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Biotechnology%20mentor's%20kit

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Biotechnology ... Crops biotechnology. Varieties resistant to pests and diseases. High yielding crops ... Hence, biotechnology is a viable option ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Biotechnology%20mentor's%20kit


1
Biotechnology
Providing Options for Philippine Agriculture
(Revised June 2003)
2
Sources ADB, POPCOM
3
To feed this population...
  • world cereal production should increase by 50

Philippine rice production should increase from
12 to 18 M tons (40)
4
Agricultural resources are limited by ...
  • deforestation
  • overgrazing
  • land conversion

Source FAO
5
With increasing demand for food and limiting
resources...
we need better and more efficient ways to produce
food
one option is through
Biotechnology
6
Bio
- life
Technology
- any technique or procedure to develop new
products
7
Biotechnology
- any technique that uses whole or part of a
living thing to make new products, improve or
develop plants, animals and other organisms for
specific use
8
GE of animals
GE of plants
GE to improve microorganisms
GE to develop animal vaccines
Recombinant DNA for disease diagnostics
GE of biocontrol agents against plant pest
diseases
Monoclonal anti body production
Plant protoplast fusion
Plant tissue culture
Embryo transfer
Fermentation, Biofertilizers
9
  • Insulin for diabetes

Interferon for treating cancer
Hepatitis B vaccine
10
Using living organisms to clean the environment
11
(No Transcript)
12
  • Food biotechnology

Improved food quality and food processing
Better tasting More nutritious Cleaner food
13
  • Animal biotechnology
  • Better breeds of livestock and poultry
  • leaner meat
  • more milk

Vaccines
14
  • Crops biotechnology

Tissue cultured planting materials
High yielding crops
Varieties resistant to pests and diseases
Diagnostic kits
Improved postharvest qualities
15
  • Genetic engineering

Technique that transfers gene(s) of interest to
develop and improve plants, animals and other
organisms
16
  • Gene

- basic physical and functional units of heredity
which carries information for the expression of a
particular trait
17
Wild Relative
Crop Plant
Wild Relative
Crop Plant
Genetic Engineering
Conventional Breeding
18
Conventional Breeding
Genetic Engineering
  • limited to exchanges between the same or very
    closely related species
  • little or no guarantee of obtaining any
    particular gene combination from the millions of
    crosses generated
  • undesirable genes can be transferred along with
    desirable genes
  • take a long time to achieve desired results
  • allows the direct transfer of one or just a few
    genes, between either closely or distantly
    related organisms
  • crop improvement can be achieved in a shorter
    time compared to conventional breeding

19
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
Transgenics
Products developed through genetic engineering
20
2001 2002 (millions of hectares)
  • Global area by country

Country 2001 2002 /-
USA 35.7 68 39.0 66 3.3 9
Argentina 11.8 22 13.5 23 1.7 14
Canada 3.2 6 3.5 6 0.3 9
China 1.5 3 2.1 4 0.6 40
South Africa 0.2 lt1 0.3 1 0.1 50
Australia 0.2 lt1 0.1 lt1 -0.1 --
India -- -- lt0.1 lt1 lt0.1 --
Romania lt0.1 lt1 lt0.1 lt1 lt0.1 --
Spain lt0.1 lt1 lt0.1 lt1 lt0.1 --
Uruguay lt0.1 lt1 lt0.1 lt1 lt0.1 --
Mexico lt0.1 lt1 lt0.1 lt1 lt0.1 --
Bulgaria lt0.1 lt1 lt0.1 lt1 lt0.1 --
Indonesia lt0.1 lt1 lt0.1 lt1 lt0.1 --
Colombia -- -- lt0.1 lt1 lt0.1 --
Honduras -- -- lt0.1 lt1 -- --
Germany lt0.1 lt1 lt0.1 lt1 lt0.1 --
Total 52.6 100 58.7 100 6.1 12
Source Clive James, 2002 Source Clive James, 2002 Source Clive James, 2002 Source Clive James, 2002 Source Clive James, 2002 Source Clive James, 2002 Source Clive James, 2002
21
1996-2002
  • Global area by year

Increase of 12, 6.1 million hectares or 15
million acres between 2001 and 2002.
Source Clive James, 2002
22
Global area by crop
2001 and 2002 (million hectares)
2001 2002 /-
Soybean 33.3 63 36.5 62 3.2 10
Maize 9.8 19 12.4 21 2.6 27
Cotton 6.8 13 6.8 12 0.0 - -
Canola 2.7 5 3.0 5 0.3 11
Squash lt0.1 lt1 lt0.1 lt1 (- -) - -
Papaya lt0.1 lt1 lt0.1 lt1 (- -) - -
Total 52.6 100 58.7 100 6.1 12
Source Clive James, 2002 Source Clive James, 2002 Source Clive James, 2002 Source Clive James, 2002 Source Clive James, 2002 Source Clive James, 2002 Source Clive James, 2002
23
Global area (Industrial vs. Developing)
2001 and 2002 (million hectares)
24
Regulation of GM crops
National Committee on Biosafety of the
Philippines (NCBP)
Created by E.O. 430 in 1990 to review and monitor
RD involving GMOs for laboratory and contained
evaluation of possible effects on the environment
Department of Agriculture
Issued A. O. No. 8 Rules and Regulations for the
Importation and Release into the Environment of
Plant and Plant Products Derived from the Use of
Modern Biotechnologymandating
  • Bureau of Plant Industry to evaluate and monitor
    field tests of GM crops process applications for
    limited field tests, propagation, delisting or
    for importation of GM crops
  • Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority to evaluate
    and register GM crops pesticidal properties
  • Bureau of Animal Industry to evaluate feed safety
  • Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Product
    Standards to evaluate food safety
  • DENR and DOH are also involved in biosafety and
    food safety assessments

25
  • Commercialization
  • Corn resistant to Asiatic corn borer
  • Field Test
  • Rice resistant to bacterial blight
  • Corn resistant to Asiatic corn borer

26
  • Greenhouse
  • Papaya with delayed ripening trait
  • Papaya resistant to ringspot virus
  • Laboratory
  • Mango with delayed ripening trait
  • Rice resistant to tungro virus
  • Vitamin A-enriched rice
  • Banana resistant to bunchy top disease
  • Coconut with higher amount of MCTs
  • Sweet potato resistant to feathery mottle virus

27
Judicious and safe applications of biotechnology
in agriculture and natural resources could
increase farmers income, provide better and
safer products to consumers and lessen dependence
on chemicals destructive to the environment...
Hence, biotechnology is a viable option
28
Biotechnology Providing Options for Philippine
Agriculture
This biotech mentors kit is a collaborative
project of DOST PCARRD ISAAA SEARCA-BIC
Revised June 2003
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