle from Player 4
59
Player 3 Owner of Pre-1994 Zone 1 Vehicle
Player 2 Owner of 1994-2002 Zone 2 Vehicle
Player 4 Truck Dealer
40,000
Player 1 ARB Air Districts
  • Player 4
  • 1. Receives program participants from Player 1
    and credit for Player 2
  • 2. Assigns credit to Player 2 for new truck
  • 3. Receives vehicle from Player 2
  • Gives Player 2 vehicle to Player 3
  • Receives vehicle from Player 3
  • Acts as clearing house for all vehicle
    TRANSACTIONS DEMOLITION for Player 1

60
60 Share of What?
  • What happens if a truck owner cannot afford 60
    of a new truck? Here is a possible solution.

61
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62
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63
Section 6 Criteria Conversions
  • 1. Grams Per Tons
  • 2. Engine Criteria
  • 3. Driving Criteria
  • 4. Driving Equivalence
  • 5. Grams to Tons

64
  • Grams Per Ton
  • 1. 907184.74 Grams1 Ton
  • Engine Criteria
  • 1. Max. Engine Horse Power Rating 535 Horse
    Power
  • 2. Average Horse Power Used-75
  • 400 Horse Power
  • Driving Criteria
  • 1. Daily Driving Hours 10
  • 2. Yearly Work Days 250
  • 3. Driving Equivalence
  • Daily Round Trip-Fresno/LA/Fresno

65
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66
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67
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68
-83
-33
69
Section 7 Comparisons
  • Moyer Re-power Project
  • Basic Triangular Trade
  • Summary Extra Vehicle Retrofit
  • Summary Moyer Re-power, Basic T.T., Extra
    Retrofit
  • Vehicle Age
  • Cost Match Analysis-Vehicles Effected

70
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71
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72
Summary Moyer/Triangular Trade
73
Comparison Moyer/Tri. Trade/Tri Trade Plus
74
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75
Cost Match Analysis Retrofit vs. Triangular Trade
  • Cleaire Longview
  • Number of Units--- 5000
  • Cost Per Unit--------20,500
  • Total Cost------------ 102,500,000
  • Triangular Trade Concept
  • Vehicles Description Cost Per Unit Total Cost
  • 2,562 New 40,000 102,480,000
  • 2,562 Traded 0.00 0.00
  • 2,562 Scraped 0.00 0.00
  • Trucks effected 7,686

76
ISSRC Retrofit Project 80,000 Trucks
  • Yr. Units Cost-Each Unit
    Total
  • 1 5,000 20,500 102,500,000
  • 2 10,000 205,000,000
  • 3 15,000 307,500,000
  • 4 20,000 410,000,000
  • 5 25,000 512,500,000
  • 6 30,000 615.000,000
  • 7 35,000 717,500,000
  • 8 40,000 820,000,000
  • 9 45,000 922.500,000
  • 10 50,000 1,025,000,000
  • 11 55,000 1,127,000,000
  • 12 60,000 1,230,000,000
  • 13 65,000 1,332.500,000
  • 14 70,000 1,435,000,000
  • 15 75,000 1,537,500,000
  • 16 80,000 1,640,000,000

77
Section 8 Fleet Analysis
  • 1. Fleet Retrofit Project and Recommendations
  • 2. 2005/2006 vs. Zones 1 2
  • Vehicles
  • 3. Fleet Miles Traveled Misperceptions

78
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79
Triangular Trade Concept Recommendations
We will now look at each individual Triangular
Trade Player and their responsibilities.
80
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81
Blue Vehicles Retrofitted Yellow Vehicles not
Retrofitted
82
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83
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84
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85
Fleet Miles Traveled Misperceptions
  • San Joaquin Valley climate is mild
  • Mother nature does not help fleet modernization
    like in the Mid West and North East
  • Class 8 Heavy Duty Diesel truck duty cycles vary
  • Common misperceptions
  • All trucks work all year around
  • Travel 10,000 miles per month
  • 120,000 miles per year
  • If this were true, pollution numbers would look
    like this

86
Yearly Mileage
87
Yearly Mileage
88
Yearly Mileage
89
Yearly Mileage
90
Yearly Mileage
91
Yearly Mileage
92
Yearly Mileage
93
Section 9 Phase In Concepts
  • ARB Private Fleet Rule
  • Accelerated Alternatives
  • Model Year
  • Duty Cycle-Fuel Used
  • Dual Path/Fast Track
  • Moyer
  • Retrofit, Re-power, Replace
  • Bond
  • Triangular Trade
  • BTU Comparison

94
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95
CARB Proposed Private Fleet Rule
  • Must meet the minimum 2004 federal diesel engine
    emissions standards retrofit device or be
    PHASED OUT
  • 1. Dec. 2009-1965 to 1994
  • 2. Dec. 2010-1995 to 1997
  • 3. Dec. 2011-1998 to 1999
  • 4. Dec. 2012-2000 to 2002
  • 5. Dec. 2013-2003 to 2006

96
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97
  • Alternative, Accelerated
  • Phase in Concepts
  • 1. Based on Vehicle Model Year
  • 2. Based on Fuel Used-Gallons
  • 3. Funding Criteria
  • a. Existing Carl Moyer funding to REMAIN
    AVAILABLE with RESTRICTED USAGE
  • b. Any and all other funding mechanisms may
    be added such as Bond Measure funds
  • c. Possible incentive programs added such as
    interest free loans, 179 accelerated
    depreciation, etc.

