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Title: Characterizing Fine-Grained Associativity Gaps: A Preliminary Study of CAD-CAE Model Interoperability


1
Characterizing Fine-Grained Associativity GapsA
Preliminary Study of CAD-CAE Model
Interoperability
2003 Aerospace Product Data Exchange (APDE)
Workshop April 7-9, 2003 NIST Gaithersburg,
Maryland
  • Russell.Peak_at_marc.gatech.eduhttp//itimes.marc.ga
    tech.edu/
  • http//eislab.gatech.edu/projects/

A full report version is available here
http//eislab.gatech.edu/pubs/reports/EL004/
2
AbstractConference Series Archive
http//step.nasa.gov/
Characterizing Fine-Grained Associativity GapsA
Preliminary Study of CAD-CAE Model
Interoperability This presentation describes an
initial study towards characterizing model
associativity gaps and other engineering
interoperability problems. Drawing on over a
decade of X-analysis integration (XAI) research
and development, it uses the XAI
multi-representation architecture (MRA) as a
means to decompose the problem and guide
identification of potential key metrics. A few
such metrics are highlighted from the aerospace
industry. These include number of structural
analysis users, number of analysis templates, and
identification of computing environment
components (e.g., number of CAD and CAE tools
used in an example aerospace electronics design
environment). One problem, denoted the
fine-grained associativity gap, is highlighted in
particular. Today such a gap in the CAD-CAE
arena typically requires manual effort to connect
an attribute in a design model (CAD) with
attributes in one of its analysis models (CAE).
This study estimates that 1 million such gaps
exist in the structural analysis of a complex
product like an airframe. The labor cost alone
to manually maintain such gaps likely runs in the
tens of millions of dollars. Other associativity
gap costs have yet to be estimated, including
over- and under-design, lack of knowledge
capture, and inconsistencies. Narrowing in on
fundamental gaps like fine-grained associativity
helps both to characterize the cost of todays
problems and to identify basic solution needs.
Other studies are recommended to explore such
facets further. A full report version is
available here http//eislab.gatech.edu/pubs/repo
rts/EL004/
X design, mfg., sustainment, and other
lifecycle phases.
3
Model Interoperability Challenges Heterogeneous
Transformations
  • Homogeneous Transformation

Design Model A
Design Model B
  • Heterogeneous Transformation

Design Model A
Analysis Model A
4
Analogy Bottom-Up Budget Estimation
Goal Conceptual Framework for Complex Model
Interoperability Characterization Solutions
5
Contents
  • Background
  • Example Airframe Structural Analysis Needs
    (Boeing)
  • Example CAD/E/X Toolset (JPL)
  • Multi-Representation Architecture
  • Conceptual framework for complex model
    interoperability
  • Quantity estimates by representation type
  • Characterization of CAD-CAE Associativity Gaps
  • Summary

6
Example Industrial NeedsCommon Structures
Workstation (CSW) Request for Information
Publicly available document (see
http//eislab.gatech.edu/projects/boeing-psi/2000-
06-csw-rfi/ )
7
Current Typical Airframe Structural Analysis
Process
From Request for Information (RFI) Common
Structures Workstation (CSW). June 14, 2000.
The Boeing Company. Available at
http//eislab.gatech.edu/projects/boeing-psi/2000-
06-csw-rfi/
8
Common Structures Workstation (CSW) Design
Requirements and Objectives Contents
9
Example Part-based Analysis Template
10
Connection with CAD-based Geometric Parameters
11
Contents
  • Background
  • Example Airframe Structural Analysis Needs
    (Boeing)
  • Example CAD/E/X Toolset (JPL)
  • Multi-Representation Architecture
  • Conceptual framework for complex model
    interoperability
  • Quantity estimates by representation type
  • Characterization of CAD-CAE Associativity Gaps
  • Summary

