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Social Stratification

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capitalist class, or those who own the means of production ... class struggles would occur, as capitalists would continue to exploit workers for profit ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Social Stratification


1
Social Stratification
2
Definitions
  • Status
  • Social differentiation
  • Social stratification

3
Estate, Caste, and Class
  • estate system of stratification,
  • the elite have total control over societal
    resources, including property and power

4
Estate, Caste, and Class
  • caste system,
  • status is ascribed

5
Estate, Caste, and Class
  • class systems,
  • class is somewhat based on achieved status

6
CLASS SYSTEM
  • Social class (or class)
  • the social structural position

7
CLASS SYSTEM
  • Life chances
  • identified by Max Weber
  • the opportunities that people in a particular
    class have in common

8
WHY IS THERE INEQUALITY?
  • Karl Marx
  • defined classes in terms of their relationship
    to the means of production

9
Karl Marx
  • capitalist class, or those who own the means of
    production
  • working class, or those who labor for wages

10
Marxs View of Stratification
11
Karl Marx
  • petty bourgeoisie, or small business owners and
    managers, who identify with the capitalists
  • lumpenproletariat, who become the permanently
    poor underclass.

12
Karl Marx
  • class struggles would occur, as capitalists would
    continue to exploit workers for profit

13
Max Weber Class, Status, and Party
  • A person can rank high on one or two dimensions
    and low on another
  • class as access to the material goods

14
Max Weber Class, Status, and Party
  • status is the social judgement or recognition
    given to a person or group.
  • party is the ability to impose one's will on
    others,

15
Webers View of Stratification
16
Marx and Weber
  • Marx argued that individuals act primarily on
    economic interests
  • Weber - one's position in the stratification
    system was the result of economic, social and
    political forces

17
Functionalist Perspective on Inequality
  • society as an interdependent system
  • inequality motivates people to fill different
    positions
  • poverty is necessary to maintaining social
    stability

18
Conflict Perspective on Inequality
  • society held together by conflict and coercion
  • powerful groups maintain their advantage
  • consequences of inequality are negative

19
CLASS STRUCTURE OF THE UNITED STATES
  • Social class
  • Social attainment
  • Socio-economic status (SES)
  • Income
  • Occupational prestige
  • Educational attainment

20
Layers of Social Class
  • upper class, also known as elites
  • nouveau riche have newly acquired wealth

21
Layers of Social Class
  • upper-middle class - high incomes and high social
    prestige
  • middle class clustered around the median income
  • lower-middle class - skilled trades and
    low-income bureaucratic workers

22
Layers of Social Class
  • lower class - displaced and poor, - little formal
    education - often unemployed or working for
    minimum wage
  • People of color and women
  • underclass - permanently unemployed

23
Class Conflict
  • Classes compete with each other
  • the elites exploit and dominate other classes.

24
Class Conflict
  • Classes compete with each other
  • the elites exploit and dominate other classes.

25
Class Conflict
  • managerial class, -
  • substantial control over other people, -
  • but minimal control over the economic system

26
Class Conflict
  • Conflict theorists believe
  • elites blame the poor for their poverty

27
Distribution of Wealth and Income
  • Wealth is the monetary value of everything one
    owns
  • Income is the amount of money brought into a
    household

28
Distribution of Wealth and Income
  • The wealthiest 1 of Americans owns 37 of all
    net worth
  • The wealthiest 10 controls 86 of the nations
    wealth.

29
Distribution of Wealth and Income
  • one-fifth of the nation's wealthiest people are
    women
  • most wealthy women have inherited their wealth

30
Distribution of Wealth and Income
  • one-third of Americans have no financial assets
    at all

31
WHY IS WORLD INCOME DISTRIBUTED THIS WAY?
32
Sources of Stratification
  • Race and gender are two of the primary influences
    in the stratification system in the United States

33
Sources of Stratification
  • majority of U.S. women work in low-prestige,
    low-wage occupations and would likely be
    considered working-class

34
Sources of Stratification
  • The age group most likely to be poor are
    children,
  • 20of U.S children live in poverty

35
SOCIAL MOBILITY
  • A person's movement over time from one class to
    another

36
SOCIAL MOBILITY
  • Most people remain in the same class as their
    parents
  • Mobility is strongly influenced by education
  • Mobility can occur in two directions

37
Class Consciousness
  • people in the United States do recognize class
    divisions
  • False consciousness

38
POVERTY
  • 35 million people
  • 13.3 of the U.S. population, who are poor

39
POVERTY
  • Some argue
  • individual motivation and ability will allow
    anyone to succeed in the U.S
  • This is called Blaming the Victim

40
POVERTY
  • most of the able-bodied poor
  • are employed

41
POVERTY
  • Sociologists argue
  • poverty is caused by complex economic and social
    changes

42
Welfare
  • a lifetime limit of five years for people to
    receive welfare
  • recipients to find work within two years
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