98
  • 1
  • Based on Model Year
  • 1. By Dec. 2009-2003/2006
  • Must be in compliance
  • 2. By Dec. 2010-1998-2002
  • Must be in compliance
  • 3. By Dec. 2011-1994-1997
  • a. Must be Traded Down ala Triangular
    Truck Trade Concept
  • b. No retrofits if mileage criteria is
    met
  • 4. By Dec. 2012-1965/1993
  • Must be Phased Out

99
  • 2
  • Based on Fuel Used-Gallons
  • Dual sort criteria to be used for replacement or
    retrofit based on
  • A. Fuel Used
  • B. Duty Cycle
  • C. Adjusted Private Fleet Rule Criteria
  • 1. By Dec. 2009--14,000
  • 2. By Dec. 2010--10,000
  • 3. By Dec. 2011-- 6,000
  • 4. By Dec. 2012-- 1,500
  • 5. Exempt--------- 1 to 1,499
  • Possible TTT to upgrade to minimum
  • 94 or 98

100
Dual Path/Fast Track
  • Carl Moyer Funds
  • Retrofits------- 2000 to 2006
  • Re-powers---- Project Specific
  • Longer Project Life
  • Replacement-None via Carl Moyer
  • Any retrofitted class 8 heavy duty vehicle will
    be grandfathered into the 2014 ARB Private Fleet
    Rule as long as it remains in good working order
  • Bond Funds
  • Triangular Truck Trade
  • Replace-- 1994-1999 with 2007
  • Swap----- 1994-1999 (Trade Dn.)
  • Scrap----- 19??-1993

101
Fleet Information
  • Trucks Year Miles Aver. Fuel
  • 1 88 6,000 857 PM-0.60 NOx-6.00
  • 1 98 7,600 1,189
  • PM-0.10 NOx-4.00
  • 5 99-07 --?-- 12,000

102
BTU Comparison
The term British Thermal Unit, BTU is used to
describe the heat value (energy content) of fuels.
.075 25 76 87 100
103
The End
104
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105
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106
LNG Fuel Tank
a. Fuel tank costs 6,000.00 dollars b. Fuel tank
must be installed at different facility. OEM
will not accept liability for tank c. Fuel is
-240 to -250 degrees d. When fueling, driver must
wear GLOVES FACE PROTECTION
107
CNG Vehicles
108
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109
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110
CNG CYLINDERS
111
Roll Off Box
112
Storage compartment for two ultra-capacitors which
provide electricity during high demand.
1. Bus has a Ford V-10 gasoline engine
which turns a generator that provides the
electricity to power the vehicle. 2. Gasoline
engine runs at a consistent speed to turn the
generator. Acceleration is handled by the
electric side. Consistent gas engine operating
speed reduces the pollution factor. 3. Higher
gasoline engine RPM needs come from highway use
where the electricity needs are greater that the
storage capability of the bus. 4. Hybrid buses
are 3 times cleaner that natural gas buses.
113
Table of Contents Master
  • 1. New Technology
  • 2. Air Quality Rules Players
  • 3. Cleaning the Air
  • 4. Funding Sources
  • 5. Triangular Trade Concept
  • 6. Conversions Model Criteria
  • 7. Comparisons
  • 8. Fleet Analysis
  • 9. Executive Summary

114
Table of Contents
  • General Information
  • A. Presentation Criteria------------------------
    2
  • B. Truck Life Phases--------------------------- 3
  • C. Cars vs. Trucks------------------------------
    4
  • 1. New Technology
  • a. Retrofit Device Information----------- 10-15
  • b. Tire Technology- ----------------------------
    16
  • c. Auxiliary Power Units---------------------- 17
    -18
  • 2. Air Quality Rules and Players
  • a. Quiz-Pollution Contribution------------- 22
  • b. Where Do They Come From------------- 23
  • c. How Are They Who Administered----- 24
  • d. ARB Proposed Private Fleet Rule----- 25-28
  • e. Engine Model Year Changes------------ 29
  • f. Zones-----------------------------------------
    --- 30
  • g. Zone Discussion----------------------------- 3
    1-32
  • h. Federal Emissions Limits----------------- 33-3
    6
  • 3. Cleaning the Air
  • a. 3 Scenarios-----------------------------------
    - 38-40