12
Example CAD/E/X Toolset (JPL)
Customers
JPL Projects and Technical Divisions
SoapSat Took Kit SDKDoorsApGenFast Flight
Ansoft HPEE SofSonnet
Mentor GraphicsCadenceMathworks
MatlabSynopsysSynplicityIlogix StatemateOrcad
AutoCad RelexAvant! Place Route- Actel-
Xilinx - Atmel (and many more)
PTC Computer VisionPTC Pro-ESDRC IdeasSDRC
FemapSolid WorksCosmosNASTRANAdamsSinda/Fluen
t PDMS - EDMGSDRC MetaphaseSherpa
Visual ToolSetsCool JexPercepsRational
RoseRuifyHarlequin LISPI-Logix Rhapsody
Code VLensViewTraceProZemax
Software Tools
100 tools
CAE Cost Centers
Holding Account Billing Payable
M-CAE Toolsmithsand Workstations
E-CAE Toolsmiths and Workstations
Toolsmiths Workstations
Servers Sys Admin
M-CAE Servers Sys Admin
Servers SA
TMOD Severs
DNP Operations
Not DNP Operations
Adapted from Computer Aided Engineering Tool
Service at JPL - 2001-07-22 - Mike Dickerson
-NASA-JPL
13
Contents
  • Background
  • Example Airframe Structural Analysis Needs
    (Boeing)
  • Example CAD/E/X Toolset (JPL)
  • Multi-Representation Architecture
  • Constrained object knowledge representation
  • Conceptual framework for complex model
    interoperability (e.g., between CAD-CAE models)
  • Quantity estimates by representation type
  • Characterization of CAD-CAE Associativity Gaps
  • Summary

14
Example Chip Package Products Source
www.shinko.co.jp
Quad Flat Packs (QFPs)
Plastic Ball Grid Array (PBGA) Packages
Wafer Level Package (WLP)
Glass-to-Metal Seals
System-in-Package (SIP)
15
Flexible High Diversity Design-Analysis
Integration Electronic Packaging Examples Chip
Packages/Mounting Shinko Electric Project
Phase 1 (production usage)
Analysis Modules (CBAMs) of Diverse Behavior
Fidelity
Modular, Reusable Template Libraries
Design Tools
Prelim/APM Design Tool
Analysis Tools
XaiTools ChipPackage
XaiTools ChipPackage
General Math Mathematica
FEAAnsys
Thermal Resistance
Analyzable Product Model
3D
XaiTools
PWB DB
Materials DB
ThermalStress
EBGA, PBGA, QFP
Basic 3D
Basic Documentation Automation
AuthoringMS Excel
Demonstration module
16
ProAM Design-Analysis IntegrationElectronic
Packaging Examples PWA/B
Analysis Modules (CBAMs) of Diverse Mode
Fidelity
Design Tools
Modular, Reusable Template Libraries
ECAD Tools Mentor Graphics, Accel
Analysis Tools
XaiTools PWA-B
General Math Mathematica
1D, 2D, 3D
STEP AP210 GenCAM, PDIF
Solder Joint Deformation
FEA Ansys
PWB Stackup Tool XaiTools PWA-B
Analyzable Product Model
PWB Warpage
XaiToolsPWA-B
1D, 2D
Laminates DB
PTH Deformation Fatigue
Materials DB
1D, 2D
AP210 DIS WD1.7 Item not yet available
in toolkit (all others have working examples)
Item available via U-Engineer.com
17
Analysis Template Methodology X-Analysis
Integration Objectives (XDesign, Mfg., etc.)
  • Goal
  • Improve engineering processes via analysis
    templates with enhanced CAx-CAE interoperability
  • Challenges (Gaps)
  • Idealizations Heterogeneous Transformations
  • Diversity Information, Behaviors, Disciplines,
    Fidelity, Feature Levels, CAD/CAE Methods
    Tools,
  • Multi-Directional Associativity
  • Design?Analysis, Analysis ? Analysis
  • Focus
  • Capture analysis template knowledge for modular,
    regular design usage
  • Approach
  • Multi-Representation Architecture (MRA)using
    Constrained Objects (COBs)

18
X-Analysis Integration Techniquesfor CAD-CAE
Interoperabilityhttp//eislab.gatech.edu/research
/
a. Multi-Representation Architecture (MRA)
b. Explicit Design-Analysis Associativity
c. Analysis Module Creation Methodology
19
An Introduction to X-Analysis Integration (XAI)
Short Course Outline
  • Part 1 Constrained Objects (COBs) Primer
  • Nomenclature
  • Part 2 Multi-Representation Architecture (MRA)
    Primer
  • Analysis Integration Challenges
  • Overview of COB-based XAI
  • Ubiquitization Methodology
  • Part 3 Example Applications
  • Airframe Structural Analysis (Boeing)
  • Circuit Board Thermomechanical Analysis (DoD
    ProAM JPL/NASA)
  • Chip Package Thermal Analysis (Shinko)
  • Summary
  • Part 4 Advanced Topics Current Research

