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Soils

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Chemical. Physical Properties: Soil Texture. Relative amounts of sand silt and clay in a soil. ... Chemical Properties. Soil pH. Soil pH. Acidity or Alkalinity ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Soils


1
Soils
  • Outer layer of earths crust which has the
    capability of sustaining plant growth.

2
Soils
  • Also has the ability to
  • anchor plants
  • hold water
  • provide nutrients
  • house microorganisms
  • serve as a water filter
  • absorb and produce gases
  • provide geologic history

3
Soil Formation
  • Parent Material-Bedrock
  • Weathering process
  • Reduction in particle sizes
  • Primary Minerals - inert particles such as sand
    and silt.
  • Secondary Minerals - highly charged particles
    such as clay (lt .002 mm)

4
Soil Profile
5
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6
Basic Soil Composition
  • Mineral Matter-from parent material
  • Primary minerals
  • Secondary minerals
  • Organic Matter
  • Decaying plant and animal residue
  • Water
  • Air

7
Soil Properties
  • Physical
  • Chemical

8
Physical Properties Soil Texture
  • Relative amounts of sand silt and clay in a soil.
  • Relative sizes of particles
  • Sand 2-.05 mm
  • Silt .05-.002 mm
  • Clay lt .002 mm
  • Obtained by particle size distribution

9
Crystalline Structure
10
Soil Texture Triangle
11
Soil Structure
  • Manner in which clay particles are arranged to
    form clods or peds.
  • Blocky
  • Columnar
  • Prismatic
  • Platy
  • Angular

12
Granular
13
Blocky
14
Columnar
15
Platy
16
Soils
  • Chemical Properties

17
Soil pH
18
Soil pH
  • Acidity or Alkalinity
  • Acid or Base
  • pH Values-pH scale 0-14, 7neutral
  • High pH Low pH
  • Effect of pH on plant growth
  • Effect of pH on nutrient availability

19
pH
20
pH and Nutrient Availability
21
Cation Exchange
  • Dynamic process in which cations are continually
    replaced/exchanged on clay particles.
  • Depends on water, root activity, type of clay,
    fertilizer added.
  • H replaces Ca replaces Mg replaces K
    replaces NH4 replaces Na

22
Cation Exchange
  • Process can begin with active root growth
  • Actively respiring roots give off CO2
  • This CO2 reacts with water to from carbonic acid
  • The acid gives off H which begins the process

23
Cation Exchange
  • H gt Ca gt Mggt K gt NH4 gt Na

24
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25
Vermiculite
  • (Mg,Ca)0.7(Mg,Fe3,Al)6(Al,Si)8O20(OH)4 8H2O

26
Soil Moisture
  • Levels
  • Too much
  • Field Capacity
  • Desirable levels
  • Permanent wilting point
  • Too little

27
Soil Moisture Levels
  • Crystalline Water - (Mg,Ca)0.7(Mg,Fe3,Al)6(Al,Si
    )8O20(OH)4 8H2O
  • Hygroscopic Water
  • Capillary Water
  • Gravitaional Water

28
Soil Moisture
29
Soil Moisture
30
Moisture Levels
  • Field Capacity-maximum amount of water a soil can
    hold after surface runoff and gravitational
    drainage.
  • Permanent Wilting Point (pwp)- point at which
    incipient plasmolysis has taken place and plant
    will not recover.

31
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32
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33
Soil Amending
  • Increase Drainage?
  • Retain Moisture?

34
Effect of Pore Size on H2O Holding Capacity
  • Larger Pore Size?
  • Smaller Pore Size?

35
Soil Fertility
  • Dependent on
  • pH
  • CEC
  • Soil Moisture
  • Nutrient Availability

36
Plant Nutrients
  • 16 Essential Elements
  • Macronutrients
  • Primary- C, H, O, N, P, K
  • Secondary-Ca, Mg, S,
  • Micronutrients
  • Fe, Mn, B, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cl

37
Plant Nutrients
  • From Atmosphere and Water
  • C Carbon
  • HHydrogen
  • Oxygen

38
Plant Nutrients
  • From the addition of fertilizers
  • N Nitrogen
  • P Phosphorus
  • K Potassium
  • Ca Calcium
  • Mg Magnesium
  • S Sulfur

39
Role of Nitrogen
  • Proteins
  • Amino acids
  • Nucleic acids
  • Chlorophyll

40
Nitrogen in Soil
  • Obtained by N cycle
  • Amendments such as compost
  • Organic matter
  • Added as NH4 or NO3-

41
N Cycle
42
Role of Phosphorus
  • Vital component of energy molecules such as ATP,
    NADP etc.
  • Added to soils as phosphate fertilizers. Less
    available in acid soils.