115
  • e. 6 Year Fleet Mod. Budget Plan------ 44-47
  • f. Tax Consequences--------------------- 48
  • 5. The Triangular Trade Concept
  • a. Mission Statement---------------------- 50
  • b. Triangular Trade Players-------------- 51
  • c. Player Responsibilities----------------- 52-55
  • d. 60 of What------------------------------ 56
  • e. Issues-------------------------------------- 5
    7-58
  • 6. Conversion Model Criteria
  • a. Grams Per Ton-------------------------- 60
  • b. Engine Criteria--------------------------- 60
  • c. Driving Criteria--------------------------- 60
  • d. Grams To Tons-------------------------- 61
  • 7. Comparisons
  • a. Moyer Re-power Project--------------- 64
  • b. Triangular Trade Scenario------------ 65

116
  • 8. Fleet Analysis
  • a. Actual Fleet Retrofit Scenario------- 72
  • b. Recommendations--------------------- 73
  • c. Comparison-2005---------------------- 74-75
  • d. Comparison-2005 vs. 2006---------- 76-77
  • e. Comparison-05, 06, 07-------------- 78
  • f. Miles Traveled Misperception-------- 79-83
  • g. Truck Life Phases----------------------- 84
  • 9. ARB Private Fleet Rule
  • a. Proposal----------------------------------- 85
    -89
  • 10. BTU Comparison/Alt Fuel Veh.
  • a. BTU Comparison------------------------ 91
  • b. Caterpiller Cummins 07 Engs.--- 92-93
  • c. LNG Fuel Tank-------------------------- 92
  • d. CNG Vehicles---------------------------- 95-99
  • e. Hybrid Vehicle---------------------------- 100

117
  • 8. Fleet Analysis
  • a. Actual Fleet Retrofit Scenario------- 72
  • b. Recommendations--------------------- 73
  • c. Comparison-2005---------------------- 74-75
  • d. Comparison-2005 vs. 2006---------- 76-77
  • e. Comparison-05, 06, 07-------------- 78
  • f. Miles Traveled Misperception-------- 79-83
  • g. Truck Life Phases----------------------- 84
  • 9. ARB Private Fleet Rule
  • a. Proposal----------------------------------- 85
    -89
  • 10. BTU Comparison/Alt Fuel Veh.
  • a. BTU Comparison------------------------ 91
  • b. Caterpiller Cummins 07 Engs.--- 92-93
  • c. LNG Fuel Tank-------------------------- 92
  • d. CNG Vehicles---------------------------- 95-99
  • e. Hybrid Vehicle---------------------------- 100

118
Federal Diesel Engine Emissions Limits
  • The next three slides show
  • 1. The engine model year changes
  • 2. Their respective MAXIMUM (PM) (NOx)
    EMISSIONS LIMITS
  • 3. Those limits represented In Grams per
    Horse Power Hour
  • 4. The percentage of emissions reduction
    relative to 1987.
  • 5. The percentage of emissions reduction
    relative to each model year change.

119
3 Scenarios
  • There are three ways to clean the air where
    mobile source on/off road diesel vehicles are
    concerned.
  • 1. Existing Funding
  • a. The Carl Moyer Program
  • b. New-Bond Money
  • 2. UNFUNDED MANDATE
  • CARB-New Private Fleet Rule
  • 3. FUNDED PROJECT
  • New Triangular Truck Trade Concept

120
  • 2. UNFUNDED MANDATE
  • CARB-New Private Fleet Rule
  • 1. Would put all the financial burden on the
    trucking industry.
  • 2. Would add to the existing ARB Mandated
    California Only Aromatic Fuel Standard.
  • 3. The Aromatic Fuel Standard has done two
    things for the State of California.
  • a. Forced an Interstate/Intrastate
    competitive disadvantage, FUEL PRICES
  • b. Interstate trucks fuel out of the state
    with NON CARB fuel
  • c. Costs the State of California
  • i. Fuel tax revenues
  • ii. Air quality standards

121
  • 4. The Private Fleet Rule mandate would
  • a. Add an INTRASTATE competitive disadvantage
    due to existing Moyer funded retrofit and
    re-power projects
  • b. Could be POWERLESS to ask the same of
    Interstate carriers.
  • 3. FUNDED PROJECT
  • New Triangular Trade Concept
  • 1. State and industry participation
  • 2. SWAP, SCRAP, REPLACE vehicles
  • 3. This new concept would
  • a. Would effect more vehicles than Carl
    Moyer

122
CTA Thoughts
  • 1. Institute a multi-year Private Fleet Rule
    implementation plan similar to the ARB Refuse
    Rule pictured below. Possible effective
    dates-2009/2015?

