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GMO and Biotechnology

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Genetically Modified Plants. Biotechnology: underlying science. Potential Risks vs. ... More resistant to pestilence, weeds, water and nutrient deprivations, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: GMO and Biotechnology


1
(No Transcript)
2
Genetically Modified Plants
Biotechnology underlying science Potential
Risks vs.(Potential) Benefits
Assigned Reading Chapter 11.3
3
Genetically Modified Organisms
  • Types of GMOs?
  • artificial selection and traditional breeding,
  • transgenic organisms,
  • other approaches,
  • targeted mutagenesis,
  • gene introgression,
  • ?
  • Old Science

4
Desirable Agronomic Traits(traditional or modern)
  • Increased yields, more nutritious, quality, etc.,
  • More resistant to pestilence, weeds, water and
    nutrient deprivations,
  • Ability to withstand marginal growth conditions,
  • and thrive in new environmental ranges,
  • Profit.

5
Traditional Breeding
45,000 genes
25,000 genes
  • technology is not essential,
  • limited by species boundaries,
  • all genes/traits are mixed.

6
Introgression
  • incorporation of genes of one genome into the
    genome of another cultivar,
  • standard breeding techniques are laborious (if
    possible at all),
  • genomics and related sciences greatly accelerates
    standard breeding techniques.

7
Genome Era Traditional Breeding
  • Wild tomato

Cultivar w/ 1 wild gene replacement
8
Transgenic Plants
  • based on DNA technology,
  • single genes/traits can be transferred,
  • species boundaries are not limiting.

9
How are GMOs generated?
insert into plant
via biolistics
10
Biolistics
11
Natural soil bacterium that infects
plants,hosts 160 Genera,families gt
60,effect poor growth, low yield.
Kalanchoe Stem w/ infection.
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
12
Plant Cells
Ti-Plasmid
Transfer-DNA
Nature
Ti tumor inducing
Plasmid extrachromosomal DNA evolved for genetic
transfer.
Hormone genes
Opines genes
Agrobacterium
Genes
Selectable Markers
13
T-DNA (Transfer DNA)
  • with gene of interest,
  • b-carotene,
  • herbicide resistance, etc..

Construct T-DNA
14
T-DNA (Transfer DNA)
selection genes
  • gene of interest,
  • b-carotene,
  • herbicide resistance, etc..

virulence genes
Construct T-DNA
  • Virulence genes facilitate Agro infection, T-DNA
    transfer,
  • not usually transferred in commercial
    applications,
  • Selection genes used to identify transgenics,
  • usually antibiotic or herbicide resistance, etc.
    (i.e. only the organisms with the T-DNA live in a
    selection experiment),
  • Gene of interest protein coding region, plus a
    promoter.

15
Promoters Control Expression
Foreign DNA is common (via nature) in most
genomes,
  • Transgenes must be expressed in order to
    function,
  • Promoters control where, when and how much
    protein is produced.

16
Gene Structure
chromosome (megabases)
17
Promoter Specifies Expression
18
Expression Protein Production
Protein and protein functions only present in
tissue with active promoter.
Tissue Specific Expression
Time Specific Expression
Suicide Promoters, etc.
19
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20
Brief History of Transgenic Organisms
  • Transgenic E. coli,
  • not demonstratively dangerous,
  • demonstratively beneficial (probably).
  • Transgenic virus,
  • not demonstratively dangerous,
  • demonstratively beneficial (probably).
  • Transgenic plants,
  • demonstratively dangerous? (not yet),
  • demonstratively beneficial (?).

21
Potential Risks
  • Risk of invasion.
  • Direct nontarget Effects
  • Indirect nontarget Effects.
  • New Viral Diseases.
  • Variability and Unexpected Results.

22
Potential Risks(risk of invasion)
  • 50,000 invaders in USA the old fashioned ways,
  • self-sustaining cultivars,
  • low anticipated risk,
  • hybridization with (native) neighbors,
  • transgene introgression,
  • introgression of domestic cultivar genes with
    natives has occurred, resulting in negative
    impacts on native species,
  • time lags.

23
Direct (nontarget)
  • Risk to non-target species,
  • pollinators,
  • passers-by,
  • soil ecosystems,
  • decomposition rates,
  • carbon cycle,
  • nitrogen cycle.

24
Indirect (nontarget)
  • kill weeds kill species that live on or eat
    the weeds,
  • bioaccumulation,
  • nontarget species eat plants, store toxins,
  • those species are eaten, amassing the toxin,
  • on up the food chain.

Bee on Red Clover.
25
New Viral Diseases
  • virus resistant plants promote virulent strains,
  • mutations,
  • recombination,
  • heteroencapsulation,
  • virus move genes from one organism to another,
  • not presently a risk, but a potential risk.

26
Variability and Unexpected Results
  • time scale,
  • numbers,
  • environmental and cultivar differences,
  • application, culture and consistency.

27
Other Issues
  • Economic hegemony of GMP seed producing
    countries, companies,
  • Cultural shifts in farming due to the
    introduction of GMOs,
  • Potential allergies to genetically modified
    crops,
  • The preservation of natural genetic crop-lines,
  • The lack of an adequate risk assessment
    methodology to quantify unintended ecological
    consequences.

28
The Precautionary Principle
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