43
Role of Potassium
  • Assists in sugar and nutrient transport by
    creating concentration gradients.
  • Applied to soils as potash or K2O

44
Roles of other nutients
  • Calcium cementing agent for cells in area
    called the middle lamella.(Dolomite/Lime)
  • Magnesium central atom of chlorophyll molecule
    (Dolomite)
  • Sulfur important component of vital amino acids
    such as cystine and methionine (Sulfur)

45
Minor Elements
  • Iron Chlorophyll synthesis, added as chelated
    iron, unavailable in alkaline soils.

46
Minor Elements
  • Serve as catalysts in various biochemical
    reactions.
  • Boron
  • Manganese
  • Copper
  • Zinc
  • Molybdenum
  • Chlorine

47
16 Essential Plant Nutrients
  • CHOPKNS CaFe Mg B Mn CuZn Mo Cl.

48
The part of the seed that provides the initial
food source in the process of germination is
called the
  • a. hypocotyl
  • b. endosperm
  • c. egg
  • d. embryo
  • e. none of the above

49
Good "viability" of a seed lot refers to
  • a. clean seed
  • b. freedom of diseases and insects
  • c. good germination percentage
  • d. true to name

50
Plant disease causing organisms such as those
belonging to the Pythium and Rhizoctonia species
can kill germinating seedlings. This condition
is known as
  • a. sloughing off
  • b. damping off
  • c. killing off
  • d. all of the above

51
Propagation of plants without the use of seed can
be referred to as
  • a. asexual propagation
  • b. seed propagation
  • c. sexual propagation
  • d. a and b are correct

52
Cuttings taken from partially matured new growth
of woody plants such as azaleas and camellias are
referred to as
  • a. hardwood
  • b. softwood
  • c. semi-hardwood
  • d. semi-greenwood

53
Specialized cuttage practices, which may greatly
enhance good root production and formation
include
  • a. bottom heat
  • b. intermittent mist
  • c. sanitary measures
  • d. all of the above

54
Synthetic auxins in rooting hormone products such
as "Rootone" and Hormodin are in the form of
  • a. IBA
  • b. ABA
  • c. IBI
  • d. NCAA

55
Which of the following soil mediums would provide
the best conditions for rooting of cuttings?
  • a. 75 peat moss to 25 perlite
  • b. 20 peat moss to 80 vermiculite
  • c. 20 peat moss to 80 sphagnum moss
  • d. 20 peat moss to 80 perlite

56
The reason(s) for grafting is(are)
  • a. to produce a dwarfing effect
  • b. to produce a plant that will not root by
    cuttings
  • c. to use disease resistant rootstocks
  • d. all of the above

57
Highly weathered mineral particles such as clays
are classified as
  • a. primary minerals
  • b. secondary minerals
  • c. inert minerals
  • d. amorphous minerals

58
The moisture holding capacity of a soil increases
as
  • a. organic matter levels increase
  • b. size of mineral particles decrease
  • c. size of mineral particles increase
  • d. a and b are correct
  • e. a and c are correct

59
The formation of soil aggregates or clods is
associated with
  • a. soil structure
  • b. soil texture
  • c. soil fixture
  • d. soil mixture

60
The maximum amount of water that a soil can hold
after surface runoff and gravitational drainage
is called
  • a. hygroscopic water
  • b. capillary water
  • c. field capacity
  • d. gravitational water
  • e. none of the above

61
Fertilizers
  • Compounds providing supplemental nutrients.
  • Organic
  • Natural
  • Synthetic
  • Inorganic/Chemical

62
Terminology
  • Fertilizer analysis or grade
  • Three part number on bag/package
  • Fertilizer ratio
  • Lowest common multiple of analysis or grade
  • Complete fertilizer
  • Contains all three of the major elements N, P and
    K

63
Terminology
  • Balanced Fertilizer
  • contains all three nutrients in equal amounts.
    (8-8-8)
  • Single or Double nutrient Fertilizer
  • Contains only one or two of the main nutrients
  • 46-0-0 or 13-0-44.
  • High Analysis-total nutrients over 30
  • Low analysis-total less than 30

64
Organic
  • Derived from plant and animal by-products.
  • Examples
  • Manure
  • Blood meal
  • Bone meal
  • Sewage sludge

65
Organic-Characteritics
  • Low analysis
  • Low burn potential
  • More material required per given rate
  • May contain heavy metals such as cadmium and
    manganese

66
Synthetic Organic
  • High analysis
  • Slow release
  • Manufactured in combination with an organic
    carrier
  • Low burn potential
  • Use more material at higher rate to last longer
  • Expensive

67
Examples
  • Urea
  • Ureaform - Ureaformaldehyde
  • IBDU Isobutylidene di-urea
  • SCU sulfur coated urea

68
Inorganic- Characteritics
  • High analysis
  • High burn potential
  • Use less material per given rate

69
Examples
  • Ammonium sulfate
  • Ammonium nitrate
  • Calcium nitrate
  • Ammonium phosphate
  • Gypsum
  • Epsom salts

70
Formulations
  • Liquids
  • Soluble powder
  • Granules
  • Tablets

71
Fertilizer contents
  • 100 bag of 10-20-30 contains
  • 10 of N
  • 20 of phosphate (P2O5)
  • 30 of potash (K2O)

72
Methods of application
  • Topdressing
  • Pre-plant incorporation
  • Side dressing
  • Needle/Drill - subsurface
  • Foliar
  • Injection
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