123
Dual Path/Fast Track
  • Carl Moyer Funds
  • Retrofits------- 2000 to 2006
  • Re-powers---- Project Specific
  • Longer Project Life
  • Replacement-None via Carl Moyer
  • Any retrofitted class 8 heavy duty vehicle will
    be grandfathered into the 2014 ARB Private Fleet
    Rule as long as it remains in good working order
  • Bond Funds
  • Triangular Truck Trade
  • Replace-- 1994-1999 with 2007
  • Swap----- 1994-1999 (Trade Dn.)
  • Scrap----- 19??-1993

124
California Trucking Association --Discussion--
Fleet Modernization --Concept-- Triangular
Truck Trade
125
Fleet Modernization Dual Path/Fast Track Mission
Statement
  • 1. Determine Best Case Scenarios for the 3 Rs,
  • a. Re-powering
  • b. Retrofitting
  • c. Replacing-Fleet Modernization
  • that will
  • d. AFFECT AIR QUALITY THE MOST
  • e. AND TAX PAYERS THE LEAST
  • The current Carl Moyer Program is failing at
    both of these directives.
  • 2. Combine
  • a. REFINED Carl Moyer Program and Funding
  • b. Triangular Truck Trade and Bond Funds
  • 3. Will achieve
  • a. Faster solution to the air pollution problem
    in the State of California

126
Dual Path/Fast Track
  • Carl Moyer Funds
  • Retrofits------- 2000 to 2006
  • Re-powers---- Project Specific
  • Longer Project Life
  • Replacement-None via Carl Moyer
  • Any retrofitted Class 8 Heavy Duty Diesel vehicle
    must be grandfathered into the 2014 ARB Private
    Fleet Rule as long as it remains in good working
    order
  • Bond Funds
  • Triangular Truck Trade
  • Replace-- 1994-1999 with 2007
  • Swap----- 1994-1999 (Trade Dn.)
  • Scrap----- 19??-1993

127
  • CARB
  • Proposed
  • Private Fleet Rule
  • Phase-In Time Schedule
  • By 2014
  • All Class 8 Heavy Duty trucks must meet 2004
    engine standards retrofit device or be PHASED
    OUT
  • a. By Dec. 2009-1965/1994
  • b. By Dec. 2010-1995/1997
  • c. By Dec. 2011-1998/1999
  • d. By Dec. 2012-2000/2002
  • e. By Dec. 2013-2003-2006

128
Fleet Information
  • Trucks Year Miles Aver. Fuel
  • 1 88 6,000 857 PM-0.60 NOx-6.00
  • 1 98 7,600 1,189
  • PM-0.10 NOx-4.00
  • 5 99-07 --?-- 12,000
  • Miles Traveled Misperception section- pg. 22,
    slides 85-92
  • Fuel Used Alternative Phase In Schedule pg. 25,
    slide 99

129
Summary Moyer/Triangular Truck Trade
Carl Moyer Project-page 18, slide 70 1-17 year
old truck re-powered Triangular Truck Trade
Project -page 18, slide 71 1-17 year old truck
scrapped 1-9 year old truck replaced 17 yr. old
truck 1-new truck replaced 9 year old
truck Triangular Truck Trade Process-pgs.
14-15, slides 53-59 Pollution Reduction Model
explanation-page 17, slides 65-68
130
Cost Match Analysis Retrofit vs. Triangular Trade
  • Cleaire Longview
  • Number of Units--- 5000
  • Cost Per Unit--------20,500
  • Total Cost------------ 102,500,000
  • Triangular Trade Concept
  • Vehicles Description Cost Per Unit Total Cost
  • 2,562 New 40,000 102,480,000
  • 2,562 Traded 0.00 0.00
  • 2,562 Scraped 0.00 0.00
  • Trucks effected 7,686

131
ISSRC Retrofit Project 80,000 Trucks
  • Yr. Units Cost-Each Unit
    Total
  • 1 5,000 20,500 102,500,000
  • 2 10,000 205,000,000
  • 3 15,000 307,500,000
  • 4 20,000 410,000,000
  • 5 25,000 512,500,000
  • 6 30,000 615.000,000
  • 7 35,000 717,500,000
  • 8 40,000 820,000,000
  • 9 45,000 922.500,000
  • 10 50,000 1,025,000,000
  • 11 55,000 1,127,000,000
  • 12 60,000 1,230,000,000
  • 13 65,000 1,332.500,000
  • 14 70,000 1,435,000,000
  • 15 75,000 1,537,500,000
  • 16 80,000 1,640,000,000

132
Pilot Project TTT-SJVAPCD
  • SJVAPCD Funds 1,000,000
  • State Match 1,000,000
  • Incentive Money Recipients
  • New truck owner 40,000
  • Used truck owner 10,000
  • Trucks impacted 60 to 120
  • Advantage
  • Puts 2007 technology on the road
  • Scraps pre-1994 technology
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