20
Multi-Representation Architecture for
Design-Analysis Integration
O(100) tools
21
Analyzable Product Models (APMs)
Provide advanced access to design data needed by
diverse analyses.
Design Applications
Analysis Applications
Add reusable multifidelity idealizations
Combine information
Solid Modeler
FEA-Based Analysis
...
Materials Database
Formula- Based Analysis
Fasteners Database
Analyzable Product Model (APM)
Support multi-directionality
22
Multi-Fidelity IdealizationsSame Behavior
Idealized Geometries of Varying Dimension
Design Model (MCAD)
Analysis Models (MCAE)
Behavior Deformation
1D Beam/Stick Model
inboard beam
flap support assembly
3D Continuum/Brick Model
23
Flap Link Geometric Model(with idealizations)
28b
24
Flap Linkage ExampleManufacturable Product Model
(MPM) Design Description
Extended Constraint Graph
Constrained Object (COB) Structure (template)
25
Flap Linkage ExampleAnalyzable Product Model
(APM) MPM Subset Idealizations
Extended Constraint Graph
effective_length, Leff inter_axis_length
- (sleeve1.hole.cross_section.radius
sleeve2.hole.cross_section.radius)
Partial COB Structure (COS)
26
Concurrent Multi-FidelityCross-Section
Representations
MULTI_LEVEL_COB cross_section design
filleted_tapered_I_section tapered
tapered_I_section basic basic_I_section REL
ATIONS PRODUCT_IDEALIZATION_RELATIONS pir8
"ltbasic.total_heightgt ltdesign.total_heightgt"
pir9 "ltbasic.flange_widthgt
ltdesign.flange_widthgt" pir10
"ltbasic.flange_thicknessgt ltdesign.flange_base_t
hicknessgt" pir11 "ltbasic.web_thicknessgt
ltdesign.web_thicknessgt" pir12
"lttapered.total_heightgt ltdesign.total_heightgt"
pir13 "lttapered.flange_widthgt
ltdesign.flange_widthgt" pir14
"lttapered.flange_base_thicknessgt
ltdesign.flange_base_thicknessgt" pir15
"lttapered.flange_taper_thicknessgt
ltdesign.flange_taper_thicknessgt" pir16
"lttapered.flange_taper_anglegt
ltdesign.flange_taper_anglegt" pir17
"lttapered.web_thicknessgt ltdesign.web_thicknessgt
" END_MULTI_LEVEL_COB
Detailed Design Cross-Section
Idealized Cross-Sections
Associativity Relations between Cross-Section
Fidelities
27
Flap Link APMImplementation in CATIA v5
Design-Idealization Relation
Design Model
Idealized Model
28
Multi-Representation Architecture for
Design-Analysis Integration
O(100) types
29
Analysis Building Blocks (ABBs)
Object representation of product-independent
analytical engineering concepts
Analysis Primitives
Analysis Systems
- Primitive building blocks
- Containers of ABB "assemblies"
Material Models
Specialized
Continua
- Predefined templates
Beam
Linear-
Bilinear
Low Cycle
Plane Strain Body
Plate
Elastic
Plastic
Fatigue
Interconnections
Geometry
Cantilever Beam System
Rigid
No-Slip
Support
General
Analysis Variables
Discrete Elements
- User-defined systems
Temperature,
T
Stress,
s
Mass
Spring
Damper
Distributed Load
Strain,
e
30
Common Structures Workstation (CSW) Request for
Information June 2000, The Boeing Company.
Appendix B Required Standard Analysis Methods
110 generic template groupings
Available at http//eislab.gatech.edu/projects/boe
ing-psi/2000-06-csw-rfi/
31
Appendix B Required Standard Analysis
Methods (continued)
32
COB-based Libraries of Analysis Building Blocks
(ABBs)Material Model and Continuum ABBs -
Constraint Schematic-S
Continuum ABBs
Extensional Rod
Material Model ABB
1D Linear Elastic Model
modular re-usage
Torsional Rod
33
COB-based Libraries of Analysis Building Blocks
(ABBs)Material Model and Continuum ABBs - COB
Structure-S
COB one_D_linear_elastic_model SUBTYPE_OF
elastic_model youngs_modulus, E REAL
poissons_ratio, ? REAL cte, ? REAL
shear_modulus, G REAL strain, ? REAL
stress, ? REAL shear_stress, ? REAL
shear_strain, ? REAL thermal_strain, ?t
REAL elastic_strain, ?e REAL
temperature_change, ?T REAL RELATIONS r1
"ltshear_modulusgt ( 2 (1 ltpoissons_ratiogt )
) ltyoungs_modulusgt " r2 "ltstraingt
ltelastic_straingt ltthermal_straingt" r3
"ltelastic_straingt ltstressgt /
ltyoungs_modulusgt" r4 "ltthermal_straingt
ltctegt lttemperature_changegt" r5
"ltshear_straingt ltshear_stressgt /
ltshear_modulusgt" END_COB COB
one_D_linear_elastic_model_isothermal SUBTYPE_OF
one_D_linear_elastic_model RELATIONS r6
"lttemperature_changegt 0" END_COB
COB slender_body SUBTYPE_OF deformable_body
undeformed_length, L0 REAL
reference_temperature, T0 REAL temperature,
T REAL RELATIONS sb1 "ltmaterial_model.temp
erature_changegt lttemperaturegt -
ltreference_temperaturegt" END_COB COB
extensional_rod SUBTYPE_OF slender_body
start, x1 REAL end, x2 REAL length, L
REAL total_elongation, DeltaL REAL
force, F REAL area, A REAL
material_model one_D_linear_elastic_model_noShea
r RELATIONS er1 "ltlengthgt ltendgt -
ltstartgt" er2 "lttotal_elongationgt
ltlengthgt - ltundeformed_lengthgt" er3
"ltmaterial_model.straingt lttotal_elongationgt /
ltundeformed_lengthgt" er4 "ltmaterial_model.st
ressgt ltforcegt / ltareagt" END_COB
34
Appendix B Required Standard Analysis
Methods (continued)
35
Multi-Representation Architecture for
Design-Analysis Integration
O(10,000)
36
COB-based Constraint Schematic for
Multi-Fidelity CAD-CAE InteroperabilityFlap Link
Benchmark Example
37
Tutorial ExampleFlap Link Analysis Template
(CBAM)
(1a) Analysis Template Flap Link Extensional
Model
38
FEA-based Analysis Subsystem Used in Linkage
Plane Stress Model (2D Analysis Problem)
Higher fidelity version vs. Linkage Extensional
Model
ABB?SMM
SMM Template
39
Flap Link Extensional Model (CBAM)Example COB
Instance in XaiTools (object-oriented spreadsheet)
example 1, state 1
Library data for materials
Detailed CAD data from CATIA
Idealized analysis features in APM
Modular generic analysis templates (ABBs)
Focus Point of CAD-CAE Integration
Explicit multi-directional associativity between
design analysis
40
Contents
  • Background
  • Example Airframe Structural Analysis Needs
    (Boeing)
  • Example CAD/E/X Toolset (JPL)
  • Multi-Representation Architecture
  • Conceptual framework for complex model
    interoperability
  • Quantity estimates by representation type
  • Characterization of CAD-CAE Associativity Gaps
  • Summary

41
Quantity estimates by MRA representation type
O(10,000)
O(100) types
O(100) tools
42
Contents
  • Background
  • Example Airframe Structural Analysis Needs
    (Boeing)
  • Example CAD/E/X Toolset (JPL)
  • Multi-Representation Architecture
  • Conceptual framework for complex model
    interoperability
  • Quantity estimates by representation type
  • Characterization of CAD-CAE Associativity Gaps
  • Summary

43
CAD-CAE associativity relations are represented
as APM-ABB relations (in CBAMs)
O(1,000,000) relations
An associativity gap is a computer-insensible
relation
44
Associativity Gapsbetween CAD and CAE Models
Detailed Design Model
Analysis Model (with Idealized Features)
Channel Fitting Analysis
45
Flexible High Diversity Design-Analysis
Integration Phases 1-3 Airframe ExamplesBike
Frame / Flap Support Inboard Beam
Analysis Modules (CBAMs) of Diverse
FeatureMode, Fidelity
Design Tools
Modular, Reusable Template Libraries
MCAD Tools CATIA v4, v5
XaiTools
Analysis Tools
1.5D
General Math Mathematica In-HouseCodes
LugAxial/Oblique Ultimate/Shear
Image API (CATGEO) VBScript
Analyzable Product Model
XaiTools
1.5D
FittingBending/Shear
Materials DB
FEA Elfini
MATDB-like
3D
Assembly Ultimate/FailSafe/Fatigue
Fasteners DB
FASTDB-like
Item not yet available in toolkit (all others
have working examples)
46
Bike Frame Bulkhead Fitting Analysis
TemplateUsing Constrained Object (COB)
Knowledge/Info Representation
18 CAD-CAE associativity relations
47
Cost of Associativity GapsReference
http//eislab.gatech.edu/pubs/reports/EL004/
  • Categories of Gap Costs
  • Associativity time labor
  • - Manual maintenance
  • - Little re-use
  • - Lost knowledge
  • Inconsistencies
  • Limited analysis usage
  • - Fewer parts analyzed
  • - Fewer iterations per part
  • Wrong values
  • - Too conservative Extra part costs
    and performance inefficiencies
  • - Too loose Re-work, failures, law
    suits

48
Cost Estimate per Complex Product p.1/2
Manual Maintenance of Associativity Gaps in
Structural Analysis Problems
Reference http//eislab.gatech.edu/pubs/reports/E
L004/
49
Cost Estimate per Complex Product p.2/2Manual
Maintenance of Associativity Gaps in Structural
Analysis Problems
Reference http//eislab.gatech.edu/pubs/reports/E
L004/
50
Bike Frame Bulkhead Fitting Analysis
TemplateUsing Constrained Object (COB)
Knowledge/Info Representation
18 associativity relations
51
Contents
  • Background
  • Example Airframe Structural Analysis Needs
    (Boeing)
  • Example CAD/E/X Toolset (JPL)
  • Multi-Representation Architecture
  • Conceptual framework for complex model
    interoperability
  • Quantity estimates by representation type
  • Characterization of CAD-CAE Associativity Gaps
  • Summary

52
Complex System Representation Simulation
InteroperabilityBuilding Emergency Response
Scenarios (Homeland Security)
Russell.Peak_at_marc.gatech.edu 2003-02-28
53
Characterizing Complex Model Interoperability
Using the Multi-Representation Architecture (MRA)
  • MRA Similar to software design patterns for
    CAD-CAE domain
  • Identifies patterns between CAD and CAE
    (including new types of objects)
  • Captures multi-fidelity explicit associativity
  • Provides hybrid top-down bottom-up methodology
    for characterizing problems solutions
  • O(1,000,000) CAD-CAE gap estimate

54
For Further Information ...
  • Contact Russell.Peak_at_marc.gatech.edu
  • Web site http//eislab.gatech.edu/
  • Publications, project overviews, tools, etc.
  • See X-Analysis Integration (XAI)
    Central http//eislab.gatech.edu/research/XAI_Cen
    tral.doc
  • XaiTools home page http//eislab.gatech.edu/tool
    s/XaiTools/
  • Pilot commercial ESB http//www.u-engineer.com/
  • Internet-based self-serve analysis
  • Analysis module catalog for electronic packaging
  • Highly automated front-ends to general FEA math
    tools

55
Backup Slides
56
Short Course Using Standards-based Engineering
Frameworks forElectronics Product Design and
Life Cycle Support
57
Constrained Object (COB) RepresentationCurrent
Technical Capabilities - Generation 2
  • Capabilities features
  • Various forms computable lexical forms,
    graphical forms, etc.
  • Enables both computer automation and human
    comprehension
  • Sub/supertypes, basic aggregates, multi-fidelity
    objects
  • Multi-directionality (I/O changes)
  • Reuses external programs as white box relations
  • Advanced associativity added to COTS frameworks
    wrappers
  • Analysis module/template applications (XAI/MRA)
  • Analysis template languages
  • Product model idealizations
  • Explicit associativity relations with design
    models other analyses
  • White box reuse of existing tools (e.g., FEA,
    in-house codes)
  • Reusable, adaptable analysis building blocks
  • Synthesis (sizing) and verification (analysis)

58
Constrained Objects (cont.) Representation
Characteristics Advantages - Gen. 2
  • Overall characteristics
  • Declarative knowledge representation (non-causal)
  • Combining object constraint graph techniques
  • COBs (STEP EXPRESS subset) (constraint
    graph concepts views)
  • Advantages over traditional analysis
    representations
  • Greater solution control
  • Richer semantics (e.g., equations wrapped in
    engineering context)
  • Unified views of diverse capabilities
    (tool-independent)
  • Capture of reusable knowledge
  • Enhanced development of complex analysis models
  • Toolkit status (XaiTools v0.4)
  • Basic framework, single user-oriented, file-based

See Advanced Topics for Gen.3 Extensions
59
Convergence of Representations
Database Techniques (data structure, storage )
Software Development (algorithms )
Flow Charts
ER
OMT
EER
STEP Express
UML
Constrained Object - like Representations
COBs, OCL, ...
Constraint graphs
Objects
Rules
Artificial Intelligence Knowledge-Based
Techniques (structure combined with
algorithms/relations/behavior)
60
Technique Summary
  • Tool independent model interoperability
  • Application focus analysis template methodology
  • Multi-representation architecture (MRA)
    constrained objects (COBs)
  • Addresses fundamental gaps
  • Idealizations CAD-CAE associativity
    multi-fidelity, multi-directional, fine-grained
  • Based on information knowledge theory
  • Structured, flexible, and extensible
  • Improved quality, cost, time
  • Capture engineering knowledge in a reusable form
  • Reduce information inconsistencies
  • Increase analysis intensity effectiveness
  • Reducing modeling cycle time by 75 (production
    usage)
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